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The 


Burlington  Magazine 


for    Connoisseurs 


Illustrated  &  Published  Monthly 


Volume  XIII— April  to  September    ipo8 


LONDON 

THE    BURLINGTON    MAGAZINE,    LIMITED 

17    OLD    BURLINGTON    STREET,    W. 

NEW  YORK:   MOFFAT,  YARD  &  COMPANY,  31  EAST  SEVENTEENTH  STREET 

PARIS:    SHIRLEYS    LTD.,    9    BOULEVARD    MALESHERBES 

BRUSSELS  :   LEBEGUE  &  CIE,  46  RUE  DE  LA  MADELEINE 

AMSTERDAM  :   J.  G.  ROBBERS,  N.  Z.  VOORBURGWAL  64 

LEIPZIG  :   FR.  LUDWIG  HERBIG  (Wholesale  Agent),  20  INSELSTRASSE 

KARL  W.  HIERSEMANN,  3  KONIGSSTRASSE 

FLORENCE  :  B.  SEEBER,  20  VIA  TORNABUONI 

BASLE  :   B.  WEPF  &  CO. 


ALPHABETICAL  LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS  TO  VOL.  XIII 


Sir  WALTER  ARMSTRONG 

C.  H.  COLLINS  BAKER 

OSWALD  BARRON 

R.  P.  BEDFORD 

Dr.  E.  W.  BRAUN 

Professor  G.  BALDWIN  BROWN 

Dr.  S.  W.  BUSHELL 

HAROLD  CHILD 

G.  T.  CLOUGH 

Sir  MARTIN  CONWAY 

KENYON  COX 

G.  B.  CROFT-LYONS,  C.B. 

LIONEL  CUST,  M.V.O.,  F.S.A. 

The  Rev.  G.  S.  DAVIES 

ROBERT  E.  DELL 

GEORGES  H.  DE  LOO 

EDWARD  DILLON 

CAMPBELL  DODGSON 

JOSEPH  M.  DORAN 

Prince  DORIA  PAMPHILI 

H.  D.  ELLIS 

KATHARINE  ESDAILE 

HAMILTON  EASTER  FIELD 

KURT  FREISE 

ROGER  E.  FRY 

Dr.  ANTON  HEKLER 

J.  A.  HERBERT 

CHRISTIANA  J.  HERRINGHAM 

G.  F.  HILL 

ALETHEA 
N 


A.  M.  HIND 

Professor  C.  J.   HOLMES 

Sir  CHARLES  HOLROYD 

HERBERT  P.  HORNE 

E.  ALFRED  JONES 

Dr.  a.  KOESTER 

J.  O.  KRONIG 

ARTHUR  F.  G.  LEVESON  GOWER 

D.  S.  MacCOLL 

E.  McCURDY 
A.  H.  MAUDE 
MAY  MORRIS 
CLAUDE  PHILLIPS 
WILLIAM  RANKIN 
LOUISE  M.  RICHTER 
CHARLES  RICKETTS 

C.  R.  RIVINGTON,  F.S.A. 

ROBERT  ROSS 

G.  McNEIL  RUSHFORTH 

FRANK  SIDGWICK 

Professor  HANS  W.  SINGER 

CECIL  H.  SMITH 

H.  CLIFFORD  SMITH 

Sir  EDWARD  MAUNDE  THOMP- 
SON, K.C.B. 

A.  VAN  DE  PUT 

JOHN  C.  VAN  LENNEP 

W.  H.  JAMES  WEALE 

WILLIAM  WHITE 

WIEL 


11 


I 


CONTENTS    OF  VOL.   XIII 

PAGE 

Some  Notes  on  the  Origin  and  Development  of  the  Enamelled  Porcelain   of  the 

Chinese.     By  Edward  Dillon.     Part  I        .......        4 

Part  II 

Puvis  de  Chavannes  :   A  Chapter  from  '  Modern  Painters.'     By  Charles  Ricketts 

Florence  and  her  Builders.     By  Professor  G.  Baldwin  Brown 

The  Old  Silver  Sacramental  Vessels  of  some  English  Churches  in  Holland.     By  E 

Alfred  Jones  .....•••••• 

An  Unknown  Portrait  by  Louis  David.     By  Claude  Phillips        ... 

Mr.  Home's  Book  on  Botticelli.     By  Roger  E.  Fry 

A  Defect  of  Modern  Art  Teaching.     By  C.  J.  Holmes  .... 

The  Arts  and  Crafts  of  Older  Spain.     By  A.  Van  de  Put     . 

On  Contorniates.     By  Katharine  Esdaile   ....... 

Millais's  Portrait  of  Tennyson.     By  D.  S.   MacCoU 

The  Exhibition  of  Illuminated  Manuscripts  at  the  Burlington   Fine  Arts  Club 

By  Roger  E.  Fry.     I        ........  . 

11       ........  • 

The   New   Italian    Law  '  Per   le  Antichita  e  le    Belle    Arti.'     By   Lionel    Cust 

M.V.O.,  F.S.A 

The  Snake  Pattern  in  Ireland,  the  Mediterranean   and   China.     By  Christiana  J 

Herringham   .......••.• 

The    Sacramental   Plate  of  S.    Peter's   Church,   Vere  Street.     By  Arthur  F.   G 

Leveson-Gower        .......... 

The    Enamelling   and    Metallesque    Origin    of   the   Ornament    in    the   Book    of 

Durrow.     By  Joseph  M.  Doran         ....... 

Doccia  Porcelain  of  the  Earliest  Period.     By  Dr.  Edmund  Wilhelm  Braun  . 
The  Gorleston  Psalter.      By  Sir  Edward  Maunde  Thompson,  K.C.B.    . 
The  Franco-British  Exhibition  : — 

The  French  Section.      By  Charles  Ricketts  .... 

The  British  Section.     By  Robert  Ross        .  .  .  .  • 

Notes  on  the  Applied  Arts         ....... 

A  Recent  Addition  to  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.      By  Lionel  Cust,  M.V.O. 

F.S.A 

The  Passage  of  the  Ravine,  by  Gericault.     By  C.  J.  Holmes 

Jacopo  del  Sellaio.     By  Herbert  P.  Home  ...... 

Durer's  Works  in  their  Order.     By  Sir  W.  Martin  Conway,  F.S.A.     . 

A  Bronze  Bust  of  Commodus.     By  Cecil  H.  Smith    .  .         .  •  • 

Ming  Bowl  with  Silver-gilt   Mounts  of  the  Tudor   Period.      I.  The   Bowl.      By 

S.  W.  Bushell,  C.M.G.     II.  The  Mount.     By  E.  Alfred  Jones    . 

The  Medallist  Lysippus.      By  G.  F.  Hill 

Some  Constable  Puzzles.      By  C.  J.  Holmes        ...... 

The  French  School  at  the  National  Gallery 

A  Watteau  in  the  Jones  Collection.      By  Claude  Phillips      .... 
Hairdressing  among  the  Ancient  Greeks.     By  Dr.  A.  Koester 
Quattrocento  Book  Collecting — I.     By  G.  T.  Clough 

HI 


69 

9 

18 

22 

78 

83 

87 
88 

90 

127 

128 
261 

130 

132 

137 

138 

145 
146 

192 

195 
200 

206 
209 
210 
214 
252 

257 
274 
286 

327 
345 
351 
359 


CONTENTS   OF  VOL.   XIII — continued 


PAGE 


Editorial  Articles  : — 

The  Painter  as  Critic 3 

The  Crisis  in  Germany       .........      67 

Modern  Pictures  in  the  Saleroom 67 

The  Affairs  of  the  National  Gallery 189 

The  Affairs  of  the  National  Gallery  :   A  Correction       ....   252 

Mr.  Epstein's  Sculpture  in  the  Strand 191 

The  Preservation  of  Ancient  Buildings -251 

Museums         .         .         •         •  •         •         •  •         •  •         -3^9 

Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art  : — 

Two  Recent  Additions  to  the  National  Gallery   (Sir   Charles    Holroyd, 
R.E.) ;  St.   John  the  'Baptist,  by  Cesare  da  Sesto  (Claude    Phillips)  ; 
The   Portrait    of   a    Poet    in    the    National    Gallery    (Sir    Walter 
Armstrong)  ;    Rembrandt   and   Elsheimer    (Kurt   Freise)  ;    English 
Silversmiths     in     St.     Petersburg    in    the    Eighteenth    and    Early 
Nineteenth  Centuries  (E.  Alfred  Jones)  ;   Teyler's    Second   Society 
of  Haarlem      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  -33 

Pictures  by  Goya  at  the  Miethke  Gallery,  Vienna  (Hans  W.  Singer)  ;  the 
Plate  of  the  English  Church  at  The  Hague  (Arthur  F.  G.  Leveson- 
Gower)  ;  the   Reported   Picture    Forgeries    at    Munich    (Professor 
Hans  von  Petersen  and  others)     .......     99 

The  Parade,  by  Gabriel  de  Saint- Aubin  (C.  J.  H.)  ;  Ambrose  Benzone 
(W.  H.  J.  Weale) ;  Drawings  by  Gerard  David  (Sir  W.  Martin 
Conway)  ;  Notes  on  some  Early  Spanish  Masters  (A.  Van  de  Put)  ; 
The  Greek  Statue  from  Trentham  (Dr.  Anton  Hekler)  ;  '  Lanval ' 
at  the  Playhouse  (H.  C.)  ;  A  Lost  Altarpiece  of  the  Maitre  de 
Flemalle   (Louise  M.  Richter)  ;  The  Emblems  of  the  Evangelists 

(J.  A.  Herbert) 151 

Jacob  Meditating  on  Joseph s  Dreams,  ?Ln  Undescribed  Woodcut  by  Heinrich 
Aldegrever  (Campbell  Dodgson)  ;  The  Prices  Paid  for  the  Sevres 
Porcelain  at  Windsor  Castle  (E.  Alfred  Jones)  ;  The  Demolition 
of  the  Warehouse  of  the  Persians  at  Venice  (Alethea  Wiel)  ;  A 
Sidelight  on  Dona.tt\\o''s  Annunciation  (Gerald  S.  Davies)  .  .219 

New  Light  on  Pisanello   (G.  F.  Hill)  ;  The  Cracks  in   the  Ceiling  of 
the  Sistine  Chapel  (A.  H.   Maude)  ;   A  Statue  by   Giovanni   dell' 

Opera  (C.  J.  H.) 288 

A  Terra-cotta  Bust  of  Thomas  Third  Earl  of  Coventry,  by  John  Michael 
Rysbrack    (Lionel    Cust,   M.V.O.,   F.S.A.)  ;     Giulio    Campagnola 

(A.  M.  Hind) 362 

Art  in  America  : — 

The  Art  of  Albert  P.  Ryder  (Roger  E.  Fry) 63 

Rossetti,  an  Observation  (Robert   Ross)  ;   An  Altarpiece  of  the  Catalan 

School  (Roger  E.  Fry)        ,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .116 

Two   Specimens    of  La  Farge's  Art  in   Glass  'Kenyon   Cox)  ;   Current 

Notes  (W.  Rankin) ,  .  .182 


IV 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  XIU— continued  ^^^^ 

PAGE 

Art  in  America  (continued)  : — 

The  Art  of  Kiyonaga  as  illustrated  in  an  American  Collection  (Hamilton 

Easter  Field) .241 

Rembrandt    and    Van    Dyck    in    the    Widener    and    Frick    Collections 

(C.  J.  Holmes) 3^6 

Rembrandt   and    Girtin    (C.  J.    Holmes)  ;  The   Cattaneo  Van   Dycks  ; 
Cassone     Fronts     and     Salvers     in     American      Collections — VII 

(V\^.  Rankin) 375 

Art  in  France.     By  R.  E.  D 5^y  '^77^  230,  299 

Art  in  Germany,  Austria  and  Switzerland.     By  H.  W.  S.    53,  114,  181,  236,  305,  367 
Letters  to  the  Editor  : — 

The  Portrait   of  Jacqueline   de    Bourgogne   by  Mabuse  (Georges  Hulin 
de  Loo)  ;   Herri  Met  de  Bles   (C.  H.  Collins  Baker)  ;  Silver   Plate 

made  at  King's  Lynn  (H.  D.  Ellis) 100 

A    Portrait    attributed    to    Velazquez    (Prince    Doria    Pamphili)  ;  The 
Identification   of  the  '  Fuller  '   Coast  Scene   and   Similar  V\^orks  by 

Turner  (William  White) 167 

The    Portrait    of  a   Lady  as    the    Magdalen    in    the    National  Gallery 

(J.  O.  Kronig) 227 

The  Greek   Statue  from  Trentham  (Cecil   H.  Smith)  ;  Portraits   in  the 

Kann  Collection  (John  C.  van  Lennep)  .....   292 

The  Medallist  Lysippus  (V.  D.  P.);  Jewellery  (H.  Clifford  Smith)  .   366 

Art  Books  of  the  Month 41,106,168,227,294 

Recent  Art  Publications 5°'  ^75'  298 


LIST   OF   PLATES 


PAGE 

Frontispiece  :  La  Peche  ;  by  Puvis  de  Chavannes 
(in  the  possession  of  Charles  Ricketts  and 
Charles  Shannon) 2 

The  Origin  and  Development  of  the  Enamelled 
Porcelain  of  the  Chinese  : — 
I.  Vase  with  date-mark  of  Cheng-Hua.  2.  Vase 
with  date-mark  of  Wan-Li  (in  the  British 
Museum) 7 

Puvis  de  Chavannes  : — 
Plate  I — L'Esperance  ;  by  Puvis  de  Chavannes     13 
Plate  II — La  Famille  du  Pecheur;  by  Puvis 
de  Chavannes 16 

The  Old  Silver  Sacramental  Vessels  of  some 
English  Churches  in  Holland  : — 
Plate  I — I.  Silver  beakers  and  bread-dish  in 
the  English  Reformed  Church,  Amsterdam. 
2.  Paten,  baptismal  bowl,  alms-boxes  and 
beaker  in  the  English  Reformed  Church, 
Amsterdam.  3.  Inkstands,  trays  and  seal  in 
the  English  Reformed  Church,  Amsterdam     23 

Plate  II— I.  Brass  pulpit  desk  in  the  English 
Reformed  Church,  Amsterdam.  2.  Chalice, 
flagon  and  paten  in  the  English  Episcopal 
Church,  Amsterdam 26 

Plate  III — I.  Beakers  and  patens  formerly  in 
the  English  Church  at  The  Hague. 
2.  Flagons  and  bread-dish  formerly  in  the 
English  Church  at  The  Hague  (in  the 
British  Legation,  The  Hague)      .        .         .29 

Two  Recent  Additions  to  the  National  Gallery  : — 
Plate  I — Jacqueline  de  Bourgogne  ;  by  Mabuse 
(in  the  National  Gallery)       .         .         .         .32 

Plate  II— Portrait  of  a  lady  as  St.  Mary  Mag- 
dalen ;  Antwerp  school  (in  the  National 
Gallery) 35 

St.  John  the  Baptist ;  by  Cesare  da  Sesto  (in  the 

collection  of  Mr.  Claude  Phillips)         .         .     35 

Art  in  America  : — 

The  Art  of  Albert  P.  Ryder  :— 
Plate  I— Constance  ;  by  Albert   P.  Ryder  (in 

the  collection  of  Sir  William  Van  Home)  •  55 
Plate  II— I.  Moonlight  Marine;  by  Albert  P. 
Ryder  (in  the  collection  of  Mr.  N.  E.  Mont- 
ross).  2.  Moonlight  Marine  ;  by  Albert  P. 
Ryder  (in  the  collection  of  Sir  William  Van 
Home) 59 

Plate  III— I.  The  Forest  of  Arden  ;  by  Albert 
P.  Ryder  (in  the  collection  of  Mr.  N.  E. 
Montross;.  2.  Death  on  the  Pale  Horse  ; 
by  Albert  P.  Ryder 62 

A  Portrait  of  a  Boy,  by  J.  L.  David  (in  the  collec- 
tion of  Mr.  Claude  Phillips)  .         .         .66 

The  Origin  and  Development  of  Chinese  Porce- 
lain : — 

Plate  I— Chinese  porcelain  enamelled  with 
five  colours,  sixteenth  century  (early  or  late) 
(in  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum)    .        .     71 


PAGE 

Plate  II — I.  Bowl  with  date  mark  of  Cheng-te 
(1505-1521),  with  over-glaze  decoration  in 
five  colours  (by  kind  permission  of  Mr. 
George  Salting).  2.  Small  water-vessel  in 
form  of  carp.  '  San-tsai '  painted  glazes, 
without  black  pencilling,  probably  six- 
teenth century  (in  the  Victoria  and  Albert 
Museum).  3.  Small  water-vessel  in  form  of 
Chinese  poet  resting  on  jar;  'San-tsai' 
painted  glazes  with  black  pencilling,  early 
eighteenth  century  (by  kind  permission  of 
Mr.  George  Salting) 74 

Plate  III — Jar  with  blue-black  ground ;  decora- 
tion in  relief,  slightly  countersunk,  pale 
yellow  and  greenish  blue  ;  probably  fifteenth 
century  (by  kind  permission  of  Mr.  George 
Salting) 79 

On  Contorniates  : — 
Contorniates  in  the  British  Museum        .        .     95 

Pictures  by  Goya  in  the  Miethke  Gallery, 
Vienna  : — 

Plate  I — Donna  Cean  Bermudez,  by  Goya  (in 
the  possession  of  Herr  Miethke,  Vienna)      .     98 

Plate  II — The  arrest  of  a  Manola,  by  Goya  (in 
the  possession  of  Herr  Miethke,  Vienna)      .  loi 

Plate  III — I.  Portrait  of  an  officer,  by  Goya. 
2.  The  Toreador  Pedro  Romero  ;  attributed 
to  Goya  (both  in  the  possession  of  Herr 
Miethke,  Vienna) 104 

Art  in  America  : — 

Rossetti  :  An  Observation  : — 

The  Lady  Lilith,  by  Dante  Gabriel  Rossetti 
(recently  acquired  for  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  New  York)         ,         .         .         .119 

An  Altarpiece  of  the  Catalan  School : — 

An  altarpiece  of  the  Catalan  school  (in  the 
collection  of  Mr.  William  Laffan)         .        .  122 

Alfred  Lord  Tennyson  ;  by  Sir  J.  E.  Millais  (in 
the  collection  of  the  late  Sir  James  Knowles, 
K.C.V.O.) 126 

The  Sacramental   Plate  of  S.  Peter's  Church, 
Vcre  Street : — 
Plate  I — Silver-gilt  flagons  and  alms-dish  (in 

S.  Peter's  Church,  Vere  Street)     .         .         .139 
Plate  II — Silver-gilt  chalices,  patens  and  dish 
(in  S.  Peter's  Church,  Vere  Street)       .        .  142 

Doccia  Porcelain  of  the  Earliest  Period  : — 
Plate  I — I  and  2.  Doccia  cup  painted  by 
Anreiter  (in  the  collection  of  Herr  H. 
Rothberger,  Vienna).  3.  Doccia  cup  painted 
by  Anreiter  (in  the  Kaiser  Franz-Josef 
Museum,  Troppau).  4.  Doccia  flagon  (in 
the  collection  of  Herr  Cahn-Speyer,  Vienna)  147 

Plate  II — 5.  Doccia  tureen  (in  the  museum  of 
the  porcelain  manufactory  at  Charlotten- 
burg).  6.  Doccia  tureen  (in  the  Kunstge- 
werbe  Museum,  Berlin).  7.  Doccia  cup  (in 
the  collection  of  Dr.  Sarbo,  Budapest)  .  150 

The  Parade,  by  Gabriel  de  Saint-Aubin  (recently 

acquired  by  the  National  Gallery)        .        .  153 


VI 


LIST  OF  VLA.T'E^— continued 


PAGE 

Drawings  by  Gerard  David  : — 

Plate  I — Drawings  by  Gerard  David         .         .   157 
Plate  II— The  Marriage  at  Cana  ;  by  Gerard 

David  (in  the  Louvre) 160 

A  Lost  Altarpiece  of  the  Maitre  de  Flemalle  : — 
I.  Two  wings  of  a  triptych  by  the  Maitre  de 
Flemalle  :  Henricus  Werlis  with  St.  John 
the  Baptist  and  St.  Barbara  reading  (in  the 
Prado).  2.  The  Annunciation  ;  possibly 
after  an  original  by  the  Maitre  de  Flemalle 

(in  the  Louvre) 163 

The  Emblems  ot  the  Evangelists  : — 

St.  Mark,  from  the  Durham  Book    .         .         .  166 
A  Portrait  attributed  to  Velazquez  : — 

Portrait  of  a  boy  attributed  to  Velazquez  (in  the 
collection  of  Prince  Doria  Pamphili)    .         .  166 
Art  in  America : — 

Two  Specimens  of  La  Farge's  Art  in  Glass : — 

1.  The  Peacock  ;  panel  in  coloured  glass,  by 
John  La  Farge.  2.  The  Peony  in  the 
Wind  ;  panel  in  coloured  glass,  by  John 

La  Farge 183 

The     Passage    of    the     Ravine,    by    G^ricault 

(recently  exhibited  at  Messrs.  Obach's)        .  188 

The  Franco-British  Exhibition  :  Notes  on  the 
Applied  Arts : — 
Lower  part  of  a  cabinet  designed  by  Sir 
William  Chambers  and  painted  by  William 
Hamilton  (1783)  (at  the  Franco-British 
Exhibition) 201 

Recent    Additions     to     the    National    Portrait 
Gallery  :— 
Margaret  Beaufort,  Countess  of  Richmond  and 
Derby  (recently  acquired  by  the   National 
Portrait  Gallery) 207 

An  Undescribed  Woodcut  by  Heinrich  Alde- 
grever : — 
I.  Jacob  meditating  on  Joseph's  dream  ;  re- 
duced from  a  woodcut  by  Heinrich  Alde- 
grever  (in  the  collection  of  the  Earl  of 
Pembroke).  2.  Joseph  fleeing  from  Poti- 
phar's  wife;  from  a  woodcut  by  Heinrich 
Aldegrever  (in  the  Kiinsthalle,  Bremen)       .  218 

A  Sidelight  on  Donatello's  Annunciation  : — 
Plate  I — I.  The   Madonna  of  the  Annuncia- 
tion ;   by    Bernardo    Rossellino   (1447)   (in 
the  Church  of   the   Misericordia,  Empoli). 

2.  Terra-cotta  altarpiece  with  the  Annuncia- 
tion ;  by  Bernardo  Rossellino  (1433)  (in  the 
cathedral,  Arezzo) 223 

Plate  n — I.  Our  Lady  of  Pity ;  by  Bernardo 
Rossellino    (in    the    museum,   Arezzo).     2, 
Detail  from  the  Tabernacle  ;  by  Donatello 
(in  the  sacristy  of  S.  Peter's,  Rome)     .        .  227 
Art  in  France : — 

Portrait  by  Hans  Memlinc  (recently  acquired 

by  the  Louvre) 231 

Art  in  America : — 

Plate  I — I,  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (before 
1770).     2.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (1783). 

3.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (not  later  than 
1771)  (all  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Francis 
Lathrop) 237 


PAGE 

Plate  II— 4.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (1772). 

5.  Colour  print    by  Kiyonaga   {circa  ^1783). 

6.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (circa  1779)  (all 

in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Francis  Lathrop)     .  240 

Plate  III — 7.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  [circa 
1783-87).  8.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga 
(circa  1783-87)  (both  in  the  collection  of  ^Ir. 
Francis  Lathrop)  ......  243 

Plate  IV — 9.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga  (1788 
or  later).  10.  Colour  print  by  Kiyonaga 
(circa  1790)  (both  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
Francis  Lathrop) 246 

Elena  Grimaldi,  wife  of  Niccolo  Cattaneo  (from 
the  painting  by  Van  Dyck  in  the  collection 
of  Mr.  P.  A.  B.  Widener)      .         .         .         .250 

A  Bronze  Bust  of  Commodus  : — 

Bronze  Bust  of  the  Emperor  Commodus  and 
bronze  base  :  circa  a.d.  186-192  (in  the  col- 
lection of  Mr.  George  Salting)       .         .         .  253 

A  Ming  Bowl  with  Silver-gilt   Mounts  of  the 
Tudor  Period : — 
Ming   bowl  with    silver-gilt    mounts  of    the 
Tudor    period    (on    view   at  Messrs.  Owen 
Grant's,  Ltd.) 259 

English  lUummated  Manuscripts  at  the  Burling- 
ton Fine  Arts  Club  : — 

Plate  I — I.  Page  from  the  Yorkshire  Psalter, 
c.  1 170  (in  the  possession  of  the  University 
Court,  Glasgow).  2.  Initial  from  the  Win- 
chester Vulgate,  c.  1175  (in  the  possession 
of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Winchester). 
3.  Page  from  a  Psalter  written  for  a  nun  of 
St.  Mary's  Abbey,  Winchester,  c.  1220- 1240 
(in  the  possession  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge)   264 

Plate  II — I.  Page  from  Aldelmus  '  De  Virgini- 
tate.'  Late  tenth  century  (in  the  possession 
of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury).  2.  Page 
from  the  Windmill  Psalter.  Late  thirteenth 
century  (in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Pierpont 
Morgan)        .......  266 

Plate  III — Part  of  page  from  the  St.  Omer 
Psalter;  begun  c.  1325  (in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  H.  Yates  Thompson)      ....  269 

Plate  IV — I.  Page  from  the  Psalter  of  Humph- 
rey de  Bohun,  c.  1370  (in  the  possession  of 
Exeter  College,  Oxford).  2.  Page  from 
works  by  T.  Chaundler,  1457-1461  (in  the 
possession  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge)   .  272 

The  Medallist  Lysippus  : — 

Plate  I — Medals  by  Lysippus    ....  275 

Plate  II — Medals  by  Lysippus  .         .         .         .  281 

Plate  III — Medals  attributed  to  Lysippus        .  284 

The    Cracks    in    the    Ceiling    of    the    Sistine 
Chapel : — 
Central  portion  of  the  Sistine  ceiling  with  the 
natural  cracks  marked  in  black  ink       .        .  289 


VU 


LIST   OF   PLATES — co?itinued 


PAGE 

Alt  in  America:—  ,^  •   .    ,  • 

Plate  I— Rembrandt,  by  himself.  Painted  in 
1658   (in   the  collection   o£   Mr.   Henry   C. 

Frick)    .         .         .         •         ■    ,     ■,,      't-,     r 

pi;i^e  II_Portrait  of  Canevaro,  by  Van  Uyck 
(in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Henry  C.  Frick)      . 

pi,\te  HI— I.  Filippo  Cattaneo,  by  Van  Dyck 
(in  the  collection  of  Mr.  P.  A.  B.  Widener  . 
-  Clelia  Cattaneo,  by  Van  Dyck  (in  the  col- 
Tection  of  Mr.  P.  A.  B.  Widener) . 
The  Swing;  by  jean  Antoine  Watteau  (in  the 
Jones      collection,     Victoria     and     Albert 

Museum) 

The  French  School  at  the  National  Gallery :— 

Plate  I— Portrait  of  Malibran  (?)  ;  attributed 
to  Ingres  (in  the  National  Gallery)       .         . 

Plate  n— I.  La  Main  Chaude  ;  by  J.  F.  de 
Troy  (presented  to  the  National  Gallery  by 
Lieut.-Colonel  Croft  Lyons).  2.  Elisa 
Bonaparte,  Grand  Duchess  of  Tuscany  ;  by 
David  (in  the  National  Gallery)    . 

Plate  HI— I.  Marsh  at  Arleux  du  Nord  ;  by 
Corot  (bequeathed  to  the  National  Gallery 
by  Mrs.  Edwin  Edwards).  2.  Noon  ;  by 
Corot  (lent  to  the  National  Gallery  by  Mr. 
George  Salting)    .         .         .         •,       •        : 

Plate  IV— The  Wood  Gatherer;  by  Corot 
(lent  to  the  National  Gallery  by  Mr.  George 
Salting) 

Plate  V— The  Bent  Tree  ;  by  Corot  (lent  to 
the  National  Gallery  by  Mr.  George  Salting)  335 

Plate  VI— I.  Sunny  Days  in  the  Forest  ;  by 
Diaz  (lent  to  the  National  Gallery  by  Mr. 
George  Salting).  2.  The  Storm;  by  Diaz 
(lent  to  the  National  Gallery  by  Mr.  George 
Salting) • 

Plate  VII— I.  Roses  ;  by  Fantm-Latour  (be- 
queathed to  the  National  Gallery  by  Mrs. 
Edwin  Edwards).  2.  The  Drawbridge  ;  by 
James  Maris  (lent  to  the  National  Gallery  by 

Mr.  J.  C.  Driicker) 

A  Watteau  in  the  Jones  Collection  : — 

Drawings  in  three  chalks;  by  Jean  Antoine 
Watteau  (in  the  Louvre)       .... 


307 
3" 


314 


318 


323 


26 


329 


332 


338 


341 


347 


PAGE 

Hairdressing  among  the  Ancient  Greeks  :— 
Plate  I— I.  Earliest  style  :  seventh  and  sixth 
centuries  b.c.  2.  Early  development. 
3.  Early  and  transitional  styles  after  the 
Persian  Wars,  4.  Fashionable  style  of  the 
fifth  century.  5.  The  fillet :  fifth  century. 
6.  The  melon  coiffure :  second  half  of  fifth 

century 35° 

Plate    II — 7.    Fifth    century,   simpler    mode. 

8.  Fifth  century,  combination  of  fashionable 
and   simpler  modes,   with   double   ribbon. 

9.  Another    use    of    the    double    ribbon. 

10.  The  knot  and  double  ribbon.     11.  De- 
velopment of  fig.  4  :  the  roll  with  wreath. 

12.  The  roll  with  diadem     ....  353 
Plate    III— 13.     Treatment    of    side     locks. 
14.  Further  stage  of  fig.  13.     15.  The  bow 
coiffure:  further  stage  of  figs.  13  and  14. 

16.  Development    of    the    bow    coiffure. 

17.  Hellenistic  period 356 

A  Terra-cotta  Bust  of  Thomas  Third   Earl  of 

Coventry,  by  John  Michael  Rysbrack  (in  the 
collection  of  the  Duke  of  Beaufort)      .        .  363 
Art  in  America  : — 

The  Cattaneo  Van  Dycks  :— 
The  Marchesa  Giovanna  Cattaneo  ;  by  Van 
Dyck  (in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Henry  C. 

Frick) 371 

Rembrandt  and  Girtin : — 

Easby  Abbey  ;  from  the  water-colour  draw- 
ing by  Thomas  Girtin  (recently  acquired 
by  the  Metropolitan  Museum,  New  York)  374 
Cassone  fronts  and  Salvers  in  American  collec- 
tions : — 
Plate  III— I.  The  Capture  of  Salerno  by 
Robert  Guiscard  :  Florentine,  early  fif- 
teenth century  (in  the  MetropoUtan 
Museum,  New  York).  2.  The  Triumph 
of  Caesar  :  Florentine,  mid-fifteenth 
century  (in  the  Bryan-De  Montor  collec- 
tion, in  the  possession  of  the  New  York 

Historical  Society) 377 

Plate  IV — Love  Disarmed :  a  salver  by 
Girolamo  of  Siena  (in  the  Jarves  collec- 
tion, Yale  University)        ....  380 


VUl 


Sm^'WaJit^g^.Sc. 


EDITO    lAL  ARii: 
^  THE  PAi;  TER  AS  CRi .         ^ 

^    I  have  written  about  ti- 

the world  an   incalculable   bcivKc. 
;,.    -%  :  ■  vvritings  that  such   r--  •  ■>  - 
^s  of  the  traditions  c: 
thev  tell  us  tlie' little  we 
which  tri' 


T     was     annt 

last  month 

in?    ">-     '  ' 
c 


artf 


■       ay,  R. 
y  ort-«. : 

..:.:^'that    t...j 

L  ling  about  their  1 
art-criticwould  thus  appear  to  be/ 
the  devil  and  the  deep  sea.     Ij 
little   or   ~      '       ■    '  '"c   of  the 
parf  nf  •.  ondemnej 

P  f  he  has  mast/  -ed  it  1 

ble  for  membership  of  the  Old 
",  V  ater-Uolour  Society. 

No    sensible    person,    of    ll    ,  ,.,    who 

knows  anything  of  modern  ar^  literature 

would  take  Mr,  Murray's  stri<  urcs  very 

K-riously,  so  far  as  the  critics  <  f  our  best 

daily   and  weekly   papers    are  concerned. 

Of    their     knowledge     and       ompetence 

^  be  no  question,  and   o  condemn 

!ticism    as   a    whc  e,    without 

ralothti  thoroughly 

,. :ors  to  t  le  provincial 

t  ate  a  gri  ve  injustice. 

deny  that  a 

lai 

pir.v-,- 
best  . 
chant, . 
painter 

Thr 


— tliat  HI  ail 
ii  V.  juLi.iou  ui    ■. xpression  fits 
*'^    erartlv    that    we    cannot 
~    of  t  To    attain    this 

unity  is  the  aim  of  all  serious  pain: 
to  decide  how  far  it  has  been  af 
the  duty  of  all  serious  critics.     1 
should  be  among  our  most  emini 
one  or  two  who  are  not  known  t 
painters  is    rather  -a   t 
exceptional  taste  and  .-.! 
argument  against  the  gener 
ceteris  paribus,  a  practical   knov. 
painting  is  an  immense  help  tov  ..r 

iudgment. 

In  short,  the  increasing  frequency  with 
which  the  work  of  criticism  is   done  by 
professional  painters  is  a  thing,  I 
^'.eir  brother  artists  ought  to  be  c 
grateful  than  the  public.     It  is  ; 
to  understand  why  the  Old  Wat. 
should    formally   rec 
•    of  cri 


■5 


■m 


T 


EDITORIAL 
cA.  THE  PAINTER 

was     announced     early 


®=4 


last  month  by  the  'Morn- 
ing   Post '   that   the   Royal 
Society     of     Painters      in 
^^^  Water-Colours  had   passed 
^^ — i^n  rule  forbidding  its  mem- 


bers or  associates  to  publish  any  criticism  en 
the  work  of  living  artists.  Only  a  few  days 
later  the  newspapers  reported  an  attack 
made  by  Mr.  David  Murray,  R.A.,  upon 
contemporary  art-critics,  the  gist  of  com- 
plaint being  that  they  did  not  understand 
anything  about  their  business.  The  poor 
art-critic  would  thus  appear  to  be  between 
the  devil  and  the  deep  sea.  If  he  has 
little  or  no  knowledge  of  the  practical 
part  of  painting  he  is  condemned  by  the 
Royal  Academy  ;  if  he  has  mastered  it  he 
is  ineligible  for  membership  of  the  Old 
Water-Colour  Society. 

No  sensible  person,  of  course,  who 
knows  anything  of  modern  art  literature 
would  take  Mr.  Murray's  strictures  very 
seriously,  so  far  as  the  critics  of  our  best 
daily  and  weekly  papers  are  concerned. 
Of  their  knowledge  and  competence 
there  can  be  no  question,  and  to  condemn 
our  art  criticism  as  a  whole,  without 
excepting  these  and  several  other  thoroughly 
well-equipped  contributors  to  the  provincial 
press,  is  to  perpetrate  a  grave  injustice. 
It  would  be  equally  unjust  to  deny  that  a 
large  proportion  of  the  art  criticism  in  the 
press  is  the  merest  hack-work  ;  and  the 
best  hope  for  its  improvement  lies  in  the 
chance  that  here  and  there  some  able 
painter  may  take  to  writing. 

The  few  painters,  from  Cennini  and 
Leonardo  to  Delacroix  and  Whistler,  who 


ARTICLE 
AS  CRITIC  rJkp 

have  written  about  their  art  have  done 
the  world  an  incalculable  service.  It  is 
in  their  writings  that  such  fragments  as 
we  possess  of  the  traditions  of  the  fine  arts 
survive  ;  they  tell  us  the  little  we  know 
of  the  spirit  in  which  the  great  masters 
approached  their  art,  of  the  working 
theories  of  design  by  which  they  were 
guided,  and  of  the  technical  processes 
which  they  employed. 

It  is  rarely  recognized  by  the  public, 
and  sometimes  forgotten  by  persons  of 
education,  that  in  painting  the  subject 
chosen  is  inevitably  connected  with  the 
technique  used  to  express  it — that  in  all 
perfect  art  the  method  of  expression  fits 
the  subject  so  exactly  that  we  cannot 
think  of  them  apart.  To  attain  this 
unity  is  the  aim  of  all  serious  painters  ; 
to  decide  how  far  it  has  been  attained  is 
the  duty  of  all  serious  critics.  That  there 
should  be  among  our  most  eminent  critics 
one  or  two  who  are  not  known  to  fame  as 
painters  is  rather  a  testimony  to  their 
exceptional  taste  and  scholarship  than  an 
argument  against  the  general  principle  that, 
ceteris  paribus,  a  practical  knowledge  of 
painting  is  an  immense  help  towards  fair 
judgment. 

In  short,  the  increasing  frequency  with 
which  the  work  of  criticism  is  done  by 
professional  painters  is  a  thing  for  which 
their  brother  artists  ought  to  be  even  more 
grateful  than  the  public.  It  is  thus  hard 
to  understand  why  the  Old  Water-Colour 
Society  should  formally  record  its  veto 
upon  the  very  form  of  criticism  which  its 
more  capable  members  should  be  the  first  to 
welcome.  We  trust  the  rumour  is  incorrect. 


Thb  Burungton  Magazine,  No,  6i    Vol.  XUl— April,  1908, 


SOME   NOTES   ON   THE   ORIGIN  AND    THE    DEVELOPMENT 
OF  THE   ENAMELLED  PORCELAIN  OF  THE  CHINESE— I 
^  BY  EDWARD  DILLON  ^^ 


'HEN  the  attention  of  the 
collector  is  first  directed 
to  a  new  branch  of  art  it 
is   the   artistic   merit,    or 
I  what  he  regards  as  such, 
that  alone  appeals  to  him. 
But  before  long  the  spirit 
of    the   antiquary    insidi- 
ously works  its  way  in.     The  enamelled  plaque  or 
the  porcelain  vase  comes  to  be  valued  not  for  its 
aesthetic  charm  alone.    Its  relation  to  other  pieces 
of  the   same   class,   its   age   above   all,   are   now 
elements  in  the  estimation  of  its  value.     It  seems, 
indeed,  to  be  an  invariable  law  in  what  may  be 
called  the  history  of  aesthetic  appreciation  that,  as 
time  goes  on,  more  and  more  interest  is  taken  in 
the  work  of  early  days.  In  the  case  both  of  pictures 
and  of  classical  sculpture  this  pushing  back  of  the 
centre  of  interest  began  many  years  ago  ;  indeed, 
of  late  years  there  have  been  signs  that  this  archa- 
izing tendency  has  been  exhausted,  and  that  the 
movement  is  now  in  the  other  direction.     The  art 
of   the   seventeenth   and   still   more   that   of   the 
eighteenth    century   is    again    in   the   ascendant. 
Special  points  of  merit  have  been  found  in  the 
sculpture  of  the  early  Empire,  and  even  that  of  the 
age  of  Constantine  has  found  defenders. 

But  no  such  return  current  is  yet  to  be  found  in 
the  case  of  the  appreciation  of  the  potter's  art.  In 
the  estimation  of  the  artistic  merit  of  Greek  vases 
the  throwing  back  of  the  centre  of  interest  began 
some  time  since,  and  now  it  is  not  the  pottery  of 
what  is  known  as  the  '  fine '  period  that  appeals  to 
some  of  us  most  strongly.  There  is  a  strength 
and  a  '  fitness'  in  the  black  figure  ware  of  the  days 
before  the  Persian  War  that  had  in  a  measure 
passed  away  before  the  end  of  the  fifth  century. 
So  again  in  the  case  of  Italian  majolica.  There 
are  many  who  feel  that  something  had  been  lost 
when  the  bold  and  simple  decoration  of  earlier 
times  had  given  place  to  the  elaborate  grotesques 
and  careful  figure  painting  of  the  cinqiicceiito. 
Even  if  we  turn  to  the  Nearer  East,  to  the 
Mahomedan  lands  where  the  calm  enjoyment  of 
rich  colour  and  graceful  pattern  is  less  subject  to 
development  or  mere  change  of  fashion,  not  a  few 
collectors  take  now  a  keener  interest  in  the  lustred 
tiles  and  rudely  glazed  jars  of  the  early  thirteenth 
century  than  in  the  gorgeous  wares  of  Rhodes  and 
Damascus. 

I  have  spoken  of  the  insidious  penetration  of 
the  spirit  of  the  antiquary  as  something  likely  to 
bias  the  native  artistic  judgment.  But  of  course 
the  riper  judgment  that  comes  of  wider  and  deeper 
knowledge  has  in  it  elements  of  a  purely  aesthetic 
nature.  There  grows  up,  above  all,  a  recognition 
of  the  spontaneity  and  of  the  simplicity  of  aim  in 
the  earlier  work  resulting  in  a  more   satisfying 


'fitness.'  On  the  other  hand,  the  increase  of 
mechanical  facility,  the  enlarging  of  the  artist's 
palette,  these  have  been  snares  that  have  hampered 
the  directness  and  vigour  of  the  craftsman's  work. 
There  are,  then,  two  elements  that  have  been  at 
work  in  this  pushing-back  in  time  of  the  centre  of 
interest  in  a  historical  series  of  objects  of  art. 
One,  the  mere  '  glamour  of  time,'  it  should  be  the 
duty  of  the  critic  to  eliminate  ;  while  the  other, 
depending  upon  the  superior  directness  and  spon- 
taneity to  be  found  in  the  work  of  the  earlier 
period,  cannot  be  too  prominently  brought  for- 
w^ard  and  accentuated. 

Now,  in  the  case  of  Chinese  porcelain  we  are 
dealing  with  the  work  of  a  people  with  whom  this 
'  laudation  of  bygone  days '  amounts  almost  to  a 
religion.     One  strange  result  has  been  that  every 
advance  in  technique,  every  evolution  of  style,  has 
crept  in  by  side  paths  or  has  been  disguised  as  a 
return  to  the  practice  of  the  great  men  of  old. 
The  spirit  of  the  antiquary  has  ruled  so  firmly 
that  the  aesthetic  judgment  has  in  every  case  had 
to  bow  before  it.     Here,  then,  the  critic  of  art  will 
have  much  to  eliminate,  and   in  endeavouring  to 
unravel  that  most  tangled  problem,  the  evolution 
of  the  potter's  art  in  China,  this  antiquarian  bias 
of  the  native  mind  must  ever  be  kept  in  view.     In 
groping  one's  way  back  to  the  earlier  work  one  is 
met,  not   once   only,   but  many   times   over,    by 
revivals,  more  or  less  skilfully  carried  out,  of  old 
designs  and  technical  processes.     Pitfalls  not  un- 
like but  more  complicated  than  those  that  beset 
the  unravelling  of  the  history  of  Greek  sculpture 
surround  on  every  side  the  history  of  Chinese  art. 
With  us  it  is  only  quite  of  late  years  that  this 
tendency  to  fall  back  upon  the  work  of  early  times 
has  spread  to  the  admirers  of  Oriental  porcelain. 
This   change   of   taste  has  been  reflected  in  the 
demand  for  the  wares  of  the  Ming  period.     Now, 
although   there   may   be   some   grounds   for   this 
change  of  view  in  the  case  of  the  '  self-coloured ' 
and  '  blue  and  white  '  wares,  I  think  that  when  the 
whole  series  of  the  enamelled  porcelain  of  China 
is  ranged  in  chronological  order,  it  will  be  found 
that  little  that  was  made  before  the  reign  of  Kang- 
he — this  is  our '  fine'  period — has  any  commanding 
claim  for  artistic  recognition. 

It  is,  indeed,  only  with  this  last  group— the 
enamelled  ware—  that  I  am  concerned  here.  I  shall 
attempt  to  trace  out  some  of  the  grounds  for  the 
relative  inferiority  of  the  earlier  work.  With 
regard  to  the  other  groups  I  may  say  in  passing, 
that  although  as  regards  the  material  itself — the 
porcelain— the  Chinese  have  undisputed  right  to 
be  regarded  as  the  inventors  and  indeed  the  mono- 
polisers of  the  art  for  a  period  of  nearly  a  thousand 
years,  coloured  glazes  were  certainly  in  use  upon 
pottery  of  various  kinds  in  Western  Asia  long  before 


they  were  known  to  the  Chinese.  To  say  nothing 
of  the  Egyptian  wares,  the  turquoise  glazes  of  the 
Persians  were  fully  developed  at  a  time  when  the 
Chinese  were  contented  with  a  rude  stone  ware, 
either  unglazed  or  covered  with  a  thin  colourless 
glassy  skin.  Indeed,  later,  in  Sassanian  times, 
when  a  fairly  regular  intercourse  had  been  estab- 
lished between  the  Nearer  and  the  Farther  East,  it 
is  not  unlikely  that  the  Chinese  of  the  Tang  or 
earlier  dynasties  may  have  learned  much  from  their 
western  neighbours.  Again,  in  the  case  of  the 
decoration  with  cobalt-blue  under  the  glaze,  it  is  a 
question  whether  the  process  was  not  in  use  in 
Syria  and  perhaps  in  Persia  before  the  potters  of 
the  '  Middle  Kingdom '  had  advanced  beyond  a 
monochrome  ware.  The  Chinese  native  authorities 
trace  back  their  '  blue  and  white '  ware  to  the 
time  of  the  Mongol  dynasty  (thirteenth  century). 
We  have  indeed  in  our  collections  no  examples  of 
this  ware  of  anything  like  so  early  a  date.  On  the 
other  hand  not  a  few  specimens  of  Syrian  pottery 
of  the  thirteenth  or  possibly  twelfth  century,  rudely 
decorated  with  patches  of  cobalt-blue  under  a  thick 
glaze  of  alkaline  silicate,  have  lately  found  their 
way  to  the  West.  It  is  possible  that  the  type,  if  not 
actual  examples,  of  the  earliest  application  of  under- 
glaze  blue  by  the  Chinese  may  be  found  in  a 
certain  class  of  crackle  porcelain,  or  perhaps  rather 
stoneware,  roughly  daubed  with  blue  under  the 
glaze  that,  together  with  large,  heavy  pieces  of  the 
early  '  Martabani '  celadon,  has  been  found  in 
Borneo  and  the  adjacent  islands. 

I  now  come  to  what  is  indeed  the  main  issue  in 
this  '  preliminary  inquiry.'  The  question  proposed 
is  :  When  and  under  what  conditions  did  the 
Chinese  first  apply  to  the  glazed  surface  of  their 
porcelain  a  decoration  of  coloured  enamels  ?  By 
the  term  enamel  is  meant,  in  this  case,  a  flux  con- 
sisting of  a  lead  silicate  coloured  by  various 
metallic  oxides.  It  may  be  confessed  at  once  that 
no  definite  answer  can  be  given  to  this  question. 
All  that  I  can  hope  to  do  is  to  sum  up  the  evidence 
that  is  available  and  to  accentuate  the  few  facts 
that  are  definitely  known. 

It  is  perhaps  a  result  of  the  general  law  of  aesthetic 
appreciation  referred  to  at  the  beginning  of  this 
article  that  the  word  '  Ming '  has  of  late  become 
a  name  to  conjure  with  ;  this  is  to  be  observed 
above  all  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bond  Street, 
where  the  demand  has  brought  forward  a  ready 
supply.  Now,  apart  from  a  few,  a  very  few,  really 
old  pieces,  the  '  Ming  ware'  that  is  to  be  seen  in 
the  shop  windows  of  London  may  be  divided  into 
two  classes; —  (i)  Examples  of  archaistic  porcelain 
of  the  time  of  Kang-he,  and  perhaps  still  more  of 
his  successors  Yung-ching  and  Kien-lung. 
(2)  Quite  modem  ware  turned  out  from  kilns  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Pekin  and  destined  for  the 
European  and  American  market.  It  is  difficult  to 
learn  much  of  what  is  going  on  now  at  King-te- 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

chen,  the  old  centre  of  the  Chinese  porcelain 
industry.  Probably  the  orders  are  sent  down  from 
the  court  as  in  old  days.  The  aged  empress  is 
said  to  be  a  connoisseur  in  porcelain  as  in  other 
departments  of  art,  but  I  cannot  say  what  class  of 
ware  is  now  made  for  the  palace.  How  far  the 
Japanese  may  now  compete  with  the  North  China 
kilns  is  again  a  moot  point.  It  is  not  the  business 
of  the  wholesale  importer  to  keep  separate  the 
goods  that  arrive  from  the  different  eastern  ports. 
This  was,  indeed,  the  case  as  long  ago  as  the 
eighteenth  century,  and  it  was  this  mystification 
surrounding  the  place  of  origin  of  the  porcelain 
imported  that  gave  rise  to  such  misleading  terms 
as  'East  Indian' or  *  Batavian.'  Both  the  paste 
and  the  glaze  of  Japanese  porcelain  may  generally 
be  readily  distinguished  from  those  of  their  conti- 
nental masters,  but  I  have  seen  a  few  ambitious 
examples  of  Japanese  ware  that  approach  closely 
to  the  Chinese  type.  As  long  ago  as  the  seventies 
of  the  last  century  some  skilfully  potted  vases  of 
enamelled  ware  were  turned  out  from  a  kiln  near 
Yokohama.  They  were  perhaps  made  with  im- 
ported clay — in  any  case,  they  were  difficult  to 
distinguish  from  the  best  Chinese  work  of  the  time 
of  Kang-he. 

What,  then,  are  the  criteria  by  which  the  porce- 
lain— especially  the  enamelled  porcelain — made  in 
China  during  the  Ming  dynasty  may  be  identified  ? 
Before  attempting  to  answer  that  question  it  may 
be  well  to  glance  for  a  moment  at  the  history  of 
this  native  Chinese  dynasty  that  ruled  the  country 
for  nearly  three  hundred  years  (i  368-1 643)  to  see 
if  we  can  discover  any  facts  bearing  upon  the 
development  of  the  ceramic  art  during  that  period. 
What  we  find  is  that  this  dynasty,  like  so  many 
others  in  China  and  elsewhere,  reached  its  maxi- 
mum of  power  within  a  short  period  after  its 
foundation.  Under  two  able  but  short-lived  rulers, 
Yung-lo  and  Hsuan-te,  the  empire  during  the 
early  years  of  the  fifteenth  century  attained  to  a 
strength  and  unity  that  are  reflected  in  the  arts  of 
the  period.  Shortly  after  this  time  the  country  was 
invaded  by  the  Mongols,  and  the  emperor  himself 
made  prisoner.  Although  somewhat  later,  with 
Cheng-hua,  a  great  name  in  the  annals  of  porce- 
1am,  there  was  some  revival,  the  succeeding  six- 
teenth century  was  on  the  whole  a  period  of 
decline.  We  hear  more  and  more  of  the  tyranny 
and  the  extortion  of  the  eunuchs  who  governed 
the  provinces  while  the  emperor  himself  remained 
secluded  in  his  palace  at  Pekin.  In  vain  did  the 
censors  protest.  Of  Lung-king  (1567-1572)  we 
are  told  that  '  the  emperor  was  devoted  to  the 
pleasures  of  his  seraglio,  and  his  libertine  tempera- 
ment is  reflected  in  the  decoration  of  the  porce- 
lain, which  is  notorious  for  its  erotic  character ' 
(Bushcll,  '  Ceramic  Art,'  p.  234).  His  successor, 
Wan-li,  who  reigned  from  1572  to  1619,  is  the  last 
of  whom  we  hear  in  connexion  with  the  imperial 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

porcelain  at  King-te-chen.  It  was  a  time  of 
relaxation  of  manners.  The  censors  protested  m 
vain  against  the  intrusion  of  the  influence  of  the 
western  barbarians,  whose  merchants  at  Canton 
and  other  ports  were  now  eagerly  competing  for 
trade  privileges.  As  in  more  recent  times,  this 
filtering  in  of  foreign  habits  and  tastes  was  asso- 
ciated by  the  upholders  of  the  old  traditions  with 
the  decline  of  morals  and  the  decadence  of  art. 
This  is  a  point  that  has  to  be  borne  in  mmd  m 
connexion  with  the  porcelain  produced  at  the 
time.  There  then  followed  a  period  of  warfare 
and  confusion,  during  which  the  Ming  dynasty 
came  to  an  end.  But  it  was  precisely  durmg  this 
period  that  for  the  first  time  a  steady  and  extensive 
demand  for  Chinese  porcelain  arose,  not  only  hi 
Europe,  but,  on  a  far  larger  scale,  in  Persia  and  in 
the  Hindustan  of  the  Mogul  emperors.  In  fact, 
from  our  point  of  view,  this  period  of  confusion 
which  continued,  in  the  south  especially,  for 
several  years  after  the  accession  of  Kang-he  (1661), 
may  well  be  classed  with  the  latter  part  at  least  of 
the  reign  of  Wan-li.  For  this  period,  one  that  is 
generally  ignored  by  writers  on  the  subject  of 
Chinese  porcelain  (from,  say,  1600  to  about  1680), 
it  would  be  well  if  we  could  find  a  general  name. 
I  can  only  suggest  some  such  term  as  '  the  period 
of  Indo-Persian  influence,'  or'  of  the  seventeenth 
century  decadence.' 

The  first  great  emperor  of  the  succeeding — the 
Manchu — dynasty  began  his  long  reign  in  i66r. 
This  was  Kang-he,  the  Roi  Soldi  of  China.  But,  as 
in  the  case  of  his  contemporary  in  France,  it  was 
not  till  some  twenty  years  after  his  succession  that 
Kang-he  was  master  of  the  whole  country.  In 
1677,  on  the  occasion  of  an  important  rebellion, 
King-te-chen  was  burnt  down  and  the  kilns  de- 
stroyed, and  it  was  probably  only  after  this  time 
that  any  start  was  made  with  the  renaissance  of 
porcelain  at  King-te-chen.' 

Indeed,  as  we  can  now  understand,  from  the 
sixteenth  century  to  the  present  day  there  have 
been  two  competing  demands  upon  the  potters  of 
King-te-chen.  Of  these,  that  for  the  supply  of  the 
imperial  palace  has  on  the  whole  tended  to  the 
preservation  of  old  traditions  and  to  the  ignoring 
of  new  processes  and  schemes  of  decoration.  The 
other  demand  has  come  from  the  merchants  at  the 
ports  of  export — in  later  days  the  Treaty  Ports — 
who  were  eager  to  be  provided  with  a  class  of 
porcelain  suitable  to  the  wants  of  the  countries 
with  which  they  traded.  If  the  first  of  these 
demands  was  dominant,  the  porcelain  produced 
was  likely  to  be  of  great  technical  excellence,  but 
the  shapes  and  the  decorations  had  to  follow  on 
the   old  lines.     When,  on    the   other   hand,   the 

•  If,  hawever,  we  are  to  accept  the  viceroy  Lang  Tiag-tso  as 
the  originator  of  the  famous  san-^-dc-bienf  ware,  the  Lanl-yao 
of  the  Chinese,  then  the  revival  must  have  come  about  before 
the  rebellion  of  the  seventies.     But  this,  I  think,  is  doabtful. 


private  kilns  were  busy  in  executing  orders  for  the 
export  trade,  there  would  be  an  opportunity  for 
introducing  new  and  exotic  shapes,  and  full  play 
would  be  given  to  the  use  of  coloured  enamels  in 
the  decoration.  All  through  the  Ming  period  this 
foreign  influence  was  probably  in  a  measure  at 
work,  but  it  was  not  until  the  commencement  of 
the  seventeenth  century  that  it  became  dominant. 
At  the  same  time  there  was,  as  we  have  seen,  in 
the  case  of  the  demand  from  Pekin,  a  relaxation  of 
the  old  time-honoured  restrictions.  No  wonder, 
then,  that  in  the  reign  of  Wan-li  the  new  spirit  was 
carrying  everything  before  it.  This  is  what,  for 
us,  gives  so  much  interest  to  the  porcelain  of  this 
period,  especially  to  the  class  which  is  decorated 
with  enamel  colours.  There  is  undoubtedly  at 
times  an  exotic  influence  to  be  found  both  in  the 
shapes  and  in  the  patterns  of  the  decoration.  But 
these  new  shapes  and  designs  do  not  point,  as  was 
the  case  later  on,  to  a  European  origin.  It  is 
rather  of  the  patterns  on  the  textile  fabrics  of  India 
and  Persia  that  we  are  reminded.  So  among  the 
shapes  we  find  the  graceful  ibraik  and  the  water- 
vessel  for  the  hookah. 

The  Wan-li  enamelled  wares  have  a  claim  to  our 
attention  in  that,  as  a  whole,  they  form  a  well- 
marked  and  easily  identified  class.  Unlike  what 
we  find  in  the  case  of  the  date-marks  of  the  earlier 
Ming  emperors,  the  nieii-hao  of  Wan-li,  when 
found  upon  a  piece  of  porcelain,  may  be  accepted 
as  indicating  the  true  date.^ 

The  importance  of  the  enamelled  porcelain  of 
Wan-li  depends  upon  the  following  facts  :  (i)  It 
is  the  earliest  porcelain  enamelled  over  the  glaze 
to  which  we  can  give  a  definite  date.  (2)  Of  the 
two  main  classes  into  which  it  falls,  one,  developed 
from  the  underglaze  blue  ware,  is  the  primary  type 
of  the  largest  family  of  decorated  ware  to  be  found 
in  the  history  of  porcelain.  It  is  a  family  that 
includes  a  large  part  of  the  enamelled  wares  of 
China,  of  Japan,  and  (variously  modified)  of  the 
eighteenth-century  porcelain  of  Europe.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  second  type  of  Wan-li  enamelled 
porcelain,  with  dominant  iron-red,  although  it  ap- 
pears to  have  had  neither  ancestors  nor  successors 
in  China,  has  found  many  imitators  in  Japan. 

There  are,  then,  grounds  enough,  it  would  seem, 
at  least  from  the  kiinst-historisch  point  of  view,  for 
claiming  a  position  of  some  distinction  for  these 
Wan-li  enamels.  Nor  when  looked  at  from  the 
artistic  side  are  these  boldly  executed  and  richly 
coloured  designs  without  charm.  And  yet  this 
ware  has  found  little  favour  with  collectors,  either 
with  us  in  the  West  or  in  China.     It  is  only  the 

-  The  same,  I  think,  may  be  said  of  the  mark  of  his  prede- 
cessor, the  short-lived  Lung-king.  The  porcelain  of  these  two 
reigns  is  always  classed  together  by  the  Chinese.  It  should  be 
noted,  however,  that  the  date-mark  of  Wan-li,  which  generally 
takes  the  exceptional  form  of  an  oblong  cartouche  placed  in  a 
prominent  position,  has  been  often  copied  in  later  times  in 
Japan. 


1.  VASE  WITH   DATE-MARK  OF  CHENG-HUA  (H.c.  18iN.> 

2.  VASE   WITH    DATE-MARK   OF  WAN-LI  (H.C.  19  IN.) 


1 


Japanese  who  have  appreciated  its  merits.  For 
the  native  connoisseur,  this  ware,  no  doubt, 
represents  a  time  of  decadence  and  of  '  barbaric 
influence.  The  Western  collector  finds  fault  with 
the  generally  rough  character  of  the  moulding  and 
the  decoration.  Though  by  no  means  very  rare, 
what  I  may  call  the  characteristic  types  of  Wan-li 
porcelain  seldom  find  a  place  in  our  collections, 
even  in  those  that  claim  to  give  a  special  recogni- 
tion to  so-called  Ming  wares. 

Now,  in  an  inquiry  into  the  origin  and  history 
of  decorated  porcelain,  the  more  logical  course 
would  doubtless  be  to  begin  with  the  primitive  forms 
and  to  follow  forward  the  development  of  the 
genre.  We  are,  however,  so  much  in  the  dark 
concerning  the  early  history,  and  so  much  con- 
fusion prevails  on  the  subject,  that  the  wiser  plan 
will  perhaps  be  to  fix  once  for  all  on  the  reader's 
mind  the  two  types  of  enamelled  porcelain  that, 
as  I  have  said,  were  after  all  the  earliest  of  which 
we  have  any  definite  knowledge.  Both  these  types 
appear  to  take  their  origin  in  the  reign  of  Wan-li 
or  in  that  of  his  short-lived  predecessor. 

Let  us  then  take  the  group  in  which  an  iron- 
red  holds  the  dominant  place  in  the  decoration. 
The  class  is  well  represented  in  the  British  Museum 
collection,  and  the  vase  illustrated  in  the  colour 
plate  (No.  2f  may  be  taken  as  typical ;  it  is  a  good 
example  of  a  form  that  is  characteristic  of  the 
period.  The  vase  is  of  square  section,  evidently 
shaped  in  a  mould,  with  four  mask  handles,  the 
whole  imitating  in  shape  an  old  bronze.  It  is 
enamelled  with  dragons  and  phoenixes,  and  next 
to  the  iron-red  a  leafy  copper-green  is  the  most 
noticeable  colour  ;  there  are  also  a  few  touches  of 
yellow;  and  the  decoration,  which  is  distinctly  of  a 
brocade-like  character,  had  its  start  in  some  cobalt- 
blue  under  the  glaze.     In  a  prominent  position 

^  The  ciloar-plate  is  reproduced  here  from  '  Porcelain,' by 
Edwird  Dillon,  by  kind  permission  of  the  publishers,  Messrs. 
Methuen  and  Co. 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

under  the  upper  edge,  within  a  horizontal  car- 
touche, may  be  read,  'Dai  Ming  IVnn-li  nien  shi' 
(made  in  the  period  Wan-li).  Vases  of  this 
description,  of  all  sizes,  are,  as  I  have  said,  by  no 
means  uncommon.  Smaller  examples  of  a  very 
similar  ware  are  often  found  in  Japan,  and  the 
decoration,  applied  to  stoneware  as  well  as  to 
porcelain,  has  there  been  copied  in  more  than 
one  place. 

There  is  a  ruder  subdivision  of  this  family 
where  the  enamels  are  confined  to  the  iron-red 
and  the  leafy  green.  These  enamels  are  boldly 
and  hastily  applied  in  heavy  masses  on  the  white 
ground.  Such  decoration  is  found,  above  all,  on 
large  dishes,  rudely  potted  for  the  most  part ;  there 
are  several  examples  in  the  British  Museum. 
Here  again  this  picturesque  but  rather  rough  ware — 
it  can  hardly  be  the  produce  of  the  kilns  of  King- 
te-chen — has  found  favour  with  the  Japanese.  At 
the  old  castle  town  of  Inuyama,  in  the  province 
of  Owari,  I  came,  many  years  ago,  upon  a  lately 
abandoned  kiln  where,  among  other  wares,  plates 
of  a  kaolinic  stoneware,  hardly  to  be  classed  as 
porcelain,  had  been  decorated  in  a  manner  closely 
following  the  Wan-li  ware  I  have  just  described. 
Here  we  have  a  typical  example  of  that  survival  of 
Ming  traditions  that  is  so  characteristic  of  Japanese 
porcelain  as  a  whole.  On  the  other  hand,  in 
China  it  would  seem  that  neither  type  of  this 
decoration  with  dominant  iron-red  has  found 
favour  in  subsequent  days.* 

In  the  concluding  part  of  this  paper  I  shall 
attempt  to  show  the  relation  of  these  Wan-li 
enamels  on  the  one  hand  to  the  earlier  Ming  wares 
and  on  the  other  to  the  manifold  developments  of 
the  time  of  Kang-he. 

{To  be  continued.) 

^The  rudely  enamelled  ware  was,  perhaps,  specially  made 
for  exportation  to  semi-barbarous  lands.  Something  very  like  it 
has  been  found  both  in  the  Philippines  and  in  Ceylon. 


PUVIS    DE    CHAVANNES:    A    CHAPTER    FROM  'MODERN 

PAINTERS  ' 


^  BY  CHARLES  RICKETTS 


rJk? 


lEW  personalities  in  the  art  of 
ithe  nineteenth  century  afford 
'such  scope  for  study  and  specu- 
lation as  Puvis  de  Chavannes. 
If  we  accept  Taine's  aphorism 
Uhat  art  is  the  result  of  an 
^environment,  how  shall  we 
I  account  for  the  work  of  this 
man  who  dealt  in  quintessences  and  abstractions  in 
a  period  devoted  to  the  noting  of  detail  and  inci- 
dent ?  Yet,  if  we  allow  Mr.  Huystnans's  angry 
contradiction  of  Taine's  theory,  and  consider 
art  as  a    revolt    from   its    environment,   we  are 


hardly  nearer  a  solution  of  the  problem,  since  the 
work  of  Puvis  de  Chavannes  is  lacking  in  the 
element  of  revolt  and  impatience  which  has  often 
characterized  the  painting  of  the  century.  It  is 
probable  that  Taine  is  nearer  the  truth  than  is 
Huysmans.  Neither  theory  is  sufficient  to  account 
for  the  creative  impulse  in  man  which  would  seem 
to  follow  a  course  known  only  to  itself,  in  which 
the  environment  may  count  in  so  far  that  it  can 
thwart  or  destroy,  just  as  an  accident  may  put  an 
end  to  a  precious  life,  yet  a  noble  and  stimulating 
environment  may  fail  to  bring  about  its  reflection 
in  art  or  be  badly  served  by  it.     This  was  the  case 


T^uvis  de  Qhavannes 


with  the  first  Empire,  while  the  ignoble  reaction 
accompanying  the  Restoration  was  the  signal  for 
the  romantic  upheaval ;  thus  in  a  period  devoted 
mainly  to  the  transaction  of  small  affairs,  in  a 
period  without  the  desire  for  epical  art — without 
the  need  of  churches  and  palaces — we  witness  the 
work  of  Puvis  de  Chavannes,  who  strove  for  the 
noblest  tasks,  and  who  would  have  been  equal  to 
satisfying  the  cravings  of  some  genial  Tyrant  or 
Pope  desirous  of  seeing  the  history  of  the  world 
painted  in  his  palace  within  his  lifetime. 

The  moment  has  not  yet  come  in  which  to  view 
the  case  of  Piivis  de  Chavannes  from  sufficient 
distance  to  establish  a  plausible  theory  for  his 
tendencies  :  in  a  sense  he  is  less  comprehensible 
than  some  earlier  masters — that  is,  less  easy  to 
class.  He  is  more  remote  than  Delacroix,  who 
is  now  comfortably  placed  in  galleries  devoted 
to  the  old  masters ;  he  is  still  more  removed 
from  most  of  us  than  is  Courbet,  to  whom  we 
owe  the  impulse  still  obtaining  in  naturalism  and 
its  descendant,  impressionism.  True,  we  can 
class  together  a  few  facts  which  may  serve  to 
explain  Puvis's  technical  origin ;  we  can  trace 
the  germ  of  his  early  manner  in  a  few  experi- 
mental paintings  by  Chasseriau  (when  still  under 
the  partial  influence  of  Ingres)  and  so  back  to 
Poussin.  This  plausible  explanation  might  satisfy 
a  Frenchman  ;  it  accounts  for  something  in 
his  early  method  of  drawing,  for  something  in  his 
sense  of  gesture  ;  in  these  things  he  can  be  placed 
in  a  sequent  but  not  unbroken  line  of  French 
masters.  Yet  to  all  this  we  must  add  the  new  spirit 
pervading  even  his  earliest  works,  which  is  not 
Roman  as  with  Poussin,  not  neo-Greek  as  with 
Ingres,  nor  Ionian  and  exotic  as  with  Chasseriau. 
To  the  efforts  of  these  great  artists  towards  a  plastic 
and  poetic  synthesis  Puvis  de  Chavannes  has 
added  a  more  racy  sense  of  the  French  soil,  a 
more  human  and  comprehensive  vision,  and  in  the 
construction,  method  and  aspect  of  his  paintings 
he  has  brought  a  mass  of  new  qualities  which 
rank  him  among  the  great  designers  in  the  history 
of  art. 

It  is  often  stated  that  the  nineteenth  century  has 
seen  a  new  conquest  of  nature  in  the  art  of  land- 
scape painting  :  to  some  it  would  seem  that  the 
field  of  artistic  expression  has  thus  been  almost 
indefinitely  enlarged  ;  to  others,  more  sceptical, 
there  would  seem  to  be  a  danger  in  this  apparent 
escape  from  control  and  the  substitution  of  the 
mood  of  a  man  (out  of  doors)  for  that  more  com- 
plex expression  of  life  and  experience  which  is 
the  field  of  the  figure  painter.  The  fact  is  too 
often  overlooked  that  the  greater  art  includes 
the  less,  and  that  landscape  painting  has  been 
discovered  and  its  essential  conventions  invented 
by  figure  painters. 

Let  us  rule  out,  for  convenience,  the  pale  aerial 
backgrounds    of     Piero     della      Francesca,    the 

10 


dewy  distances  of  Memling  and  other  unsurpass- 
able, if  subordinate,  renderings  of  ground  and  sky 
by  the  masters  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  accept 
the  fact  that  the  modern  conception  of  landscape 
painting  was  invented  by  Titian.  The  essentials  of 
landscape,  namely  the  undulating  structure  of  the 
ground,  the  rooting  and  branching  of  trees,  the 
broken  illumination  of  distances  and  the  study  of 
afternoon  clouds,  owe  their  discovery  to  him  : 
Titian's  personal  and  splendid  rendering  of  these 
beautiful  things  has  obscured  the  fact  that  they 
represent  the  stock-in-trade  of  nearly  all  subsequent 
landscape  painting.  Rubens  will  add  more  move- 
ment and  glitter,  Turner  and  Constable  even  more, 
yet  the  pattern  remains  almost  unaltered,namely  the 
undulating  foreground,  the  large  and  small 
balancing  masses  of  trees  and  the  rolling  vista 
beyond.  The  composing  masses  are  more  varied 
with  Rubens,  with  Turner  they  are  often  more 
formal  (nearer  to  the  architecture  of  the  theatre 
vista).  With  Corot,  in  his  larger  works,  the  pattern 
is  still  traditional,  a  denuded  bough  cuts  across 
the  two  balancing  tree  masses,  and  the  distant 
water  in  the  backgrounds  of  Titian  has  become 
the  gleam  of  a  lake.  With  each  master  the  pigment 
tends  to  a  more  broken  surface  and  the  colour 
undergoes  a  drastic  modification, but  in  some  degree 
the  same  romantic  climaxes  in  nature  are  chosen, 
and  the  scene  flooded  with  broken  lights  and 
shadows.  Watteau,  one  of  the  greatest  landscape 
painters,  anticipates  something  of  the  melancholy 
grace  which  characterizes  the  art  of  Corot ;  but  in 
all  these  masters,  including  even  Constable,  Titian's 
plume-like  trees  have  remained.  Corot  escapes 
from  them  in  chance  studies  from  nature,  in  the 
rendering  of  the  willows  and  poplars  of  the  north 
of  France.  I  would  admit  that  in  the  chronology 
of  landscape  painting  the  modification  of  the 
Titian  formula  has  been  considerable,'  without, 
however,  breaking  with  the  mould.  The  change 
in  the  use  of  pigment  has  been  enormous,  ranging 
from  shapely,  controlled  brushwork  to  a  convention 
in  which  the  touch  is  shapeless  as  with  Constable. 
The  range  in  tonality  has  gone  from  gold  to  silver, 
from  amber  to  ashes,  ranging  from  sunset  to  dawn, 
but  always  within  the  same  pictorial  scheme,  in 
which  the  spectator  stands  some  distance  from 
the  scene  as  if  viewing  it  through  a  window. 

With  Nicolas  Poussin,  though  his  indebtedness 
to  Titian  would  seem  enormous,  we  have  one  of 
the  greatest  architects  of  landscape,  the  equal  of 
Titian  in  the  construction  of  the  ground,  and  the 
superior  of  Rubens  and  Turner  in  this  particular. 
With  N.  Poussin  the  construction  of  the  banks  of 
a  river  or  winding  road,  the  architecture  of  a  hill 
and  horizon,  reduces  the  drawing  in  the  pictures  of 
Caspar  Dughet  and  Claude  to  the  level  of   mere 

'Notably  with  occasional  works  of  Turner,  the  most  experi- 
mental of  all  landscape  painters,  if  at  other  times  he  is  the  most 
arbitrary  and  even  conventional,  showing  even  the  influence  of 
Claude. 


T^uvis  de  Qhavannes 


scene  painting.  I  believe  that  the  constructive 
element  in  Poussin  counts  for  something  in  the 
evolution  of  landscape  achieved  by  Puvis  de 
Cbavannes. 

I  am  aware  that  a  totally  new  view  of  nature, 
owing  almost  nothing  to  Titian,  will  be  traced 
among  chance  studies  of  road  and  wind-swept 
canals  drawn  by  Rembrandt,-  but  these  were  un- 
known even  to  Milltt  and  Puvis,  and  they  have, 
therefore,  had  no  influence  on  the  evolution  of 
landscape  painting  ;  we  prize  one  or  two  pictures 
by  that  delightful  but  unequal  little  master,  John 
Crome,  for  a  hint  at  this  more  intimate  or  humble 
outlook  upon  nature  which  belonged  to  Rem- 
brandt.    Perhaps  their  influence  is  yet  to  come. 

If  the  influence  of  Constable's  experimental 
workmanship  has  been  enormous,  it  can  hardly  be 
said  that  he  brought  a  great  change  to  the  design- 
ing of  landscape.  His  larger  pictures  are,  after 
all,  fine  academic  set  pieces  in  which  the  trees  are 
viewed  as  mid-distance  masses.  In  his  sketches 
there  is  a  more  original  outlook,  something  hinting 
at  the  simplicity  of  motive  and  variety  of  illumina- 
tion which  characterizes  the  colour  prints  of  Japan, 
without  equalling  them,  however,  in  range  of 
subject  and  illumination. 

Millet,  an  artist  of  unequal  power,  has  shown  a 
greater  originality  in  the  designing  of  landscape, 
with  his  finely  constructed  ground  and  wand-like 
trees  ;  he  avoids  the  climax  effects  of  the  pro- 
fessional landscape  painter,  or,  at  any  rate,  the 
rendering  of  them  with  the  large  orchestral 
(musical  festival)  effects  of  Turner  or  the  per- 
sistent tremolo  of  the  fiddles  (with  a  touch  of  the 
triangle)  which  allures  us  in  Corot,  and  which 
reconciles  us  to  the  designs  of  these  masters, 
even  when  they  are  monotonous  and  academic, 
in  the  sense  that  they  reflect  a  combination  of 
admittedly  beautiful  or  agreeable  things.  Against 
this  tendency  which  I  have  just  described  as  aca- 
demic I  have  nothing  to  say,  since  all  art  in  some 
degree  is  little  else,  whether  the  artist  selects  that 
which  he  thinks  capable  of  beautiful  interpretation 
or  else  combines  elements  of  beauty  from  afar ; 
the  term  academic  becomes  a  reproach  when  the 
choice  is  easy  to  foresee,  when  the  combination 
lures  a  conventional  public  on  the  side  of  the  artist, 
just  as  the  Palladian  palaces  and  arriving  ship,  the 
pleasant  sweep  of  the  bay  and  the  fineness  of  the 
day  flattered  the  contemporaries  of  Claude  in 
favour  of  his  porcelain  skies  and  zinc  seas  :  such 
gentle  'cheateries '  masquerade  themselves  in  strange 
ways — the  string  of  geese  in  a  sketch  by  Daubigny, 
the  little  red  cow  in  a  Corot,  are  agreeable  rustic 
touches  which  add  incalculable  hundreds  to  a  pic- 
ture in  the  eyes  of  the  Philistine  and  the  dealer, 
just  as  English  ladies  like  a  portrait  which  contains 
a  white  satin  dress. 

I  shall  doubtless  be  accused  of  undervaluing 
"These  are  preserved  mainly  in  the  Chatsworth  collection. 


the  study  of  light  which  most  of  these  masters 
have  brought  to  landscape  painting  ;  but  this  new 
study  is  in  itself  hardly  more  vakiable  than  the 
conquest  of  relief  which  was  the  aim  of  the 
Tenebrosi.  If  this  fashion  in  the  painting  of  the 
seventeenth  century  stifled  painting,  and  poisoned 
the  colour  sense  of  a  whole  period,  the  landscape 
painters'  rendering  of  the  glitter  of  sunlight  and 
sunset  has  disintegrated  the  plastic  sense,  nar- 
rowed the  outlook,  and  established  a  convention  in 
the  conduct  of  pigment  which  is  unsuittd  to  the 
expression  of  form,  and  so  affected  the  standard  of 
figure  painting;  at  any  rate  it  has  become  a  common 
fashion  hardly  more  valuable  than  the  light 
animated  manner  affected  by  Ricci  and  Piazzetta, 
who  reacted  against  the  cellar  light  of  theTenebrosi. 

The  most  original  designer  of  landscape  since 
Rembrandt  is  Puvis  de  Chavannes.  With  him 
the  character  of  the  ground,  the  drawing  of  the 
horizon,  have  varied  more  than  with  any  other 
painter.  With  him  we  escape  once  for  all  from 
the  beautiful  tree  convention  established  by  Titian 
and  modified  by  Corot,  in  which  they  are  feathery 
masses  seen  in  the  mid-distance.  With  Puvis  the 
distant  wand-like  trees  of  Millet  have  become  the 
colonnades  of  tree-trunks  which  we  find  in  the 
north  of  France ;  his  trees  are  recognizable  as 
poplar,  willow  or  sycamore,  etc.,  the  leaves  are  no 
longer  the  gold  or  silver  feathery  masses  of  Titian, 
Turner  and  Corot,  but  a  strange  pattern  against 
the  sky,  or  else  sober  masses  of  varying  contour 
supported  by  varying  branch  forms ;  the  tree 
trunks  have  become  grey,  green  or  while,  and 
beyond  extend  horizons  and  skies  that  are  not  the 
great  summer  skies  of  Titian  orthescirocco  clouds 
of  Tiepolo  or  the  Bengal  lights  of  Turner's  fantastic 
sunsets,  or  the  splashes  of  mauve  and  rose  of 
Corot,  but  skies  that  have  their  hour,  like  the 
evening  hush  of  the  turquoise  sky  in  Le  Rcpos, 
the  dry  light  of  morning  in  Lndiis  pro  Patria,  the 
weight  of  noon  in  La  Vision  Antique  or  the  mauve 
of  a  summer  night  over  the  stubble  fields  in  Le 
Sovniicil. 

Puvis  de  Chavannes  has  rendered  the  countless 
moods  belonging  to  the  seasons  over  land  and  sea, 
in  the  dawn,  noon  and  twilight ;  and  do  not  let  us 
forget  that  these  moments  are  not  caught  in  mere 
racy  sketches  and  studies,  they  do  not  owe  sparkle 
and  charm  to  freshness  of  pigment  or  to  some 
chaotic  experimentalism  in  handling.  These  effects 
form  part  in  a  noble  scheme  in  which  man  has  not 
been  banished  out  of  nature  (to  be  replaced  by  the 
temper  of  the  artist)  but  in  which  he  figures  in 
the  eternally  engrossing  drama  of  work  and  repose, 
effort  or  thought,  under  the  spell  of  passion, 
tenderness  and  meditation  ;  in  movements  of  effort 
and  moods  of  compassion  ;  clothed  not  merely 
with  the  perfection  of  the  various  ages  and  sexes 
but  viewed  in  his  proper  significance  as  worker  or 
dreamer,  like  those  god-like  workmen  and  mothers 


I  I 


T^uvis  de  Qhavannes 

of  Le  Trm'ciil  nnd  Lc  Rcfos  or  like  the  dreamers 
and  creatures  of  infinite  tenderness  and  foresight 
painted  as  the  Saiuic  Gciicvilvcrcillani  svrPfiris  or 
Virgil  liskiiiiig  io  ihe  Bees,  or  else  we  have  those 
women  transfigured  by  tenderness  and  charm  of 
the  Dottx  Pays  or  La  JoileUe  (Haviland  collection) 
in  which  we  shall  find  expressed,  with  a  primaeval 
candour  of  vision  and  emotion,  that  mood  of 
worship  which  we  find  steeped  in  languor  and 
ritual  in  the  art  of  Rossetti,  or  steeped  in  a 'tenderer' 
sensuality  with  Giorgione  and  other  poet-painters 
to  whom  beauty  has  been  revealed  as  a  force  upon 
which  rested  the  destinies  of  a  generation.  For, 
like  all  great  masters,  besides  the  moods  in  which 
his  art  is  stimulating  as  a  tonic  and  beyond  the 
possibilities  of  the  common  man,  Puvis  de 
Chavannes  paints  also  those  moods  of  ecstasy  in 
which  we  find  the  love  of  beauty  and  ease  and 
grace  which  have  also  their  power  of  consolation. 
He  has  moods  of  playfulness,  in  which  he  records 
the  strange,  quaint,  sudden  movements  of  children, 
as  in  the  Doux  Pays  and  La  Peclic.  He  has 
moments  of  gaiety  and  fascination,  as  in  the 
Jeiines  Filles  an  bord  de  la  Mcr.  He  expresses 
ecstasy  in  the  figure  of  the  painter  in  I' Inspiration 
Chrctienne  and  in  the  St.  John  of  which  the  new 
Dublin  gallery  possesses  a  fascinating  imfinished 
version,  on  the  whole  less  coherent,  less  '  central ' 
than  the  famous  picture,  but  of  the  greatest  interest 
as  the  only  decoration  by  the  master  outside  the 
galleries  of  France  and  the  Boston  Library. 

The  first  time  I  saw  Puvis  de  Chavannes  was  in 
the  Louvre.  He  was  standing  in  front  of  that 
admirable  antique  sometimes  called  a  Sea  Deity, 
sometimes  Alexander  the  Great ;  in  the  crowding  or 
herding  out  of  the  visitors  leaving  the  gallery  I  saw 
him  again,  one  of  the  last  to  leave,  before  Lc  Deluge, 
that  masterpiece  of  Poussin.  The  works  he  was 
studying  help  to  explain  the  trend  of  his  partialities. 
I  called  upon  him  two  years  later  with  a  friend, 
like  myself  a  youth  of  twenty,  and,  looking  back 
across  the  years,  I  remember  him  as  the  man  of 
his  work,  simple,  grave  and  genial,  touched  and 
charmed  by  our  raw  and  uncultivated  admiration 
for  his  painting.  He  had  just  finished  his  first 
pastel,  a  later  phase  of  his  practice  in  which  he 
has  passed  into  the  collections  of  tardy  purchasers. 
He  confessed  to  being  still  the  owner  of  all  his 
small  pictures,  for  criticism  does  not  allow  a  variety 
of  range  to  a  man,  and  '  the  painter  who  paints 
large  must  not  paint  small.'  From  time  to  time 
his  speech  became  admonitory,  and  he  launched 
forth  into  disapproval  of  current  tendencies,  the 
photographic  drawing  of  many,  '  la  perfection 
bete  qui  n'a  rien  a  faire  avec  le  vrai  dessin,  le  dessin 
expressif!'  and  against  Mes  pochades  d'atelieret  de 
vacance.'  I  remember  the  insistence  with  which 
he  underlined  the  fact  that  the  cartoon  for  the 
Sorbonne  was  but  the  skeleton  of  the  design  with- 
out the  colour-scheme  which  would  transform  it ; 


and  as  a  matter  of  fact  this  vast  allegory  would 
seem  to  have  won  a  huge  popular  suffrage  owing 
to  the  enchanting  contrast  between  the  sky  and 
the  dark  semi-circle  of  trees  closing  in  this  new 
Parnassus  of  the  arts  and  sciences. 

I  would  now  consider  certain  details  of  his 
method  wherein  he  resembles  certain  other 
masters,  or  else  reacts  against  their  tendencies. 
For  years  the  character  of  his  drawing  counted 
as  an  element  of  unpopularity  and  misconception. 
In  a  period  in  which  drawing  had  dwindled  into 
more  or  less  careful  copying — when  artists,  in 
fact,  could  not  draw  without  the  presence  of  a 
mode! — his  preoccupation  with  the  finding  of 
a  kind  of  drawing  which  would  express  the  major 
saliences  and  characteristics  and  yet  form  part  of 
the  design  of  the  whole  picture,  his  study  of 
accented  and  rhythmic  drawing,  was  incompre- 
hensible and  offensive.  I  do  not  know  if  the  accusa- 
tion that  Puvis  de  Chavannes  could  not  draw  led 
to  a  further  accenting  of  his  tendencies  and  so 
reduced  some  of  his  later  figures  almost  to  symbols 
or  types ;  it  is  more  probable  that  some  other 
preoccupation  intervened,  such  as  the  lightness  of 
tone  which  deprives  the  painter  of  the  illusion  of 
relief.  In  the  earlier  designs  at  Amiens  the  human 
form  is  rendered  w'ith  a  great  insistence  upon 
largeness  of  construction  and  relief — that  is,  upon 
the  plastic  quality  of  form.  The  colour-scheme 
of  the  four  earlier  works  is  still  in  a  sense  conven- 
tional :  they  have  the  effect  of  noble  tapestries, 
there  is  a  survival  of  an  influence  caught  from 
the  decorative  works  of  Chasseriau.  This  applies 
also  to  the  aspect  of  La  Peche,  which  is  contempo- 
rary with  Le  Travail,  and  those  splendid  sanguine 
studies  now  for  the  most  part  in  the  Luxembourg. 
The  sense  of  form,  however,  is  more  massive  than 
with  Chasseriau  and  more  naturalistic  ;  this  gives 
way  in  the  seventies  and  eighties  to  a  massive 
simplicity  in  which  no  thought  of  Chasseriau  is 
possible ;  from  the  first  Puvis  de  Chavannes 
possessed  a  monumental  sense  of  landscape 
unsuspected  by  his  forerunner,  who  counts  among 
French  painters  much  as  Andr6  Chenier  counts 
in  French  literature. 

The  climax  of  the  master's  method  was  reached 
in  the  first  series  executed  for  the  Pantheon  and 
in  the  Lndus  Pro  Patria.  Between  these  works  we 
can  place  the  Doux  Pays  and  Panvrc  Pecheur.  These 
masterpieces  can  challenge  comparison  with  the 
work  of  any  master  done  at  any  period  ;  in  them 
the  classical  or  Olympian  mood  of  the  earlier 
designs  has  given  way  to  one  more  human, 
more  genial,  more  racy  and  more  original.  The 
last  ten  years  of  the  master's  life  saw  a  further 
simplification  in  his  method  of  drawing,  and  an 
ever-increasing  lightness  of  tonality.  This  change 
was  at  first  distasteful  to  the  French  public,  which 
in  the  eighties  was  enamoured  of  the  ball 
dresses  and   top    hats   of  Gervex,  then   at  their 


12 


L'liSI'tNANCl:.      I'Ki'M     MM      I'AIMIM.    i;>     l'i\i^    :<i     ^HAi.VNNh.- 


I'l'VIS   DL   CHAVANNES. 
I'l.ATE   I 


i^ 


LA   l-AiMlLLE   UV    I'JKCHEUK.      1-K<IM    TH1-,    I'AINTINU   BY   PUVIS   L'L    tli A\  A.N.Nii 


PUVIS   Dli   CHAVAN'XES. 
I'l.ATE  II 


newest,  and  with  the  photographic  reahsm  preva- 
lent in  the  Salon.  The  amber  Hght  and  astonish- 
ingly musical  ambience  in  Le  Bois  sacre  won  suff- 
rages from  all  Paris,  to  whom,  for  the  moment, 
this  work  appealed  quite  suddenly.  In  the  Salon  it 
produced  the  effect  of  some  Greek  fragment  lost 
in  an  upholstered  drawing-room  with  the  velvet 
poufs  and  pink  lamp-shades  then  in  vogue.  In 
later  life  what  I  have  termed  the  musical  ambience 
usurps  the  place  to  some  extent  of  the  human 
interest  which  had  belonged  to  the  works  executed 
in  the  seventies  and  early  eighties.  In  the  Boston 
decorations  little  else  survives,  though  in  centrality 
of  conception  and  design  the  last  decorations  in 
the  Pantheon,  left  unfinished  at  his  death,  are 
not  inferior  to  the  first';  but  in  these  as  in  the 
Sorbonnne  and  Hotel  de  Ville  decorations  the 
synthesis  in  method  is  perhaps  ever  so  slightly  on 
that  side  which  has  rendered  him  acceptable  to 
the  lovers  of  latter-day  impressionism  and  symbol- 
ism in  painting  and  literature,  and  the  last  work 
of  Puvis  de  Chavannes  has  become  acceptable  to 
poetic  young  gentlemen  and  aesthetic  young  ladies 
as  if  he  had  no  talent  but  only  a  very  personal 
manner.  Perhaps  in  the  last  works  the  sense  of 
form  has  become  too  abstract.  The  colour-sense 
follows  a  line  of  development  towards  a  greater 
aerial  quality,  till  it  becomes  little  else  than  the 
blues  of  the  sky  and  shadows  of  France. 

The  art  of  Puvis,  which  had  been  classical  and 
robust  inider  the  lyrical  impulse  of  Chasseriau, 
more  normal  and  more  emotional  in  his  maturity, 
melts  in  its  last  phase  into  a  lyrical  and  musical 
mood.  The  masculine  interest  in  the  worker  and 
thinker  gives  place  to  the  charm  of  the  muse  and 
the  ministrant ;  the  classical  women  of  the  Donx 
Pays  become  the  aerial  girls  of  the  Boston  decora- 
tion ;  the  racy  human  types,  at  one  time  so  French 
in  character,  give  way  to  the  nymphs  with  aston- 
ished eyes  of  L'Autoiiiite,  the  aesthetic  girls  and 
youths  of  the  Rouen  decorations  and  the  superbly 
conceived  but  abstract  types  of  L'Hiver. 

Where  did  Puvis  learn  the  aerial  tonality  of 
the  major  portion  of  his  works  ?  In  the  four  early 
decorations  at  Amiens,  and  in  La  Pechc,  the 
prevalent  tone  is  that  of  some  noble  and  natural- 
istic fresco  by  some  master  who  had  seen  Lcs 
Boiiviers  by  Benozzo  Gozzoli  in  the  Riccardi 
chapel,  and  the  Death  of  Adam  by  Piero  della 
Francesca  ;  there  is  in  them  a  classical  influence 
also  which  is  difficult  to  describe,  which  is  different 
from  that  which  inspired  Chass6riau,  whose 
mural  decorations  show  the  pervading  influence 
of  certain  Pompeian  frescoes,  such  as  the  Medea 
from  Herculaneum  and  the  superb  Hercules  and 
Telephiis  and  Hercules  and  Onipliale  also  at  Naples, 
one  of  which  had  been  copied  by  Ingres. 

The  grey  and  blue  and  green  general  tonality 
in  Puvis's  work  increases  with  the  simplification 
of  his  method.     The  general  aspect  of  his  designs 


Puvis  de  Qhavannes 

has  been  compared  to  Piero  delta  Francesca,  but 
if  this  influence  reacted  upon  him  years  after  he 
had  visited  Italy,  the  resemblance  is  of  the  slightest 
to  those  who  know  the  radiant  and  steady  silver 
light  in  which  Piero  has  bathed  the  subjects  of  his 
frescoes.  I  incline  to  suggesting  an  almost  inexplic- 
able influence  caught  from  chance  works  of  Corot 
to  account  for  the  evolution  of  this  profoundly 
original  phase  of  painting,  which,  like  other 
original  efforts,  was  partly  instinctive,  then  con- 
scious, and  then  strongly  willed.  Behind  him  lay 
the  fact  that  the  great  fresco  painters — Giotto, 
Angelico,  Piero  della  Francesca  and  Michelangelo 
— had  painted  in  a  paler  key  than  other  designers 
who  had  been  less  successful  in  mural  decoration, 
and  that  these  frescoes  brought  light  and  colour 
to  the  buildings.  Chasseriau  and  Manet  each 
brought  back  the  rumour  of  the  blonde  paintings 
of  Italy,  and  we  have  two  fashions  in  art  to  help  in 
strengthening  this  tendency  :  on  the  one  hand,  the 
growing  love  of  the  fifteenth-century  painters,  and 
on  the  other  impressionism,  which  strove  to  break 
with  the  exigencies  and  traditional  practices  of  oil 
painting.  The  will  of  the  time  was  in  part  turned 
towards  the  practice  of  a  lighter  scheme  of  painting, 
and  the  artifices  of  chiaroscuro  or  the  expressive 
quality  of  relief  became  distasteful.  This  tendency 
was  doubtless  fostered  in  part  by  the  discovery  of 
the  art  of  Japan  ;  in  this  movement  towards  light- 
ness Puvis  de  Chavannes  took  the  lead,  painting 
decorations  which  were  tuned  to  the  grey  of  the 
stone  walls  on  which  they  were  to  be  placed,  and 
which  stood  out  in  the  Salons  among  the  studio 
top-light  effects  of  the  smart  painters  of  the  time 
with  something  of  the  pallor  of  a  map  among 
coloured  oleographs. 

I  have  striven  to  describe  Puvis's  discoveries 
in  landscape,  his  originality  and  variety  in  the 
conception  and  design  of  his  work,  and  his  enor- 
mous range  of  vision.  The  space  at  my  disposal 
does  not  allow  me  to  describe  the  curiously 
fortunate  and  quite  original  balance  of  interest 
which  he  has  established  between  the  environ- 
ment of  land  and  sky  and  the  human  interest  in 
his  paintings,  for  which  there  is  hardly  any 
absolute  precedent  in  the  art  of  the  past  It 
might  be  described  as  figure  painting  with  land- 
scape background,  or  else  as  pure  landscape 
painting  with  or  without  figures.  I  have  striven 
to  explain  his  noble  qualities  as  a  draughtsman  of 
monumental  figures,  and  the  range  of  his  emotions 
which  make  him  acceptable  to  the  more  balanced 
lover  of  realism  and  to  the  student  of  Greek  art 
(they  need  not  necessarily  be  at  variance).  I  have 
striven  to  hint  at  the  musical  and  harmonious 
scale  of  colour  which  supports  or,  more  properly, 
forms  an  integral  part  of  his  designs.  Technically, 
he  strove  for  a  method  which  tends  towards  effects 
that  are  new  to  oil  painting.  In  this  singular  effort, 
which  after  all  had  its  reason  in  the  durability  of 


PuvJs  de  Qhavannes 


the  medium,  we  may  detect  a  limitation  in  the 
master,  or,  more  properly,  a  self-imposed  limit  to 
his  aim.  It  is  probable  that  certain  great  beauties 
we  admire  in  the  racy  conduct  of  pigment  and 
the  love  of  what  is  called  quality,  were  of 
little  interest  to  him,  at  any  rate  they  were 
unnecessary  to  his  purpose  as  a  decorator ;  yet 
certain  easel  works  show  this  preoccupation,  such  as 
UEspemncc  and  U Enfant  Prodigue  whilst  the  most 
beautiful  of  all  his  pictures,  Le  Panvre  Pcchcur,  dis- 
penses with  all  subtleties  of  surface  to  produce  an 
effect  of  remote  beauty  as  of  some  work  by  astrange 
unknown  master  of  some  distant  clime  and  period. 
The  love  of  quality  in  pigment,  or  brush- 
work,  was  not  in  the  scheme  of  this  painter 
of  mural  decorations,  whose  smaller  works  charm 
one  like  some  little  fresco  detached  from  the 
walls  of  some  non-existent  Herculaneum,  buried 
in  the  imagination  of  a  man  who  had  at  once  the 
painter's  vision  and  the  direct  sense  of  emotional 
appeal  of  the  poet. 


The  master's  range  of  subject  was  foreign  to 
two  generations  of  contemporary  painters  who 
were  striving  to  specialize  themselves  ;  the  dignity 
and  singleness  of  his  art  and  aim  exasperated  two 
generations  of  critics  who  missed  the  opportunity 
for  self-important  pronouncements  or  admonition. 
The  vestrymen  and  placemen  who  governed  the  art 
politics  of  his  time  gave  him  walls  to  decorate,  as 
often  as  not,  as  an  afterthought ;  these  decorations 
cost  the  artist  on  an  average  ;£200  each. 

Two  cities  in  Europe  outside  France  possess 
important  pictures  of  his,  Dresden  and  Dublin. 
He  is  still  comparatively  unknown  in  England,  but 
the  present  artistic  temper  of  this  country  is  still, 
for  the  moment,  under  the  Salon  and  Paris  atelier 
ideals  against  which  Puvis  de  Chavannes  had  to 
contend  some  twenty  years  ago.'' 

3  We  owe  two  of  the  photographs  illustrating  this  article  to 
the  courtesy  of  M.  Darand-Ruel. 


FLORENCE  AND  HER  BUILDERS 
^  BY  G.  BALDWIN  BROWN  cK> 


OR  romantic  associations  and 
for  artistic  interest  Rome  stands 
easily  first  among  the  cities  of 
Italy.  A  claim  for  Ravenna 
as  next  in  rank  might  be 
reasonably  urged  on  the  strength 
of  her  unique   treasure   in  the 

early  Christian  mosaics  on  the 

beautiful  blue  grounds  of  primitive  tradition,  and 
of  her  churches  and  tombs  wherein  we  are  trans- 
ported back,  without  any  shock  of  surprise,  some 
fourteen  hundred  years.  In  the  judgment  of 
most  people,  however,  the  deutereia  will  be  a  matter 
of  contest  between  Florence  and  Venice,  and  the 
popularity  of  the  two  cities  is  attested  by  the  out- 
put of  books  in  the  titles  of  which  their  names 
appear.  The  work  which  gives  the  occasion  for 
this  article  •  is  not  merely  one  more  of  the  many 
readable  volumes  on  the  famous  Italian  cities  and 
their  artistic  attractions,  it  is  something  better  and 
more  distinctive.  The  author  of  it  does  deal  to 
some  extent  with  the  history  and  the  life  of  the 
city  at  different  periods,  but  the  main  subject  of 
the  volume,  as  explained  in  the  preface,  is  the 
Florentine  building  art,  and  the  more  general 
passages  are  designed  to  elucidate  the  relation  of 
the  city  life  to  the  architecture  which  has  been  '  its 
chief  vehicle  of  contemporary  and  permanent 
expression.' 

In  so  far  as  the  book  deals  with  the  architecture 
of  the  city  it  merits  a  cordial  welcome,  for  the 
author  has  not  been  content  to  dilate  upon  these 

•  'The  Builders  of  Florence,"  by  J.  Wood  Brown,  M.A.  With 
seventy-four  illustrations  by  Herbert  Railton.  London  :  Methuen 
and  Co.,  1907.    i8s.  net. 

18 


buildings  from  the  historical  or  romantic  stand- 
point, but  shows  himself  a  student  of  the  technique 
of  the  constructive  art,  and  analyses  the  fabrics 
from  this  point  of  view  in  a  thoroughly  practical 
fashion.  Very  many  of  his  readers  who  know 
their  Florence  well  will  learn  interesting  facts  that 
are  quite  new  to  them  about  buildings  they  have 
visited  scores  of  times,  and  about  which  they  have 
the  guide  book  information  at  their  fingers'  ends. 
Mr.  Wood  Brown  has  made  good  use  of  the 
monographs  on  Florentine  buildings  which  have 
appeared  in  recent  years,  such  as  Mospignotti's 
'  Duomo  di  San  Giovanni,'  with  its  constructive 
analysis  of  the  Baptistry,  and  Pietro  Franceschini's 
'  L'Oratorio  di  San  Michele  in  Orto  in  Firenze,' 
and  has  made  contributions  of  his  own,  especially 
to  the  subject  of  the  older  domestic  architecture. 
'The  original  building  unit  in  Florence,  as 
elsewhere  in  Italy  during  the  early  Middle  Age, 
was  the  tower  ;  that  is  the  house  built  on  the  nar- 
row foundation  sufficient  for  a  single  small  room, 
and  added  to,  not  horizontally  but  vertically  .  .  . 
the  towers  of  Florence  were  not  distinctively 
castles,  as  it  has  been  the  custom  to  represent  them, 
but  common  houses,  built  on  narrow  sites  because 
the  whole  city  must  be  limited  by  a  wall  capable 
of  defence  at  every  point ;  which  houses  were  then 
carried  high  to  meet  the  wants  of  a  growing 
population.'  These  sentences  introduce  a  discus- 
sion of  the  stone  towers,  their  union  in  groups,  and 
ultimate  crystallization  into  a  form  that  gives  the 
key  to  the  general  scheme  of  the  later  palazzo  of 
the  Renaissance.  The  interest  of  the  demonstra- 
tion lies  partly  in  the  fact  that  the  Florentine  tower- 
houses  were  treated  in  a  fashion  similar  to  that 


Florence  and  her  Builders 


prevailing  in  a  famous  stone-built  fortified  mediae- 
val city  in  our  own  country,  the  city  of  Edinburgh. 
The  parallel  is  worth  a  moment's  attention.  In  both 
cases  additional  space  was  gained  for  the  denizens 
of  the  stone  structures  by  throwing  out  wooden 
galleries  supported  on  beams  and  struts,  so  that  at 


natural  for  adherents  of  the  same  family  to  live  side 
by  side,  so  the  insula,  though  divided  up  into  sep- 
arate dwellings,  might  represent  the  seat  of  a  clan, 
and  this  solidarity  might  be  emphasized  by  a  com- 
mon well,  and  perhaps  a  common  chapel,  in  the 
courtyard.    At  first  the  heights  of  the  towers  varied 


J  Wooj>-  Brov'N 


FIG.    I 


'^dcoJ  Florentine  Towar-^roup^m^wus  fo  I250 


first  sight  the  house  fronts  seemed  to  be  of  timber, 
though  as  a  fact  there  was  only  a  facing  of  wood 
clinging  to  the  stone  structure  behind.  It  is 
curious  to  note  that  of  two  travellers  who  give 
evidence  of  the  aspect  of  Edinburgh  in  thesixteenth 
century  one  reports  that  all  the  houses  were  of 
wood,  the  other,  who  examined  a  little  more  closely, 
that  they  were  all  of  stone.  Fig.  i  -  reproduces 
Mr.  Wood  Brown's  diagram  of  a  group  of  early 
Florentine  towers  of  the  period  before  1250,  with 
their  wooden  fronts.  Each  tower  he  believes  to 
have  been  of  very  narrow  dimensions  on  the  ground 
plan,  but  they  were  placed  closely  together,  and 
arranged  so  as  to  form  a  square  block  or  insula 
surrounding    a    central  courtyard.     It  would  be 

*  Reproduced    from    Mr.  Wood  Brown's    drawing  by  kind 
permission  of  the  publishers,  Messrs.  Methuen  and  Co. 


greatly,  and  any  proprietor  that  needed  more  space 
could  always  add  another  story  to  his  edifice,  but  in 
the  year  1 250  a  law  was  passed  that  all  private  build- 
ings of  more  than  fifty  braccia  in  height  should  be 
cut  down  to  this  uniform  level.  This  the  author 
suggests  would  give  a  certain  unity  to  the  block, 
and  formed  the  model  of  the  later  palazzo,  which 
in  the  early  example  of  the  Bargello,  and  the  sub- 
sequent ones  of  the  Renaissance  palaces,  is  still 
the  same  block  with  central  courtyard,  but  has 
changed  the  numerous  separate  residences  of 
which  it  was  originally  composed  for  continuous 
suites  of  apartments  forming  a  single  domicile. 
Our  concern  however  for  the  moment  is  with 
the  early  form  of  the  tower.  This  had  a  lowest 
story  vaulted  in  stone  and  devoted  to  purposes 
of  business  by  the  merchant  citizen  who  owned 


19 


Florence  and  her  Builders 

the  dwelling  and  used  the  upper  stories  for  his 
actual  domicile.  Here  the  arrangement  is  exactly 
what  we  find  at  a  later  date  in  the  older  stone 
houses  of  Edinburgh.  The  basements  of  some  at 
any  rate  of  these  houses  were  vaulted,  and  were 
entered  from  the  level  of  the  street  quite  inde- 
pendently of  the  rest  of  the  house,  access  to  which 
began  on  the  first  floor,  reached  by  a  picturesque 
outside  stair,  many  specimens  of  which  have 
happily  survived.  Mr.  Wood  Brown  does  not 
tell  us  how  the  upper  stories  were  reached  in  his 
early  Florentine  towers.  On  these  upper  stories 
the  wooden  galleries  were  thrown  out,  on  a 
system  which  the  diagram  makes  clear.  Numerous 
examples  occur  of  the  stone  brackets  that  once 
helped  to  support  the  galleries  and  now  pro- 
ject aimlessly  from  the  stone  fafades,  and  Mr. 
Railton's  drawings,  with  which  the  volume  is 
illustrated,  give  many  specimens.  Specimens  of 
actual  wooden  galleries  on  facades  have  not,  so  far 
as  we  know,  survived  in  the  Florence  of  to-day,  but 
in  Edinburgh  they  are  still  in  evidence,  and  may 
be  regarded  as  among  the  most  curious  features 
of  antique  domestic  architecture  that  this  country 
has  to  show.  Fig.  2,  copied  by  permission  from 
a  portion  of  a  drawing  of  Advocates'  Close  in  Mr. 
Bruce  Home's  '  Old  Houses  in  Edinburgh,'  gives 
specimens  of  these  wooden  fronts  supported  on 
beams  projecting  from  the  stone  walls.  The 
origin  of  them  is  quite  clear,  for  the  timber 
outwork  or  '  brattishing '  was  a  common  feature 
of  mediaeval  military  architecture,  and  it  was 
from  the  castles  that  the  city  houses  adopted 
the  fashion.  For  access  to  these  galleries  it 
was  necessary  to  use  the  windows  of  the  stone 
front  as  doors,  or  to  enlarge  some  of  these  for 
that  purpose,  and  fig.  3,  reproduced  by  permission 
from  the  fourth  volume  of  Messrs.  McGibbon  and 
Ross's  '  Castellated  and  Domestic  Architecture  of 
Scotland,'  shows  a  portion  of  the  outer  face  of 
the  so-called  '  Palace  of  Mary  of  Guise,'  now 
demolished,  in  Milne's  Court,  Edinburgh,  where 
we  see  the  marks  of  a  wooden  gallery  that  had 
been  taken  down,  and  a  doorway,  which  may 
previously  have  been  a  window,  that  gave  access 
to  it. 

The  later  development  of  the  stone  house  under 
the  influence  of  the  wooden  galleries  is  interesting, 
and  there  is  a  parallelism  here  again  between  the 
Italian  and  the  northern  city.  In  his  fourth  chap- 
ter, the  author  derives  the  characteristic  Florentine 
loggia,  as  we  find  it  for  example  in  the  Mercato 
Nuovo,  from  the  vaulted  ground  story  of  the  early 
domicile.  '  In  a  dado  of  many  towers,'  he  suggests, 
'inhabited  by  different  branches  of  some  one  power- 
ful, perhaps  aristocratic  family,  while,  as  to-day, 
many  of  the  basements,  cut  off  by  their  solid  vaults 
from  the  upper  storey,  might  be  let  as  shops  to 
minor  artisans  or  poorer  traders,  one  of  greater 
importance,  generally  at  a  corner  and  so  facing  on 


two  streets,  was  set  apart  almost  religiously  as  the 
family  loggia.  Here  the  head  of  the  house  saw 
clients  and  contadini  on  business  in  the  morning  ; 
and  here  his  wife  sat  to  receive  company  in  the 
afternoon.  By  degrees,  where  there  was  space 
available,  pillars  were  set  in  front  of  the  corner, 
and  a  wide  roof  stretched  over  them  which  found 
a  bracketed  bearing  on  the  tower  wall  above  or 
beside  the  great  door  arches  of  the  basement.  Thus 
the  loggia  grew  by  encroaching    on    the    street, 


FIG.   2.      ADVOCATES 
NOW   DEMOLISHED 


CLOSE,  EDINBURGH. 


where  the  lines  of  its  new  roof  and  columns  made 
a  charming  effect,  as  any  one  may  see  at  the  Canto 
degli  Alberti  in  Via  dei  Benci.'  From  this  begin- 
ning the  loggia  developed  as  an  independent 
structure  deriving  its  columns  from  the  supports 
of  this  projecting  portico,  its  vault  from  that  of 


20 


Florence  and  her  Builders 


FIG.  3.      TRACES   OF   TIMBER   PROJECTION   ON 
FACE     OF    OLD     EDINBURGH     STONE     HOUSE 

the  original  basement  of  the  tower.  The  author 
suggests  also  another  Hne  of  development  from 
this  same  starting  point  of  the  vaulted  basement  of 
the  tower,  but  here  we  doubt  very  much  whether 
his  foundation  will  carry  the  desired  superstructure. 
He  makes  a  significant  remark  that  parish  churches 
in  Florence  may  in  many  cases  have  grown  out  of 
the  chapels  in  the  residential  instilae,  but  the  deriva- 
tion of  the  church  campanile  from  the  residential 
tower  is  a  different  matter.  The  history  of  the 
ecclesiastical  tower  is  still  obscure,  but  we  should 
need  to  be  convinced  of  the  early  origin  and  wide 
diffusion  of  the  narrow  residential  tower  before 
we  could  accept  it  as  a  source  for  the  ecclesiastical 
towers  which  appear  in  early  mediaeval  days  in  so 
many  lands  of  the  West  from  Erin  to  Sicily.  In 
the  form  of  the  turrets  containing  the  stairs  to  the 
upper  galleries  of  a  church,  as  at  San  Vitale, 
Ravenna,  and  Aachen,  or  as  an  entrance  for 
building  as  at  the  latter  place,  the  tower  is  early, 
and  is  essentially  from  the  first  a  part  of  the  church. 
Mr.  Wood  Brown's  single  domestic  tower  that 
moves  out  of  its  rank  beside  the  others  and  comes 
to  stand  by  the  church  as  its  '  Clergy  House  and 
Belfry  in  one,'  we  venture  to  question,  for  it  was 
not  only  at  Florence  or  in  Italy  that  this  develop- 
ment of  ecclesiastical  architecture  was  being  worked 
out.  Furthermore,  the  theory  that  the  vault  of 
the  tower  basement  spread  to  the  church  and 
accounts   ultimately  for  the  vaulting  of  its  aisles 


and  nave  is  too  big  for  its  basis.  Vaulting  is 
too  widely  diffused,  and  as  regards  the  side  aisles  too 
clearly  motived  by  the  need  for  supporting  the 
galleries  which  came  into  use  in  the  early  mediae- 
val period,  for  this  suggestion  to  have  plausibility. 

Mr.  Wood  Brown  is  on  much  firmer  ground 
when  he  confines  himself  to  the  actual  develop- 
ment of  the  forms  of  the  domicile.  The  origin  of 
the  sporti,  or  projecting  upper  stories  of  Florentine 
houses  supported  below  on  stone  corbels,  may 
undoubtedly  be  found  in  the  earlier  wooden 
galleries,  which  the  sporli  reproduced  in  perma- 
nent materials.  This  process  led  to  the  'archi- 
tecture of  the  bracket,'  as  he  calls  it,  '  which  was 
now  carried  out  in  stone  and  brick  on  the  lines  of 
the  earlier  wooden  construction,'  and  resulted  in 
various  picturesque  forms  of  projections  or  cor- 
belled supports,  in  many  cases  closely  copying  the 
earlier  wooden  brackets  and  struts.  These  details 
are  fully  illustrated  in  the  numerous  and  attractive 
drawings  with  which  the  volume  is  supplied,  and 
there  is  no  space  here  to  call  attention  to  special 
points  in  the  development.  A  word  must  be  said 
however  of  the  curiously  exact  Edinburgh  parallels. 
It  is  not  a  little  remarkable  to  find  two  cities  so  far 
apart  in  degrees  of  latitude  resembling  each  other 
so  closely  in  their  building  features.  Both  were 
however  stone-building  cities  where  vaulting  was 
understood  (in  this  Scotland  was  far  ahead  of 
England),  both  were  cities  of  merchants  who 
found  a  commercial  use  for  the  separate  basement 
story,  and  both  were  cooped  up  within  a  narrow 
circuit  of  walls  and  accordingly  ran  their  houses 
up  to  inordinate  heights,  while  both  finally  adopt- 
ed the  military  device  of  the  wooden  '  brattishing,' 
in  the  form  of  the  projecting  gallery  entered  from 
the  original  windows  of  the  stone  structure.  Mr. 
Wood  Brown  believes  that  a  first-story  gallery 
might  be  supported  below  by  upright  wooden 
posts  from  the  ground.  This  was  commonly,  too, 
the  case  in  Edinburgh.  In  the  case  of  both  cities, 
when  the  gallery  and  its  supports  were  petrified, 
as  has  just  been  noted,  permanent  projections 
were  corbelled  out  on  stone  brackets,  but  the 
wooden  prop  also  became  the  stone  column,  and 
accordingly  the  open  loggie,  which  are  character- 
istic features  of  the  ground  floors  of  the  inner 
courtyards  of  the  Renaissance  palaces,  may  be  re- 
garded as  lineal  descendants  of  the  wooden  features 
shown  in  a  corresponding  position  in  Fig.  i.  In 
Edinburgh  one  example  still  survives  of  stone 
columns  supporting  a  stone  front  that  has  replaced 
one  of  timber.  It  is  in  the  house  called  '  Glad- 
stone's Land  '  in  the  Lawnmarket.  Remains  of 
another  were  to  be  seen  till  recently,  when  the 
City  Architect's  Department  needlessly  destroyed 
it.     Qiiis  ciistodid  ipsos  ciistodcs  ? 

This  part  of  the  volume  before  us  has  been 
dwelt  on  at  length  because  to  most  people  it  will 
have  a  fresher  interest  than  notices  of  Florentine 


21 


Florence  and  her  Builders 


history  and  social  life,  on  which  there  has  been  a 
making  of  many  books.  The  analysis  of  early 
domestic  architecture  of  the  city  is  indeed  so 
attractive  that  the  part  of  Chapter  IV  on  civil  archi- 
tecture, together  with  portions  of  the  later  ones 
on  the  Bargello  and  the  Palazzo  della  Signoria, 
would  make  a  very  useful  reprint  in  the  form  of  a 
hrochurc,  which  visitors  to  Florence  interested  in 
the  subject  might  carry  with  them  on  their  pere- 
grinations. The  volume  itself  is  very  heavy  and 
is  largely  made  up  of  historical  disquisitions  that 
are  best  perused  at  home.  What  is  said  here  applies 
also  to  the  chapters  where  some  of  the  public 
buildings,  such  as  Or  San  Michele  and  the  Bap- 
tistry, are  analysed  from  the  structural  standpoint. 
These  parts  of  the  book  are  the  most  definite  and 
satisfactory  in  statement. 

The  plan  of  the  work  involves  the  association  of 
historical  and  social  discussions  with  the  different 
buildings  passed  in  review,  and  in  this  way  occa- 
sions are  found  for  notices  of  the  early  development 
of  the  city,  of  the  history  of  Florentine  commerce 
with  the  rise  and  fall  of  industries,  of  the  forms  of 
government  under  the  Republic,  of  the  warfare  of 
Imperial  and  Papal  parties,  and  the  like.  The 
connexions  are  not  always  very  obvious,  as  when 
the  murder  of  Buondelmonte  gives  rise  to  a  discus- 
sion of  the  struggle  for  dominion  between  the 
Empire  and  the  Church,  and  the  author  acknow- 
ledges in  his  preface  that  the  various  topics  are  held 
together  by  no  very  obvious  thread.  There  are 
interesting  passages  however  about  persons  as  well 
as  institutions,  such  as  the  notice  of  Niccolo 
Acciaiuoli,  linked  on  to  a  visit  to  the  Certosa  of  the 
Val  d'Ema.  We  should  have  been  given  the  ideal 
presentment  of  the  hero,  in  his  light  surcoat  over 
his  mail,  that  Andrea  dal  Castagno  painted  in  the 
villa  at  Legnaja,  and  under  which  is  the  high- 
sounding  inscription,  '  Magnus  Thetrarcha  de 
Acciarolis  Neapolitani  Regni  Dispensator  '  !  The 
history  of  Florence,  it  must  be  admitted,  is  not  in- 
spiring. Commercial  interests  are  too  much  in 
evidence,  and  the  faction   struggles  grow  weari- 


some through  iteration.  We  miss  the  spaci- 
ousness of  Venetian  history,  the  imposing  stability 
of  the  maritime  state,  her  world-wide  in- 
terests. To  know  Venice  aright  one  must  not 
only  haunt  the  lagunes,  but  must  wander  in 
the  Eastern  Mediterranean,  where  on  a  hundred 
shores  the  moles  and  ramparts  of  massive  stone- 
w-ork,  the  winged  lion  in  effigy,  are  still  eloquent 
of  her  power  and  her  pride  of  empire.  Well  might 
her  citizens  in  the  thirteenth  century  boast  that, 
though  they  lived  among  the  sea  waves  with  hardly 
land  enough  about  them  for  the  foundations  of 
their  houses,  yet  '  for  fruitful  gardens  and  splendid 
castles  they  had  Dalmatia,  Albania,  Roumania, 
Greece,  Trebizond,  Syria,  Armenia,  Egypt,  Cyprus, 
Candia,  Apulia,  Sicily,  with  other  lands,  islands 
and  kingdoms,  where  they  found  profit,  pleasure 
and  security '  ! 

But  if  in  the  political  and  social  sense  the  story 
of  Florence  is  cramped  and  even  sordid,  her 
empire  was  an  intellectual  empire,  and  as  we 
wander  through  the  world  of  thought  her  trophies 
and  insignia  are  ever  in  view.  The  vernacular 
literature  of  Europe  owes  to  Dante  an  immeasur- 
able debt,  and  in  the  domain  of  culture  generally 
we  look  to  the  Florence  of  the  early  Renaissance 
as  the  evangelist  of  a  spiritual  ideal  that  has  pro- 
foundly influenced  mankind.  Hers  was  the  con- 
ception of  a  perfectible  human  nature,  on  a  basis 
of  richly  developed  powers  of  body  and  mind  con- 
trolled by  reason  and  self-knowledge.  However 
one-sided  may  seem  to  some  people  this  con- 
ception of  human  nature,  as  the  revival  of  a  great 
Hellenic  idea  that  had  inspired  the  thought  of 
Plato  it  will  be  fruitful  as  long  as  civilization 
endures.  Humanism  made  the  pursuit  of  know- 
ledge an  inspiring  quest,  its  use  a  joyful  energy  of 
the  being  that  glorified  life.  It  was  not  her 
merchants  and  her  statesmen  that  made  Flor- 
ence great,  but  her  thinkers  and  her  artists, 
and  these  have  won  for  her  a  dominion  as  wide 
as  that  of  Venice,  and  one  that  will  never  pass 
away. 


THE  OLD  SILVER  SACRAMENTAL    VESSELS  OF  SOME 

ENGLISH  CHURCHES  IN  HOLLAND 

,A^  BY  E.  ALFRED  JONES  d^ 


places   of 
tongue,  followed 
unrest  in  England 


OLLAXD,   as   the    chief    sea- 
canning  power   in    Europe  in 
the  seventeenth  century,  attract- 
ed large  numbers   of  seafarers 
and  merchantmen  from  Britain, 
who  quickly  formed  small  com- 
munities at  the  important  Dutch 
ports.      The    establishment    of 
worship,  with   services    in    their   own 
as  a  matter  of  course.     Religious 
had  its  share  in  increasing  the 


English  and  Scotch  congregations  in  Holland. 
The  list  of  these  churches  is  a  long  one  ;'  several 
have  disappeared,  but  a  goodly  number  still  remain. 
Two  of  these  were  recently  visited  by  the  writer, 
and  the  plate  of  a  defunct  church  examined  ;  and 
it  is  the  vessels  of  these  three  which  will  be  de- 
scribed in  these  pages.  This  description  of  these 
old  vessels  will,  it  is  hoped,  prove  not  unacceptable 
on  historical  grounds. 

1  Vidt  Stevens's  '  History  of  the  Scottish  and  other  British 
Churches  in  the  Netherlands,'  1833. 


22 


I.      SILVEK    BKAKKRS   AND    liRKAUDlSH,    IX    TH1-;    KXl.USH    KICFORMED    CHIKCH,    AMSTERDAM 


PATEN,    BAPTISMAL   BUWL    ALMS-liliXES,   ASlJ    liEAKER   IX   THE   EXtiLISH    REFORMED    CHLKCH,    AMSTERDAM 


3.      IXKSTANI5S,    TRAYS   AND   SE\E   IX    TFIE    ES'GMSII    RKEORMED   CHERCII,    AMSTERDAM 


"^P 


(IJ.D       SILVER       SACRAMENTAI,      VESSELS     IN 
KXlil.lSIl  I.IH  RCHES   I       IIDLLAND.      PLATE  1 


^ 


4-      BRASS    PLLPIT    Di;sK    IN    THE    ENGLISH    KEEOKMED    CHl'KCH,    AMSTEKIJAM 


5.      CHALICE.    FLAGON   AND    PATEN    IN   THE    ENGLISH    EPISCOPAL   CHURCH.    A.MSTERDAM 


OLD        SILVER       SACRAMENTAL      VESSELS      IN 
ENGLISH    CHURCHES  IN   HOLLAND.      PLATE  II 


Old  Silver  Sacramental  Vessels 


The  English  Reformed  Church,  Amsterdam." 
This  church  celebrated  its  tercentenary  last  year, 
the  first  service  having  been  held  on  the  3rd 
February,  1607.  Theoriginal  record  of  this  opening 
service  is  still  preserved  there,  and  it  is  worthy  of 
inclusion  in  this  article,  if  only  for  its  quaint 
language  :  'In  the  Jaere  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour 
1607,  the  third  day  of  the  moneth  commonlij  callet 
fabruarij  about  four  of  the  clocke  in  the  afternone 
is  the  Church  in  the  Round  Bagijnhof  opened  and 
in  praesens  of  Mijn  Heer  de  Schoutand  Dr.  Petrus 
Plantius  minnister  of  the  reformed  Duch  Church 
in  Amstelredamme  is  the  praechingstoel  brought 
in  that  same  Church  and  set  up  for  the  Englich 
people  dwelling  in  Amstelredamme  in  Holland. 
The  next  day  following  being  the  Lords  daij  about 
nijn  of  the  clocke  in  the  foernone  after  praij  and 
thancksgeiving  unto  Godt  hath  Dr.  Johannis 
Pagetius  minnister  of  the  Englich  Church  praecht 
the  first  sermon  in  that  forsaijde  Church  and  the 
text  was  Create  in  me  a  cleane  hart  o  God — psalm 
51,  vers  10.'*  The  earliest  cups  were  of  pewter, 
which  were  not  superseded  by  silver  until  171 2,  when 
Izaak  Sinkeson,  an  elder  of  this  church  between 
1710  and  1720,  gave  the  four  plain  silver  beakers 
(fig.  i).  They  are  engraved  with  a  double  mono- 
gram, C.  T.,  and  the  height  is  8§  in.  They  bear  the 
Amsterdam  mark,  with  the  date-letter  B,  for  1712, 
and  the  unknown  maker's  mark,  BS,  in  an  oval 
cartouche.  On  29th  December,  1771,  it  was  deter- 
mined to  provide  silver  vessels  in  place  of  the  other 
pewter  ones  then  in  use,  and  the  following  minute 
was  passed  : '  It  is  to  be  observed  that  on  Feb.  27th, 
1771, at  a  friendly  meeting  of  the  Ministers  and  of 
Elders  and  of  Deacons  in  and  out  of  office  of  this 
Church,  it  was  proposed  that,  considering  the  Dishes 
and  Basons  for  the  service  of  the  Communion  Table 
in  our  Church  are  of  Pewter,  a  subscription  should 
be  made  for  furnishing  our  Communion  Table 
with  one  large  Dish,  two  lesser  Dishes  and  two 
poor  Boxes,  all  of  pure  silver.'  The  silver  vessels 
here  referred  to  are  still  in  use,  but  the  pewter 
ones  have  disappeared  : — 

I.  A  large  plain  bread  dish  (fig.  i),  with  a  shaped 
reeded  border,  applied  with  acanthus  leaves  at 
intervals.  It  is  engraved  inside  with  the  mono- 
gram E.  C.  A.,  representing  '  English  Congrega- 
tion, Amsterdam,'  and  the  date,  1771.  The  follow- 
ing inscription  is  engraved  on  the  back  :  '  For  the 
use  of  the  Communion  table  of  the  English 
established  Church  in  Amsterdam,  for  ever,  as 
specified  in  the  Registers  of  the  said  Church, 
December  the  29th,  a.d.  1771.'  Diameter,  i8iin. 
Marks  :  (i)  The  mark  of  Amsterdam  ;  (2)  a  lion 
rampant ;  (3)  the  date-letter  M  in  a  circle ;  (4)  the 
unknown  maker's  mark,  I  S  L. 

■^  Previously  used  by  the  order  of  nuns  called  the  Begijnen, 
named  after  St.  Begga. 

"  For  an  account  of  this  church  consult  a  pamphlet  (1908)  by 
the  present  minister,  Rev.  \Vm,  Thomson,  M.A.,  B.D. 


2.  Two  patens  (fig.  2),  reproductions  in  a  smaller 
size  of  the  above  dish.  They  are  engraved  with 
the  same  monogram,  date  and  inscription.  Dia- 
meter, i2|  in. 

3.  A  deep  baptismal  bowl  (fig.  2),  with 
the  same  border  as  the  foregoing  vessels,  and 
engraved  with  the  same  monogram  and  date. 
Inscription  :  '  For  the  use  of  the  H.  S.  of  the 
Baptism  of  the  English  established  Church  in 
Amsterdam  for  ever  as  specified  in  the  Registers 
of  said  Church,  December  the  29th,  A.D.  1771.' 
Diameter,  i2|^  in.  ;  depth,  3iin. 

4.  The  two  alms-boxes  (fig.  2),  which  are 
deposited  on  the  holy  table  at  the  Communion 
service,  are  of  ebony,  mounted  in  silver.  They 
are  rectangular  in  form,  with  two  plain  silver 
handles,  foliated  at  the  ends  and  attached  to  spiral 
rosettes  on  the  boxes.  The  mounts  on  the  top 
edges  correspond  to  those  on  the  dishes  and 
patens,  while  the  others  are  plain.  An  oval  medal- 
lion in  a  reeded  and  foliated  frame,  and  with  a 
knot  at  the  top,  is  suspended  from  the  rim  on  the 
front  and  back,  both  being  engraved  with  the 
same  monogram,  E.  C.  A.,  as  the  other  vessels.  It 
has  the  same  maker's  mark.  Length,  exclusive  of 
the  handles,  8  in. ;  width,  6^  in. ;  height,  7^  in. 

Though  not  sacramental  vessels,  the  pair  of  old 
Dutch  pewter  inkstands  in  the  vestry  of  this 
church  are  not  devoid  of  interest  (fig.  3).  They 
have  plain  oblong  trays,  on  four  short  scrolled  feet 
fitted  with  one  vase-shape  receptacle  for  ink  and 
one  for  sand.  Size,  loj  in.  long,  6|  in.  wide.  They 
have  no  marks,  and  they  can  hardly  be  much 
later  in  date  than  1700.  The  same  form  of  inkstand 
often  appears  in  Dutch  pictures  of  the  last  half  of 
the  seventeenth  and  early  in  the  eighteenth  cen- 
turies. 

The  seal  of  the  church  is  of  ivory  with  a  silver 
head,  engraved  with  a  figure  of  the  Good  Shepherd 
and  this  inscription:  '  ECCL-ANGL'AMSTERD' 

(fig-  3)- 
One  other  object  in  this  church  deserves  more 

than  a  passing  notice,  namely,  the  brass  pulpit- 
desk,  which  consists  of  an  oblong  laurel  frame, 
with  a  lion  rampant  on  flat  open  scroll  foliage  in 
the  centre,  and  with  the  monogram  of  King 
William  and  ^Lal■y  and  the  date,  1689,  in  a  wreath 
of  palms,  surmounted  by  a  royal  crown  :  it  is 
supported  on  a  lion's  claw,  also  of  brass  (fig.  4). 
It  was  given  with  a  pair  of  candlesticks,  which 
have  since  disappeared,  by  William  and  Mary, 
perhaps  in  commemoration  of  their  accession  to 
the  English  throne.*    They  are  known  to  have 

*A  Dutch  silver  spoon,  with  figures  of  William  and  Mary  on 
the  end,  in  the  Rijks  Museum,  Amsterdam,  commemoratts  the 
same  event.  The  following  is  a  literal  translation  of  the  Dutch 
inscription  thereon  : — 

'  Thus  shines  the  bravery  and  virtue  of  William  and  .Mary, 
The  bliss  of  the  Britons,  the  joy  of  Holland. 

Rejoice  the  Church  of  God  in  her  liberation  by  this  couple. 

Crowned  in  the  great  year  of  wonders,  this  April  21st,  16S9.' 

27 


Old  Stiver  Sacramental  Vessels 


worshipped  in  this  building  on  more  than  one 
occasion. 

Mention  must  not  be  omitted  of  the  numerous 
old  foot-warmers,  with  earthenware  bowls  for 
burning  charcoal,  and  wood  stools,  that  have 
survived  in  this  church,  though  no  longer  used. 
They  are  similar  to  that  in  Gabriel  Metsu's  picture, 
The  Singing  Lesson,  in  the  royal  collection  of  Eng- 
land. 

The  English  Episcopal  Church,  Amster- 
dam. This  church  retained  its  silver  communion 
vessels  and  the  original  register,  the  latter  dating 
from  1698,  in  spite  of  the  loss  of  its  building,  its 
funds  and  the  dispersal  of  the  congregation  during 
the  French  invasion  of  1806.  These  vessels '  are 
three  in  number  (fig.  5)  and  comprise  a  plain 
chalice  with  stem,  of  conventional  form,  with 
paten-cover,  engraved  with  the  sacred  monogram 
and  inscribed,'In  Usum  Ecclia  AnglicanaeAmstelo- 
dami  D.D.  Honoratissimus  Jacobus  Brydges 
Baronis  Chandois  de  Sudelis  Filius  Natu  Maximus 
A.D.  1713.'  The  paten-cover  has  moulded  edges 
and  is  engraved  with  the  same  inscription.  The 
foot  is  engraved  with  the  sacred  monogram. 
Height  of  cup,  8|  in  ;  diameter  of  the  mouth,  5  in  ; 
foot,  4I  in.  The  paten-cover  is  6|  in  diameter 
and  I  in.  high.  London  date-letter  for  1713-14. 
Maker's  mark,  Be,  with  two  stars  above,  and  a  fleur- 
de-lys  below,  in  a  shaped  shield — probably  for 
Thos.  Bevault. 

The  tall,  plain,  cylindrical  flagon  with  domed 
cover  is  engraved  with  the  same  inscription  and 
sacred  monogram,  and  bears  the  same  London 
marks  as  the  chalice.  Total  height,  iif  in. ;  height 
of  the  body,  10^  in.  ;  diameter  of  the  mouth,  4  in., 
and  of  the  base,  6§  in. 

The  large  plain  paten,  circa  1748,  has  a  narrow 
moulded  edge,  and  stands  on  a  short  truncated 
foot.  It  is  engraved  with  the  sacred  monogram 
in  the  centre,  and  with  the  following  inscription 
in  a  scroll  on  the  back  :  '  In  Usum  Ecclesiae 
Anglicanae  Amstelodami  D.D.  Honorabilis 
Eduardus  Compton  Armiger  A.D.  1749.'  Diameter, 
io|  in.  ;  height,  i^in.  Marks:  (i)  Mark  of  Am- 
sterdam ;  (2)  unknown  maker's  mark,  RB,  in  an 
elongated  oval  cartouche ;  (3)  lion  rampant 
crowned  ;  (4)  the  date-letter,  P,  in  an  oval. 

English  Church  at  The  Hague.  The  eleven 
silver  vessels'  of  this  now  defunct  church  are 
carefully  preserved  at  the  British  Legation,  The 
Hague.  Earliest  in  date  are  two  plain  beakers  on 
wide  moulded  bases  (fig.  6).    They  are  inscribed 

^The  donor  of  the  chalice  with  its  paten-cover  and  the  flagon 
was  James  Brydges,  eighth  Lord  Chandos  of  Sudeley,  born 
1642,  succeeded  his  father  as  third  baronet  1651-2,  was  ambas- 
sador to  Constantinople  1680-1  to  1685,  married  Elizabeth,  d. 
and  coheir  of  Sir  Henry  Bernard,  of  London,  Turkey  merchant ; 
he  died  i6th  October,  1714. 

6 Their  rescue  from  alienation  is  entirely  due  to  Mr.  A.  F.  G. 
Leveson  Gower,  formerly  secretary  at  the  British  Legation  at 
The  Hague. 

28 


under  the  lips  :  '  [ohn  Price  Ministir.  A  v  Swaane- 
wyk  G  vander  heyden  Elders  H  van  Spreken  and 
J.  de  Baans  diacens.'  The  following  inscription 
is  engraved  in  a  plain  shield,  enclosed  in  a  wreath 
of  palms,  in  the  centre  of  the  bodies  :  '  The  Gift  of 
George  Carew  Esquire  to  remaine  with  the  English 
Church  in  the  Hague  for  Euer,  Maij  the  15,  1674.' 
On  the  opposite  side  a  shield  of  arms,  presumably 
the  donor's,  is  engraved  :  three  lions  passant. 
Crest — a  demi-eagle  rising  from  a  cup.  They  are 
inscribed  underneath  :  '  E.x  dono  Georgij  Carew 
May  15,  1674.'  Height,  6§  in. ;  diameter  of  the 
mouth,  4^  in.,  and  of  the  foot,  3  in.  Marks  : 
(i)  Mark  of  The  Hague  ;  (2)  M  in  a  circle  ;  (3) 
lion  rampant  crowned  ;  (4)  \V  in  a  plain  shield. 
The  two  flagons  (fig.  7.)  have  cylindrical  bodies, 
which  are  plain  except  for  the  narrow  borders  of 
chased  acanthus  leaves  below  the  moulded  lips 
and  above  the  wide  moulded  bases.  The  thumb- 
pieces  are  a  sun  with  a  human  face  therein  ;  an 
acanthus  leaf  is  applied  on  the  shoulder  of  the 
plain  scrolled  handles.  A  shield  of  arms  is 
engraved  on  the  flat  circular  platforms  on  the 
covers  :  Argent  six  chess  rooks  sable,  for  Rock- 
wood,  impaling  Azure  a  chief  argent  with  three 
voided  lozenges  azure  therein,  for  Thorogood. 
Crest — .'\  chess  rook  sable  between  two  wings  erect. 
One  flagon  is  inscribed  underneath  :  '  Given 
on  the  6  octob  1681  two  hundred  Gilders  towards 
the  making  of  two  Silver  flaggons  for  the  Com- 
munion Table  the  Rest  Being  added  by  the 
Consistorij  By  msris  Mary  Thorrowgood  w'iddow 
of  Mr.  Robert  Rockwood  in  his  lifetime  envoye 
extraordinary  from  the  Electer  Palatin  to  the 
States  of  the  united  Provinces.'  The  other  flagon 
is  inscribed :  '  The  two  flaggons  were  made  the 
25th  March  1682  and  by  speciall  Command  of  the 
donatrix  are  to  Remain  with  this  our  EngHsh 
Church  for  Ever.'  Total  height,  10  in.,  height  of 
the  bodies,  9  in.,  diameter  of  the  mouths,  4^  in., 
and  of  the  bases,  5I  in.  Marks  :  (i)  The  Hague 
mark ;  (2)  lion  rampant  crowned ;  (3)  H,  in 
a  plain  shield,  with  crown  above ;  (4)  \VH.  with 
a  trefoil  below,  in  a  shaped  shield. 

The  large  bread  dish  (fig.  7),  dating  from  about 
1690,  is  plain,  with  a  shallow  depression  and  a 
wide  flat  rim.  The  donor's  arms  are  engraved  in 
the  centre  with  a  foliated  scroll  mantling  :  Quar- 
terly I  and  4,  three  stars  ;  2,  three  feathers  ;  3,  a  lion 
rampant,  holding  an  ear  of  corn.  Crest — a  demi- 
lion  holding  a  branch.  A  circle,  containing  the 
following  inscription,  surrounds  the  arms  :  '  Studio 
et  opera  lohannis  Vander  Heijden  DeGoiida  luris 
Consulti.'  Diameter,  14  in.  Marks :  (i)  the 
Hague  mark  ;  (2)  lion  rampant  crowned  ;  (3)  L, 
in  a  shield,  crowned  ;  (4)  two  indistinct  initials. 

The  pair  of  plain  dishes  used  as  patens  (fig.  6) 
are  similar  to  the  large  dish,  but  smaller,  being 
I2|in.  in  diameter.  "The  arms  of  the  donor  are 
engraved    in    the    centre,    surrounded    by     this 


6.      liKAKEKS   ANIJ    PATKNS  FoNMliRI.Y   IN    THE    i:X(.I.[SH    CHIRCH    AT  THE    HAGLli 


FLAGiiN-,   AM)    BREAD-DISH    EnKMEKLY    IX    THE    EXCEIMI    CHIKCH    AT   Till    IIA(;r 


>'\ 


DM)       SILVER       SACRAMEXTAI,       VESSICI.S       1\ 
EXCH.lsll    CHIRCIIES   IX    IIOELAXl).      I'l.ATE  HI 


3" 


I'oKTKAir   Ol'    JACguEUXE   DE   BOURGOGXE. 
BY   MABUSE.      IN    THE    NATIONAL    GALLEKY 


Old  Silver  Sacramental  Vessels 


inscription  :  'A  legacy  of  Jacob  Haviiis  Advt. 
in  his  lijftetime  Elder  of  this  Congregation.'  It 
has  the  same  marks  as  the  above  dish. 

This  list  of  plate  is  completed  by  two  small 
plain  circular  plates,  diameter  yi  in.,  and  two 
smaller  ones,  diameter  4^^  in.  All  these  were  made 
at  The  Hague  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

Interesting  old  silver  vessels  exist  in  other 
English  and  Scotch  churches  in  Holland,  but  as 
these  have  not  been  seen  personally  by  the  writer 
they  are  excluded  from  this  article.  As  the  need 
for  separate  services  in  the  English  language 
became   unnecessary  owing   to    the   merging   by 


marriage  of  the  British  settlers  with  the  Dutch, 
much  of  the  old  plate  began  to  disappear,  as  did 
that  of  the  once  numerous  foreign  Protestant 
churches  in  England.'  A  notable  instance  is  the 
fine  set  of  four  early  seventeenth-century  beakers 
from  the  Scotch  church  at  Kampveer,*  which  were 
bought  some  years  ago  in  a  shop  in  the  Strand  by 
Earl  Egerton  of  Tatton,  who  presented  them  to 
Manchester  Cathedral. 

'  E.  Alfred  Jones's '  Old  Silver  Sacramental  Vessels  of  Foreign 
Protestant  Churches  in  England,'  1908. 

'For  an  illustration  andanaccouni  of  these  see  A.  J.  S.  Brook's 
article  in  the  '  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland,'  Vol.  i,  third  series,  1890-g,  pp.  166-173. 


^  NOTES  ON  VARIOUS  WORKS  OF   ART  cKs 


TWO  RECENT  ADDITIONS  TO  THE 
NATIONAL  GALLERY 
Two  new  pictures  have  been  added  to  the  Van  Eyck 
Room  at  the  National  Gallery,  and  they  take  their 
places  worthily  on  what  is  perhaps  the  finest 
wall  of  the  whole  collection.  No.  221 1  is 
by  Mabuse — to  give  him  his  old  pleasant 
and  familiar  name ;  it  is  said  to  be  a  portrait 
of  Jacqueline  de  Bourgogne,  and  was  exhibited 
under  that  title  at  the  Toison  d'Or  Exhibition  at 
Bruges  last  summer,  where  the  clear  colour  of  the 
costume  and  background  shone  out  like  a  flower 
in  the  dark  modern-mediaeval  palace,  amidst  gay 
banners  and  glints  of  line  armour  that  seemed  to 
be  worn  by  men-at-arms  passing  in  and  out 
amongst  the  black-cloaked  spectators.  Mabuse 
was  the  last  of  the  perfect  prophets  of  patience 
who  preached  the  perfection  of  the  Van  Eycks. 
To-day  they  are  our  delight  and  refreshment ;  they 
tell  of  ages  when  men  worked  quietly  at  what  they 
could  do  best  day  after  day  in  the  gabled  workshops 
of  the  old  Netherland  towns,  completing  a  finger 
or  a  pearl  as  well  as  they  could,  and  spending  the 
quiet  afternoon  on  the  sunny  bench  of  a  neigh- 
bouring tavern,  or  playing  skittles  with  a  fellow- 
artist,  occasionally  in  the  evening  gathering  at  their 
guildhall,  to  be  escorted  home,  perhaps  rather 
roisteringly,  by  their  apprentices  carrying  torches. 
This  peaceful  routine  was  broken,  unfortunately, 
now  and  then  by  the  horrid  presence  of  foreign 
mercenaries,  who  killed  everybody  who  could  not 
run  away  fast  enough,  and  gave  local  colour  to 
many  a  picture  of  the  Massacre  of  the  Innocents. 
Mabuse,  however,  somewhat  of  a  courtier,  followed 
his  patron  over  Europe  to  Italy,  and,  filled  with  the 
glamour  of  the  Italian  Renaissance,  became  false  to 
his  native  art.  The  painters  of  his  period  and  after 
lost  the  perfection  of  their  forebears  and  ran 
to  wriggles,  devils  and  other  exaggerations.  In 
his  own  later  works  Mabuse  introduced  elaborate 
backgrounds  of  badly  designed  architecture  that 
could  only  be  carried  out  in  ugly  cast  iron  work, 
instead  of  his  old  gothic  stone  possibilities,  and 
nude  figures  that  were  nothing  but  ugly  diagrams  of 


anatomical  monstrosities.  Only  in  portraiture  his 
old  cunning  remained,  and  he  added  to  it  a  fine 
'  sfumato '  borrowed  from  Leonardo.  The  per- 
sonages look  like  the  solitary  donors  of  some  altar- 
piece  taken  from  a  Holy  Conversation,  the  saints 
all  departed  to  heaven.  Our  new  picture  seems 
to  have  been  painted  after  the  master's  return 
from  Italy,  when  he  was  working  for  Philip  of 
Burgundy,  at  Middleburg  or  Mechlin,  about  the 
year  1515.  The  picture  represents  a  young  lady 
of  rank,  richly  dressed  and  wearing  a  superabun- 
dance of  pearls  :  her  persimmon-red  velvet  bodice 
is  edged  with  them,  her  white  satin  sleeves  elabor- 
ately braided  with  an  interlaced  pattern  of  silver 
blue  are  studded  with  them,  her  bonnet-shaped  cap 
matching  the  sleeves  has  pearls  on  the  pattern  ; 
round  the  white  band  which  is  tied  under  the 
chin  there  are  two  rows  of  large  pearls  beautifully 
gradated  into  the  shadow,  there  are  fine  pearls  on 
the  rich  gold  chain  round  her  neck,  with  a  pyramidal 
sapphire  in  the  centre.  A  large  jewel  of  seven 
sapphires  with  a  large  pendant  pearl  supported 
by  a  thin  gold  chain  is  pinned  to  the  front  of 
her  bodice.  The  face  is  very  softly  modelled  with 
Leonardo-like  gradations  of  grey.  The  lady  has  a 
fair  fine  skin,  very  fine  soft  and  wavy  golden-brown 
hair  and  round  dark  hazel  eyes.  Her  mouth  is 
curious,  the  trick  of  her  under-lip  is  like  Charles  V 
— a  very  Hapsburg  mouth,'  reminding  one  of 
Suckling's  rather  painful  simile  : 

'  Her  lips  were  red  ;  and  one  was  thin 

Compar  d  to  that  was  next  her  chin 

(Some  bee  had  stung  it  newly),' 

How  pleasant  it  would  be  if  this  lady  sliould 
turn  out  to  be,  as  Mr.  J.  P.  Heseltine  cleverly  sur- 
mises, the  sister  of  Charles  who  married  Christian  of 
Denmark  and  who  was  the  mother  of  Princess 
Christina  whose  picture  by  Holbein  queens  it  so 
gloriously  in  the  German  room — long  may  she 
reign. 

Our  Mabuse  lady  holds  a  hollow  planetary  sphere 

'  From  Miss  A.  Ediih  Hcwett's  notes  on  the  two  portraits  of 
Eleonora  of  Spain  in  ihe  February  number,  p.  309,  it  seumsthat 
this  feature  was  Buigundian. 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 

in  her  left  hand  and  points  to  the  letters  on  the 
widest  band.  Possibly  by  this  the  time  of  her 
birth  may  be  indicated,  and  so  indirectly  we  may 
find  out  who  she  is.  Whoever  she  is,  here  she 
stands  against  a  translucent  grass  green  background 
framed  in  a  wooden  moulding  harmonizmg  with  the 
frame.  The  painting  of  the  pearls  in  this  picture  is 
peculiar;  they  each  have  accurate  pearly  grey 
reflections  and  little  round  high  lights  of  solid 
impasto  surrounded  by  a  region  of  wonderful 
blue  moonlight  that  is  very  characteristic.  The 
picture  is  on  oak  i  foot  2  inches  high  by  11 
inches  wide.  .    . 

No.  2163  is  not  so  important  as,  but  it  is  very 
similar  to.  No.  221 1.      It  is  a  half-length  portrait 
of  a  young  lady  as  Saint  Mary  Magdalen,  probably 
her  name-saint.      She   wears   a   handsome  gold- 
brocaded  dress,  edged  at  the  neck  and  wrists  with 
fur  and  laced  over  a  cherry-red  bodice.     Attached 
to  the  lacing  is  a  fine  jewel  consisting  of  three 
sapphires,  two  red  stones  and  a  large  pear-shaped 
pearl  pendant.     This  beautifully  painted  pearl  is 
more  solid  than  the  pearls  in  No.  221 1,  but  it  has 
the  same  extended  region  of  blue  moonlight  round 
the  high  light.     On  her  forehead  is  another  jewel, 
a  dark  sapphire  surrounded  by  eight  pearls  held  in 
its  place  by  a  black  velvet  ribbon  ;  a  similar  ribbon 
supports  another  jewel,  like  a  locket,  round  her 
neck.     She  wears  a  single-stone  ruby  ring  on  the 
second  joint  of  the  third  finger  of  her  left  hand. 
This  hand  supports  a  gold  repousse  vase  on  which 
may  be  seen  a  figure  of  Mercury  with  his  winged 
hat  and  staff  and  two  beasts  below.     On  the  cover 
is  a  sea-maid  carrying  a  cupid  on  her  shoulders. 
This  cover  is  held  in  place  by  the  right   hand, 
which  has  a  single-stone  ring,  a  sapphire,   on  the 
second  joint  of  the  first  finger.     The  saint  has  a 
thin  gold  halo,  which   came  to  light   when   the 
picture  was  cleaned,  and  fine  auburn  hair  hanging 
down  her  back.     She  has  a  delicate  nose,  and  her 
mouth  is  partly  open,  showing  her  lower  teeth, 
which  gives  her  an  anxious  expression.    The  lids  of 
her  beautiful  dark  grey  eyes  are  curiously  lifted  over 
the  pupils,  her  complexion  is  very  pale.  She  is  seen 
against  a  dark  blue  background.    The  flesh  painting 
is  more  transparent  than  the  flesh  painting  of  the 
early  works  of  Mabuse,  but  the  dress  and  details  are 
very  like  the  work  in  that  master's  great  picture  at 
Naworth,    the    Adoration    of    ihe    Magi ;    Lord 
Carlisle,  the  happy  owner  of  that  masterpiece,  is 
persuaded  that  this  little  work  is  by  the  same  hand, 
and   he    ought  to   know.    This   masterpiece,  the 
Adoration  of  the  Magi,  closes  the  great  period  of 
early  Netherlandish  art  with  a  glorious  flourish  of 
triumph,  as  the  Adoration  of  the  Lamb  at  Ghent 
opens  it  with  the  finest  master-work  the   school 
ever  produced.     No.  2163  is  on  oak  8^  in.  high 
by  6  in.  wide,  and  has  an  arched  top. 

Charles  Holroyd. 


ST    JOHN    THE    BAPTIST,  BY   CESARE   DA 

SESTO. 
I  HAVE  had  the  good  fortune  to  discover  a  St.  John 
in  the  Wilderness,  which  I  confidently  attribute  to 
the  Leonardesque  painter,  Cesare  da  Sesto.  The 
reproduction  which  accompanies  this  note  relieves 
me  of  the  obligation  to  give  a  detailed  description 
of  this  panel,  which  measures  24  in.  in  height 
by  15  inches  in  width  (sight  measure),  and  is, 
all  things  considered,  in  a  very  remarkable  state 
of  preservation.  The  Milanese  painter  has 
here  illustrated  the  passage  to  be  found  with  but 
slight  variation  in  the  Gospels  of  St.  Matthew 
and  St.  Mark:  'And  John  was  clothed  with 
camel's  hair,  and  with  a  girdle  of  a  skin  about  his 
loins  ;  and  he  did  eat  locusts  and  wild  honey.' 

The  Precursor  is  represented  not  as  the  haggard, 
fiercely  earnest   preacher,    fevered    with    ecstatic 
passion,  but   as   the    magnificent  athlete    in   the 
freshest    bloom   of   manhood.     Cesare    has    evi- 
dently  been    concerned    less    to     represent    the 
saint  in  the  rest  and   solitude  of  the  wilderness 
than  to  show  his  hand  in  the  drawing  and  model- 
ling of  the  nude,  to  give  what  the  Germans  call  an 
Aktstudie,  a  study  of  the  human  body  in  its  per- 
fection.    The  landscape  is  of  rare  originality  and 
beauty,   with  an  exquisiteness  of  finish  that  has 
in  it  nothing  mechanical.    It  is,  indeed,  this  fresh- 
ness and  imaginative  power  in  landscape  art,  of 
which  not  a  few  of  Cesare's  works  afford  evidence, 
that  makes  it  additionally  difficult  to  understand 
why — as  is  asserted  by  Vasari  and  Lomazzo,  with 
especial  reference  to  the  great  Baptism  of  Christ  in 
the  collection  of  Duke  Scotti  at  Milan— he  should 
have  accepted  the  collaboration,  as  a  landscapist, 
of   Bernazzano.      The   lighting    of    the   youthful 
figure,  as  it  appears,  somewhat  too  far  forward  in 
the  picture,  in  the  dark  yet  half-luminous  shade  of 
the  cave,  is  carefully  considered  and  very  skilful. 
The  lovely  peep  of  mountain  and  dale,  melting 
into  blue  distance,  that  we  get  through  the  mouth 
of  the   cave   is   perhaps   more  Alpine   than    true 
Italian  in  character ;  but  the  cave  itself,  with  its 
edges   clothed  with    boldly  jutting,  leafy  under- 
growth, is,  to  my  thinking,  of  a  more  Southern 
type  than  the  rest. 

Very  characteristic  of  Cesare  is  the  treatment  of 
the  branches,  sharply  relieved  against  the  sky,and  of 
the  leaves  themselves  with  their  precise  outline  and 
somewhat  rigid  decoupe  effect.  Note  in  particular 
the  large  shallow  bowl  into  which  the  young 
prophet,  radiant  and  impassive,  is  gathering 
honey  from  the  overhanging  branches.  This  is 
precisely  similar  to  the  bowl  with  which  St. 
John— there  an  older,  graver,  and  more  hieratic 
personage— is  baptizing  Christ  in  the  Scotti 
Baptism  above  mentioned.  It  closely  resembles 
also  the  upper  portion  of  the  dish  with  the  severed 
head  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  in  Mr.  George 
Salting's    Salome   and   the  Executioner,  of  which 


34 


<  ^ 


X      ,,, 


■=  3 


J> 


another  probably  original  example,  less  fine  in 
quality,  exists  in  the  Imperial  Gallery  at  Vienna. 
Among  the  many  points  absolutely  characteristic 
of  our  master  are  the  drawing  of  the  mouth  and 
peculiar  setting  of  the  eye,  the  painting  of  the 
orange-coloured,  crisply  waving  hair,  the  olive 
colour  of  the  polished  flesh,  the  drawing  of 
the  arms  and  extremities,  the  careful,  almost 
metallic  finish  of  the  modelling,  the  polished 
surface  of  the  whole.  As  regards  these  and 
other  morphological  details,  comparison  may 
usefully  be  made  with  the  somewhat  later 
St.  Jerome  in  Penitence,  by  Cesare,  which  has  quite 
recently  been  added  to  the  Brera  Gallery.  A  point 
of  extreme  importance  must  here  be  emphasized. 
The  Milanese  painter  in  the  modelling  of  his 
St.  John — in  my  picture  no  ascetic  enthusiast, 
as  I  have  already  pointed  out,  but  a  youthful 
Hercules — has  obviously  been  much  influenced  by 
the  Torso  of  the  Belvedere,  which  famous  antique 
was,  as  I  need  hardly  recall,  brought  to  light  in 
Rome  during  the  pontificate  of  Julius  II.  Cesare 
could  hardly  have  seen  in  Milan  a  drawing  or  study 
of  the  precious  fragment  discovered  so  few  years 
previously;  so  that  we  have  here  fresh  evidence 
that  he  was  in  Rome  at  the  moment  of 
Raphael's  predominance  there,  and  diligently 
studied  the  antique,  as  well  as  the  masterpieces  of 
the  Urbinate  and  his  school.  The  position  of  the 
Torso — a  youthful  Hercules  reposing — is  somewhat 
different  from  that  of  the  St.  John,  but  the  imita- 
tion of  the  anatomy,  especially  in  the  rendering 
of  the  thorax  and  the  belly,  and  generally  in  the 
sculptural  modelling,  is  too  striking  to  be  accidental. 
The  lower  limbs,  in  moulding  which  the  master 
has  trusted  more  to  himself  and  his  living 
model,  have  much  less  grandeur  than  the  upper 
part,  less  muscular  grip  too  than  the  mighty  thighs 
of  the  Torso.  Cesare  was  a  great  draughtsman 
in  the  manner  of  Leonardo,  as  we  may  gather 
from  his  studies  lin  the  Accademia  of  Venice,  the 
Albertina  of  Vienna,  and  elsewhere  ;  and  this  is 
just  the  picture  that  would  in  all  probability 
have  been  preceded  by  more  than  one  study, 
both  from  the  antique  and  the  living  nude. 
Signor  Malaguzzi  Valeri  in  his  very  interesting 
article,  '  Cesare  da  Sesto  e  un  nuovo  acquisto  della 
Pinacotheca  di  Brera,'  published  in  the  '  Rassegna 
deir  Arte '  for  February  last,  has  shown  that  several 
among  the  red-chalk  drawings  by  Cesare  in  the 
Accademia  were  done  for  the  St.  Jerome 
in  Penitence  newly  placed  in  the  Brera,  a 
painting  for  which  in  the  ordinary  course  of 
things  less  preparation  would  surely  be  required 
than  for  the  St.  John  the  Baptist  here  reproduced. 
At  present,  however,  I  know  of  no  drawings  that 
would  apply  to  my  picture.  It  is  possible  that 
the  publication  of  this,  as  1  believe,  unknown 
work,  may  draw  some  such  from  their  hiding- 
place  in  the  portfolios. 


Notes  on  Various  JVorks  of  Art 

This  is  not  exactly  the  occasion  for  a  sus- 
tained analysis  of  Cesare  da  Sesto's  csuvre  or 
an  inquiry  into  his  exact  place  in  Milanese 
art ;  and,  indeed,  space  is  lacking  for  any 
such  attempt,  even  if  I  were  that  way  in- 
clined. I  may  state,  however,  that  to  my  thinking 
the  eminent  critics  who  have  dealt  with  the  subject 
have  somewhat  overstated  the  case  in  noting 
Cesare's  passage  from  the  Leonardesque  to  the 
Raphaelesque.  No  doubt  he  was  an  eclectic  ;  no 
doubt  he  earnestly  strove,  as  the  influence  of  the 
departed  Leonardo  naturally  weakened  somewhat 
in  Milan,  to  become  a  satellite  of  the  central  sun 
of  Rome,  and  to  shake  off  what  he  may  possibly 
have  come  to  look  upon  as  provincialism  of  style. 
Yet  he  was,  and  in  essentials  remained  to  the  end 
of  his  career,  a  Milanese  Leonardesque.  Take 
for  instance  the  Madonna  of  the  Bas-Relief 
formerly  in  the  collection  of  Lord  Monson, 
and  now  (as  I  learn  from  Signor  Malaguzzi 
Valeri's  article)  in  that  of  Earl  Carysfort.  This 
is  to  my  thinking  still  markedly  Leonardesque, 
not  less  in  technique  than  in  execution  ;  and  we 
find  a  strong  reminiscence  of  this  picture — an 
absolute  repetition,  indeed,  of  certain  figures — 
in  the  great  Adoration  of  the  Magi  of  the  Naples 
Gallery,  which  is  reckoned,  not  without  reason, 
one  of  the  latest  and  most  Raphaelesque  of 
all  Cesare's  works.  Strive  as  this  Milanese  may, 
and  does,  in  this  his  most  extensive  work,  for 
the  gravity,  the  dramatic  intensity  of  the  Roman 
style,  his  suavity  and  mannered  grace,  his  calm  in 
storm,  his  sweetness  in  lieu  of  stress,  are  Leonard- 
esque (though  emphatically  not  Leonardo's)  to  the 
core.  The  Madonna  and  Child,  ivith  Saints,  of  the 
Hermitage  at  St.  Petersburg,  which  Signor  Mala- 
guzzi Valeri  proves  to  be  essentially  different  from 
Lord  Carysfort's  Madonna  of  the  Bas-Relief,  bears 
much  the  same  relation  to  the  great  altar-piece.  The 
Virgin  and  Child  enthroned  between  St.  John  the 
Baptist  and  St.  George  (in  the  collection  of  Sir 
Frederick  Cook),  as  the  Madonna  of  the  Bas-Relief 
does  to  the  Naples  altar-piece.  And  in  Sir 
Frederick  Cook's  picture,  late  though  it  is,  we  may 
trace  Milanese  and  even  Venetian  elements,  as  well 
as  Raphaelesque.  Morelli  has  placed  the  Madonna 
of  the  Bas-Relief  inthe  Roman  period,  and  at  least  as 
late  as  1520,  chiefly  on  the  evidence  of  the  fragment 
of  a  classical  relief  in  the  left  corner,  from  which 
the  picture  has  obtained  its  distinctive  title. 
But  surely  this  evidence  is  very  unsubstantial,  if 
we  weigh  it  against  the  eminently  Leonardesque 
character  of  the  work  as  a  whole.  It  should 
be  borne  in  mind  that  the  classical  bas- 
relief  is  by  no  means  peculiar  to,  or  even 
frequent  in,  Raphaelesque  art.  We  more  readily 
find  examples,  indeed,  in  the  art  of  Venice  :  as,  for 
instance,  in  the  early  Blood  of  the  Redeemer  by 
Giovanni  Bellini,  in  the  National  Gallery  ;  in  the 
Baffo,  Bishop  of  Paphos,  of  the  youthful  Titian  now 

37 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 

at  Antwerp  ;  and  in  the  great  picture  to  which  the 
erroneous  title  Sacred  and  Profane  Lo^e  will  ever 
cHng,  argue  as  we  may.  Cesare  da  Sesto  is,  indeed, 
if  I  may  be  allowed  to  press  my  point  a  little  farther 
still,  in  the  earlier  and  more  spontaneous  manifesta- 
tions of  his  art  the  most  Milanese  of  all  the  Milanese 
Leonardesques,  excepting,  perhaps,  the  monoton- 
ous, the  entirely  subjective  and  undramatic 
Gianpetrino.  Andrea  da  Solario  preserves  to 
the  end  something  of  the  fire  and  passion  of  the 
Venetian  school,  "in  which,  as  we  must  assume, 
he  was  trained.  Ambrogio  de  Predis  has  a 
stronger  sense  of  character,  though  far  less  finesse, 
and  less  sustained  accomplishment  than  Cesare  ; 
and  he  is,  moreover,  in  closer  sympathy  with  the  true 
Leonardo.  Luini,  who  really  belongs  in  origin  to 
the  Foppa-Borgognone  group,  although  his  art 
is,  a  little  later  on,  wholly  overshadowed  and  trans- 
formed by  the  influence  of  Leonardo's  works,  has  no 
doubt  the  Milanese  suavity,  even  to  excess  ;  but  he 
has  it  in  his  own  subtly  sweet  and  winning  fashion — 
with  a  certain  noble  serenity,  as  well  as  winning 
grace,  that  is  peculiarly  his.  Cesare  da  Sesto  is 
wholly  self-centred,  wholly  taken  up  with  studied 
elegance  of  rhvthm,  with  exquisiteness  of  finish, 
with  outward  perfection.  He  is  strangely,  some- 
times almost  repellently,  cold  in  his  Milanese 
suavity  that  so  imperfectly  reproduces  the  dis- 
quieting watchfulness,  the  impenetrable  mystery,  of 
the  supreme  master.  And  yet,  wholly  self-centred, 
self-contemplative  as  he  is, we  must  account  him  one 
of  the  most  accomplished  technicians,  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  artists,  among  those  who  stand 
for  the  Leonardesque  phase  of  Milanese  art. 

It  is,  perhaps,  in  his  landscape  backgrounds,  so 
delicate  and  so  fanciful,  that  he  shows  the  nearest 
approach  to  absolute  originality. 

Claude  Phillips. 

THE    'PORTRAIT   OF    A    POET'    IN    THE 

NATIONAL  GALLERY 
In  the  life  of  Ariosto  prefixed  to  Sir  John  Haring- 
ton's  English  version  of  the  '  Orlando  Furioso,' 
published  in  1591,  a  curiously  detailed  description 
of  the  poet's  appearance  is  given.  As  Harington 
was  not  born  until  1561,  this  description,  if  from 
his  own  pen,  must  either  be  second-hand  or  taken 
from  a  picture.  Let  me  quote  it :  '  Ariosto,'  says 
Sir  John,  'was  tall  of  person,  of  complexion  melan- 
cholic, given  to  much  studie  and  musing  ...  he 
was  of  colour  like  an  olive,  somewhat  tawnie  in 
his  face,  but  fayre  skinned  otherwise,  his  haire  was 
blacke  but  he  quicklie  grew  bald,  his  forehead  was 
large  his  eyebrowes  thin,  his  eye  a  little  hollow 
but  very  full  of  life,  and  very  blacke,  his  nose  was 
large  and  hooked,  his  teeth  passing  even  and  white, 
his  cheekes  but  leane,  his  beard  very  thin,  his  neck 
well  proportioned,  his  shoulders  square  and  well 
made,  but  somewhat  stooping.  .  .  .  His  counter- 
fait  was  taken  by  Tytiano  that  excellent  drawer  as 

38 


well  to  the  life  that  a  man  would  thinke  yet  it  were 
alive.  He  was  honoured  with  the  Lawrell,  etc' 
This  description  fits,  with  an  accuracy  which 
surely  cannot  be  accidental,  the  much-debated 
portrait  of  a  poet  in  the  National  Gallery  (No.  636), 
which  was  catalogued  so  long  as  'Ariosto,  by 
Titian,' which  then,  for  a  season,  became,  officially, 
'  A  Poet,  by  Palma,'  and  is  now  '  A  Poet,  by  Titian.' 
Harington's  authorities  for  the  life  of  Ariosto  are 
given  by  himself  as  '  Gierolamo  Porro  of  Padoa, 
Gierolamo  Garofaloof  Ferrara,  and  Simon  Fornari 
of  Rheggio.'  -Can  one  of  these  gentlemen,  on 
being  called  on  for  a  description,  have  refreshed 
his  memory  with  the  help  of  our  portrait  'by 
Tytiano,  that  excellent  drawer,'  which  answers  so 
completely  to  his  catalogue  of  Ariosto's  features  ? 

Walter  Armstrong. 

REMBRANDT  AND  ELSHEIMER^ 
In  The  Burlington  Magazine  for  November, 
1907,  Dr.  N.  Restorff  drew  attention  to  a  hitherto 
unnoticed  connexion  between  Rembrandt  and 
Elsheimer,  suggesting  that  the  former's  Rape  of 
Proserpine  in  the  Kaiser  Friedrich  Museum  at 
Berlin  is  inspired,  as  regards  the  motif  of  the  action 
and  the  draperies,  by  the  so-called  Contento, 
ascribed  to  Elsheimer,  in  the  Alte  Pinakothek  at 
Munich.  Dr.  Restorff  does  not,  it  is  true,  omit  to 
mention  that  Elsheimer's  authorship  of  this  picture 
is  doubted  by  some  critics,  who  consider  it  merely 
a  copy  made  by  Nikolaus  Kniipfer  of  the  lost 
original.  But  his  conclusion  might  almost  give 
the  impression  that  he  does  not  agree  with  them, 
and  that  he  considers  the  Munich  picture  to  be  an 
Elsheimer,  or  at  least — by  his  'perhaps' — grants 
that  this  is  possible.  This  possibility,  however,  no 
longer  exists,  since  Friedrich  Schlie,  in  his  work 
on  Nikolaus  Kniipfer,'  has  proved  that  the  Munich 
Contento  cannot  be  from  the  hand  of  Elsheimer. 

Schlie  believed  himself  also  to  have  conclusively 
proved  that  it  was  a  work  by  Kniipfer — in  fact, 
the  first  draft  of  his  masterpiece  of  1652,  now  in 
the  Grand  Ducal  Museum  at  Schwerin,  and  not 
an  exact  copy  of  a  supposed  lost  original,  but  a 
fundamentally  independent  development  of  the 
still  extant  painting  by  Elsheimer  in  the  Basle 
Museum  (which  Dr.  W.  Bode  also  considers 
authentic).  These  conclusions,  however,  did  not 
remain  undisputed.  Thus  Dr.  HofstededeGrootwas 
the  first  to  declare  himself  against  Knupfer  as  the 
painter  of  the  Munich  Contento,  without  wishing 
to  support  its  attribution  to  Elsheimer  himself. 

Secondly,  Heinrich  Weizsacker/  who  agrees  with 

'  Translated  by  L.  I.  Armstrong. 

^  Friedrich  Schlie.  '  fiber  Nikolaus  Knupfer  und  einige  seiner 
Gemiilde,  besonders  iiber  seine  Jagd  uach  dcm  Gliick  (sog. 
Contento)  in  Miinchen  und  Schwerin.  Zugleich  ein  Keitrag  zur 
Elsheiiner-Frage.'  .Schwerin,  1896.  Schlie  gives  here  for  the 
first  time  a  very  acceptable  interpretation  of  this  generally 
misunderstood  picture. 

•  '  Kepertorium  fiir  Kunstwissenschaft,'  Band  xxi,  p.  186. 


Schlie  in  the  question  of  the  attribution  of  the 
Munich  Contento  to  Kniipfer,  disputes  Elsheinier's 
authorship  of  the  Basle  picture.  He  endeavours  to 
estabHsh  the  close  connexion  of  the  Munich  Con- 
tento with  the  supposed  lost  picture  by  Elsheimer, 
which  Sandrart  saw  in  the  Cabinet  Du  Fay  at 
Frankfort-on-Main  and  described  in  his  '  Teutsche 
Academie.'  The  arguments  he  puts  forward — 
especially  the  fact  that  two  more  almost  identical 
replicas  *  must  go  back  to  the  same  lost  original 
by  Elsheimer — make  it  fairly  probable  that  the 
Munich  picture  may  really  be  regarded  as  a  copy, 
and  that,  therefore,  the  possibility  of  Rembrandt's 
having  been  irifiuenced  by  Elsheimer's  original 
picture  may  be  considered.  This  is,  however,  not 
finally  proved,  for  Schlie's  hypothesis  that  the 
Munich  Contento  is  an  independent  working-up  of 
the  Basle  picture,  and  that  this  is  by  Elsheimer, 
may  some  day  be  confirmed.  But  as  long  as  it  is 
not  quite  certain  whether  the  motive  of  the  drapery 
in  the  other  lost  Elsheimer  picture  of  Contento  was 
the  same  as  that  in  the  replica  at  Munich,  painted, 
according  to  Schlie  and  Weizsacker,  by  Kniipfer, 
it  is  necessary  to  speak  with  a  certain  reserve  of 
any  influencing  of  Rembrandt.  If  the  draperies 
differed,  we  could  assume  that  Kniipfer  was  in- 
fluenced by  Rembrandt's  Rape  of  Proserpine,  an 
influence  which  his  other  works  do  not  contradict. 
Another  artist,  too,  who  belonged  both  to  the 
Elsheimer  circle  (Lastman,  Pynas,  etc.)  and  after- 
wards to  that  of  Rembrandt,  Claes  Moeyaert, 
painted  in  1644  a  Rape  ofProserpi)ie,  which,  though 
an  artificial  work,  was  closely  connected  with 
Rembrandt's  picture.  It  was  sold  in  1892  at  the 
Biirger-Thore  auction  for  no  francs. 

Since  the  Rembrandt-Elsheimer  discussion  has 
been  opened,  perhaps  I  may  be  permitted  one 
more  reference  to  it. 

Dr.  Bode  very  rightly  claims  that  Rembrandt's 
picture,  Jupiter  witli  Philemon  and  Baucis,  in  the 
collection  of  the  late  Mr.  C.  T.  Yerkes,  of  New  York, 
was  inspired  by  the  example  of  the  same  subject 
painted  by  Elsheimer,  in  the  Dresden  Gallery.  In 
this  case,  indeed,  we  are  fairly  safe  in  supposing  that 
Rembrandt  knew  the  original  itself,  as  this  is 
mentioned  in  the  papers  left  by  his  friend,  Jan  van 
de  Capelle.'  It  is  true  that  the  reversed  arrange- 
ment might  make  one  doubtful,  and  seem  to  indi- 
cate the  probability  that  Goudt's  engraving,  dated 
1612,  was  the  '  model.'  However,  both  the  original 
and  the  engraving  after  it  were  probably  known  to 
Rembrandt,  for  another  work  by  Rembrandt  seems 
to  me  to  be  connected  with  that  of  Elsheimer.  In 
Dr.    Bode's    possession    there    is   a   pen-and-ink 

*  One,  preserved  only  as  an  engraving  in  reverse,  was  in  the 
Cabinet  Poullain  at  Paris.  The  other  is  that  painted  in  water 
colours  by  Elsheimer's  pupil,  J.  Konig,  in  1617  (>igned  and 
dated),  in  the  miniature  collection  of  the  Kgl.  Kesidenz  at 
Munich. 

»  Cf.  '  Oud  Holland,'  1892,  p.  33,  and  W.  R.  Valentiner's  '  Rem- 
brandt and  his  Circle,'  p.  97. 


Notes  on  Various  TVorks  of  Art 

drawing  by  Rembrandt  for  his  first  version  of 
Christ  and  the  Disciples  at  Em  mans  (reproduced  in 
the  '  Leidsche  Jaarboekje,'  1906),  which  repre- 
sents the  figure  of  Christ  in  profile  corresponding 
to  that  of  Jupiter  in  Elsheimer's  Dresden  picture, 
also  in  shadow  against  a  light  background.  The 
relation  between  the  two,  in  spite  of  the  change  of 
theme,  seems  to  me  to  proceed  not  only  from  this 
study,  but  still  more  plainly  from  the  completed 
painting,  the  small,  effective  picture  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Madame  Andre-Jacquemart  at  Paris,  since 
several  details  in  this  picture  indicate  the  con- 
nexion, and  the  figure  in  the  background  with  the 
second  source  of  light  appears  also  in  Elsheimer's 
picture.  This  picture,  amongst  the  best,  if  not  the 
best,  of  Rembrandt's  quite  early  works,  is,  strangely 
enough,  also  in  reverse,  both  of  his  own  sketch 
and  of  Elsheimer's  original.  Probably  this  is  but 
another  sign  of  the  regal  manner  in  which  Rem- 
brandt took  his  own  course,  even  when  utilizing 
another  artist's  conception.  Kurt  Freise. 

ENGLISH  SILVERSMITHS  IN  ST.  PETERS- 
BURG IN  THE  EIGHTEENTH  AND 
EARLY  NINETEENTH  CENTURIES 
The  recent  researches '  in  the  archives  at  St.  Peters- 
burg of  Baron  A.  F.  de  Foelkersam,  the  able  and 
courteous  curator  of  the  annexe  to  the  Winter 
Palace  known  as  '  Peter  the  Great's  Gallery,' 
have  brought  to  light  the  names  of  several  English 
silversmiths  who  migrated  to  the  new  Russian 
capital  in  the  eighteenth  century.  As  the  Baron's 
contributions  on  the  subject  are  published  in  the 
Russian  language,  it  will  doubtless  be  of  interest 
and  value  to  many  readers  of  The  BURLINGTON 
M.4GAZINE  if  I  give  the  results  in  English. 

The  removal  of  the  capital  from  Moscow  to  the 
banks  of  the  Neva  appears  to  have  attracted  arti- 
ficers of  all  kinds  from  various  parts  of  Europe. 
In  the  silversmith's  art  alone,  a  large  number  of 
names  of  craftsmen  from  Sweden,  Germany, 
Austria  and  other  places  are  recorded  in  the  books  of 
the  guild  founded  specially  for  the  foreigners  ;  the 
native  Russian  silversmiths  had  a  guild  with  regu- 
lations of  their  own. 

The  ■  following  is  a  list  of  the  names  of  the 
English  silversmiths,  with  a  few  other  details  : — 

Samuel  Gibbs,  described  as  an  '  Englishman,' 
son  of  an  English  widow  who  married  Lieutenant 
John  Eberhardt  Hartmann,  an  officer  in  the  Russian 
army.  His  step-father  apprenticed  him  for  five 
years  to  a  German  silversmith,  named  G.  Jasper, 
who  had  settled  in  St.  Petersburg.  Samuel  Gibbs 
became  a  master-goldsmith  in  1727. 

Robert  Hogg,  '  from  London,'  entered  his  name 
14th  November,  1776. 

William    Donarth,    born    in    London,    became 
master-goldsmith  i8th  January,  1786.     He  would 
seem  to  have  had  a  flourishing  business  if  we  may 
'Published  in  '  Starye  Gody,'  1907. 


39 


Notes  on  Various  JVorks  of  Art 

judge  from  the  number  of  boys— five — apprenticed 
to  him.  His  widow  continued  the  business  after 
his  death  in  1805. 

It  must  not  be  assumed  that  the  above  exhausts 
the  Hst  of  English  silversmiths  ;  other  names, 
suspiciously  English  in  origin,  also  occur,  but  in  a 
Russianized  form.  These  are  omitted  here  because 
the  nationality  is  not  given  in  the  records. 

Unfortunately  no  examples  of  their  productions 
have  so  far  been  discovered  ;  but  perhaps  the 
publication  of  Baron  Foelkersam's  list  will  be  the 
means  of  discovering  specimens. 

These  English  silversmiths  did  not,  apparently, 
practise  their  craft  in  England  before  migrating  to 
Russia,  as  did  one  or  two  of  the  silversmith- 
emigrants  to  America.  The  explanation  probably 
is  that  they  started  out  upon  the  termination  of 
their  apprenticeship  in  London. 

In  making  notes  a  few  weeks  ago  for  my  volume 
on  the  old  English  silver  in  the  possession  of  the 
Czar  of  Russia  I  came  across  a  small  gold  watch 
set  with  large  and  valuable  diamonds,  in  the 
magnificent  Imperial  collection  of  which  I  am 
publishing  a  separate  book.  It  is  named  inside 
'  Robert  Hynam.'  Accordmg  to  Britten's  '  Old 
Clocks  and  Watches  '  this  watchmaker  is  described 
as  '  horloger  de  la  Cour,  St.  Petersburg,'  where  he 
settled.  He  was  on  the  Livery  of  the  Joiners' 
Company  in  1776,  when  his  address  was  given  as 
'  Russia.'  The  number  of  English  clocks  of  the 
eighteenth  century  not  only  in  Russian  palaces 
but  also  in  churches  and  monasteries  is  certainly 
remarkable.  E.  Alfred  Jones. 

TEYLER'S  SECOND  SOCIETY  OF 
HAARLEM,  1908 
The  directors  of  the  Teyler  Foundation  and  the 
members  of  Teyler's  Second  Society  have  arranged 
to  propose  the  following  subjects  to  those  entering 
for  the  prize  they  offer  :  The  completest  possible 
catalogue  of  the  pictures  existing  in  the  churches 
and  religious  institutions  of  the  Northern  Nether- 
lands previous  to  the  year  1566  ;  and  in  the  second 
place  a  catalogue  raisoiine  of  the  pictures  of  the 
Northern  Netherlands  and  neighbourhood  painted 
before  the  year  1566  which  still  exist. 
.'  Since  attention  has  been  given  to  the  pre- 
Reformation  pictures  painted  in  the  Netherlands, 
it  has  become  clear  that  a  large  number  of  them 
originate  from  the  northern  part  of  that  district. 
Ancient  writers  such  as  Van  Mander  mention  but 
few  painters  of  that  time,  and  can  point  to  very 
few  works.  The  study  of  archives  and  art  litera- 
ture has  much  increased  the  list  of  names,  and, 
what  is  more  important,  of  the  pictures  produced. 
The  work  of  Albert  van  Ouwater  and  Geertgen 
Tot  Sint  Jans  at  Haarlem,  of  Cornelis  Engel- 
brechsten  and  Lucas  van  Leyden  at  Leyden,  of 
Jacob  Cornelisz  and  Pieter  Aertsz  at  Amsterdam, 
of  Jan  van  Scorel  at  Utrecht,  of  Hieronymus  Bosch 


at  Bois-le-Duc,  etc.,  can  now  be  studied,  thanks 
to  the  researches  of  our  neighbours. 

Thanks,  too,  to  the  results  of  these  researches, 
the  tradition  that  the  iconoclasm  of  1566  ruined 
all  the  works  of  art  in  the  churches  of  the  Northern 
Netherlands  has  been  proved  untrustworthy.  But, 
with  a  view  to  full  consideration  of  the  field  of 
inquiry,  it  is  necessary  first  to  point  out  as  accu- 
rately as  possible  what  pictures  existed  in  the 
Northern  Netherlands  before  the  year  1566,  and, 
secondly,  to  give  a  catalogue  raisonne  of  the 
pictures  of  North  Netherlandish  origin  which  are 
still  extant. 

The  first  of  these  points  can  only  be  ascertained 
by  a  thorough  examination  of  the  archives  of  the 
churches  and  religious  houses.  Secondly,  in  com- 
piling the  catalogue  raisonne  the  origin  of  the 
pictures  enumerated  must  be  traced  as  far  back  as 
possible,  and  the  copies  which  are  still  extant  must 
be  indicated. 

The  prize  for  the  best  and  most  exhaustive 
answer  is  a  gold  medal  from  the  society,  of  an 
intrinsic  value  of  400  gulden. 

All  answers  must  be  sent  in  before  the  ist  April, 
1910,  and  will  be  judged  before  the  ist  May,  1911. 
They  must  be  easily  legible,  and  written  in  Dutch, 
French,  English  or  German,  in  Latin  characters, 
by  another  hand  than  that  of  the  author. 

No  additions  may  be  made  to  any  answer  after 
it  has  been  sent  in.  No  answer  which  is  incom- 
plete at  the  time  of  presentation  will  be  con- 
sidered. 

The  society  reserves  the  right  of  ownership  of 
all  treatises  sent  in,  together  with  the  right  of  pub- 
lishing the  winning  answers,  with  or  without 
translation,  in  the  society's  '  Treatises,'  but  the 
authors  may  not  publish  their  answers  without 
the  society's  consent.  The  society  also  reserves 
the  right  to  make  any  use  it  thinks  fit  of  the 
unsuccessful  answers,  and  to  withhold  or  to 
mention  the  author's  name  ;  in  the  latter  case, 
however,  his  permission  will  be  obtained. 
\  Authors  of  unsuccessful  treatises  will  be  supplied 
with  copies  thereof  only  at  their  own  cost. 
'  The  answers  must  be  sent  in  anonymously, 
signed  only  with  a  pseudonym,  and  accompanied 
by  a  sealed  note  bearing  the  same  pseudonym, 
arid  containing  the  name  and  address  of  the 
author,  to  the  Foundation  House  of  Pieter  Teyler 
van  der  Hulst  at  Haarlem. 

The  illustration  of  The  Frosty  Morning,  by  J.  M.  W. 
Turner,  which  appeared  in  our  March  number, 
was  reproduced  by  kind  permission  of  Mr.  Franz 
Hanfstaengl,  of  16  Pall  Mall  East,  S.W.,  and  the 
illustration  of  the  Interior  at  Petworth,  in  the  same 
number,  by  kind  permission  of  Messrs.  W.  A. 
Mansell  and  Co.,  405  Oxford  Street,  W.,  the  plates 
in  each  case  being  made  from  copyright  photo- 
graphs. 


40 


cA^  ART  BOOKS  OF  THE  MONTH  r*^ 


ENGRAVING  AND  NUMISMATICS 

Early  Woodcut  Initials.  Selected  and  anno- 
tated by  Oscar  Jennings,  M.D.  Methuen. 
2 IS.  net. 
Dr.  Jennings  has  brought  together  a  splendid 
collection  of  mediaeval  and  Renaissance  initials, 
and  the  170  pages  of  facsimiles,  containing  over 
1,300  specimens  from  the  presses  of  Germany, 
Italy,  France,  Switzerland,  Spain,  the  Netherlands 
and  England,  give  a  survey  of  the  whole  subject 
which  could  hardly,  except  in  certain  details,  be 
bettered.  Completeness  in  such  a  matter  is  hardly 
possible  or  desirable ;  either  the  editor  must  restrict 
himself  to  some  definite  group  of  presses  and  aim 
at  the  exhaustiveness  dear  only  to  specialists,  or 
he  must  choose  the  best  initials  from  all  presses 
with  an  eye  to  their  artistic  merit,  and  delight  the 
man  of  taste.  This  Dr.  Jennings  has  achieved 
with  eminent  success;  no  book  on  initials  hitherto 
produced  has  been  so  rich  in  beautiful  things,  and 
the  author  has  wisely  included,  so  far  as  possible, 
examples  hitherto  unpublished.  The  reproduc- 
tions, moreover,  are  exceedingly  good. 

The  late  gothic  printers  achieved  in  this  depart- 
ment of  the  decoration  of  books,  as  in  others, 
results  that  no  later  generation  has  excelled  ;  none 
of  the  sixteenth-century  work  in  this  book  is  so 
satisfactory  to  the  eye  as  the  early  Ulm  and  Augs- 
burg letters  and  the  alphabets  in  red  from  missals 
printed  by  Sensenschmidt  and  Drach.  The  balance 
between  the  letter  itself  and  the  decoration  is  more 
perfect  in  such  an  initial  as  the  B  of  Richel  (Basle, 
p.  134)  than  it  could  ever  be  when  the  letter  came, 
as  with  Holbein,  to  be  laid  on  the  top  of  a  little 
picture  which  would  be  complete  without  it. 
Beautiful  specimens  are  given  of  the  late  fifteenth- 
century  alphabets  of  Venice,  forerunners  of  that 
Augsburg  Renaissance  decoration  in  which  Weiditz 
bears  the  palm,  and  a  Spanish  alphabet  (p.  255)  is 
of  special  technical  interest  as  a  capital  example  of 
the  manicre  criblee  applied  to  such  a  purpose. 

Every  student  of  a  special  period  will  probably 
miss  in  such  a  volume  something  that  he  would 
expect  to  find  there,  and  be  rewarded  by  the  dis- 
covery of  something  new.  A  few  remarks  on  the 
German  sixteenth-century  work  by  known  artists, 
absent  or  present,  may  be  of  interest  to  certain 
readers.  Holbein's  initials  produced  in  England 
are  not  even  mentioned  in  the  text.  From  the  list 
of  German  alphabet  designers  on  p.  20  the  names 
of  Durer,  Burgkmair,  Schaufelein  should  be  de- 
leted ;  Cranach's  claim  to  a  place  is  doubtful ; 
Springinklee,  Schon,  Traut,  Hopfer,  Breu,  Lem- 
berger  should  be  inserted.  Specimens  of  Spring- 
mklee's  initials  in  the  Eichstiidt  missal  (Holzel, 
1517)  would  have  been  welcome  if  they  could 
be  found  uncoloured ;  Schon  designed  a  fine 
alphabet  for  Petreius, which  we  miss.  Dr.  Jennings, 
as  a  bibliographer,  can  perhaps  hardly  be  expected 
to  have  read  the  special  literature  on  such  minor 


artists  as  Breu  and  Traut,  specimens  of  whose  work, 
fully  described,  he  has  given  unwittingly  on  p.  123 
(not  from  a  Constance  missal,  but  from  the  Regens- 
burg  and  Constance  breviaries)  and  p.  132.  When 
people  write  '  Burgkmair '  in  this  connexion  they 
mean  '  Weiditz.'  Diirer  designed  no  alphabet  except 
the  plain  ones  in  his  book  on  proportion.  The 
alphabet  published  under  his  name  (p.  168)  is  a  copy 
by  Anton  von  Worms  from  the  finer  original  by 
Weiditz  reproduced  in  this  magazine  in  February. 
Anton  von  Worms  is  represented  by  better,  more 
original  work  in  the  large  letters  on  p.  166,  and 
smaller  ones  (p.  167).  The  preposition  '  by  '  is  used, 
by  the  way,  with  provoking  ambiguity  for  artists  and 
printers  alike  in  the  brief,  sometimes  inaccurate, 
titles  at  the  foot  of  the  plates.  Weiditz  is  not  respon- 
sible for  the  last  two  letters  on  p.  125.  The  fine 
Hagenaw  alphabet  on  pp.  264-268  is  doubtless  by 
the  artist  who  signed  the  Crucifixion  cut  in  the 
same  missal  with  a  monogram  to  be  deciphered,  pro- 
bably, as  G.Z.  (Gabriel  Zehender  ?).  The  handsome 
alphabet  designed  for  Apianus  (pp.  274-5)  is  not,  I 
am  convinced,  by  Ostendorfer,  to  whom,  since 
Weigel,  it  has  been  attributed  ;  but  by  an  artist  more 
schooled  in  the  manner  of  the  '  Kleinmeister.' 
Several  of  its  letters  occur  as  early  as  1533-34.  The 
aged  man  with  sphere  and  compass  in  the  C  is 
derived  from  '  Messahalah,  De  scientia  orbis  motus,' 
Nuremberg,  1504,  a  book  which  of  late  has  enjoyed 
a  certain  notoriety  in  connexion  with  Diirer. 

The  four  Strassburg  letters  on  p.  159  from  a 
'Pogge'  (why  thus  gallicize  the  name?)  printed  by 
Schott  for  Knoblouch,  1513,  are  of  special  interest 
as  belonging  to  an  alphabet  by  Hans  Baldung 
unrecorded  in  the  literature  on  that  artist,  and  new 
to  the  reviewer.  One  letter  from  it,  G  (wanting 
here),  is  given  without  indication  of  its  provenance 
in  the  text  to  Dr.  G.  von  T6rey's  publication  of 
Baldung's  drawings.  While  recognizing  in  these 
initials  the  hand  of  Baldung,  I  was  puzzled  for  a 
moment  by  reading  Dr.  Jennings's  statement  that 
one  of  them  was  used  by  Schiirer  in  1505;  Baldung 
was  then  in  his  prentice  days  at  Nuremberg — he 
became  a  citizen  of  Strassburg  in  1509.  Reference 
to  Proctor  (10179)  revealed  a  serious  inaccuracy  in 
the  new  book  :  the  date  should  be  June,  15 10, 
Schiirer's  earliest  date  being  June,  1508.  Full 
information  about  the  alphabet,  only  six  letters  of 
which  are  known,  may  be  wrested  from  Proctor's 
sternly  reticent  pages. 

This  is  by  no  means  the  only  error  of  Dr.  Jen- 
nings. In  addition  to  a  frequent  vagueness  as  to 
the  source  from  which  his  initials  are  derived,  due 
in  part  to  their  being  reproduced  from  some  col- 
lection of  initials,  not  directly  from  the  books, 
there  is  a  deplorable  laxity  about  his  spelling  of 
names  and  titles  ;  '  Waechstein'  for  Wechtlin  is 
a  glaring  instance.  The  statement  about  Durer 
as  an  engraver  (on  wood),  p.  20,  is  an  extraordinary 
perversion  of  history.  The  book  shows  some 
signs  of  having  been  originally  planned  on  a  more 


41 


Engraving  and  Numismatics 

ambitious  scale,  and  there  may  have  been  obstacles 
to  its  completion  which  should  plead  against  a 
harsh  judgment  on  what  has  actually  been  accom- 
plished. C.  D. 

RiJKSPRENTENKABiNET  AMSTERDAM.  Afbeeldingen 
naar  belangrijke  Prenten  en  Teekeningen,  uit- 
gegeven  onder  leiding  van  J.  Ph.  Van  der 
Kellen  Dzn.  Amsterdam  :  W.  Versluys.  12 
parts.  ;^3  3s. 
This  series  of  reproductions  is  intended  to  interest 
a  wider  public  than  that  of  special  students  of 
engraving  in  the  treasures  and  rarities  of  the  Print 
Room  at  Amsterdam.  The  editor  proposes  to 
adhere  to  no  strict  system,  chronological  or  other- 
wise, in  making  his  selection,  but  to  give  specimens 
of  all  kinds  of  work  remarkable  for  artistic  merit. 
The  first  part  includes  specimens  of  Mantegna, 
Baldung  and  Saftleven,  a  mezzotint  portrait  of  the 
Princesse  de  Lamballe,  St.  Aubin's  Bal  Pare,  and 
two  drawings  by  De  Gheyn.  These  are  re- 
produced in  collotype  without  reduction  of  scale. 
An  introductory  plate  explains  the  processes  of 
engraving  to  the  uninitiated  by  illustrating  en- 
graved plates  side  by  side  with  the  impressions  taken 
from  them.  The  titles  and  explanatory  notes  are 
printed  both  in  Dutch  and  French.  The  publica- 
tion would  be  more  likely  to  find  a  home  in  private 
libraries  if  its  dimensions  (nearly  23  by  18  inches) 
were  somewhat  smaller.  C.  D. 

Seals.  By  Walter  de  Gray  Birch.  Connoisseur's 
Library.  1907.  Methuen  and  Co.  25s.  net. 
It  was  natural  that  Dr.  Birch  should  have  been 
asked  to  write  the  volume  on  seals  for  the  Connois- 
seur's Library,  for  he  has  probably  examined  and 
catalogued  more  impressions  than  any  one  in  this 
country.  Experience,  however,  is  one  thing  ;  the 
art  of  imparting  knowledge  another — and  of  this 
art  the  author  has  not  proved  himself  a  master  in 
the  present  work.  It  is  not  suggested  that  he  has 
failed  in  an  easy  task,  for  the  problem  of  presenting 
the  history  of  seals  in  a  form  at  once  concise, 
scholarly  and  readable  is  admittedly  one  of 
extreme  difficulty. 

Voltaire  once  compared  a  certain  history  rich  in 
disconnected  facts  to  a  diary,  remarking  that  a 
journal  is  no  more  a  history  than  a  pile  of  bricks 
is  a  house.  The  volume  before  us  lies  open  to  a 
similar  criticism  :  here  is  the  material  for  a  respect- 
able building,  but  no  structure.  Most  of  the 
chapters  are  piles  of  facts  composed  by  the  method 
of  simple  enumeration  ;  they  impress  the  reader 
like  a  series  of  extracts  from  a  catalogue  compressed 
into  the  semblance  of  a  continuous  narrative.  A 
reference  to  Dr.  Birch's  British  Museum  catalogues 
explains  the  resemblance,  for  although  there  is  no 
literal  reproduction  the  atmosphere  of  a  catalogue 
is  continually  present.  But  what  the  connoisseur 
and  the  general  reader  alike  require  is  not  a  register 

42 


but  a  treatise,  lucidly  written  and  logically  arranged, 
in  which  the  various  lines  of  development,  artistic 
and  historical,  should  be  followed  out  in  a  manner 
at  once  interesting  and  scientific.  Such  a  treatise 
should  have  a  certain  sculptural  quality,  giving  the 
significant  its  due  prominence  and  relegating  the 
secondary  to  the  background.  The  present  volume 
lacks  all  relief :  each  detail  has  the  salience  of  that 
which  precedes  and  follows  it.  The  reader  is  not 
told  with  sufficient  clearness  why  the  fine  seals  are 
to  be  admired,  or  by  what  processes  of  growth  they 
attained  their  excellence.  The  statement  that  they 
are  fine  occurs  in  the  alphabetic  enumeration,  the 
rest  is  left  for  the  student's  own  discovery.  The 
treatment  of  sigillography  on  its  historical  side  is  in 
the  same  manner  incidental  rather  than  consecutive. 
Heraldry  and  the  lore  of  costume,  which  are  so 
intimately  connected  with  seals,  receive  alike  short 
and  inadequate  measure.  The  proportion  of  space 
allotted  to  seals  of  different  countries  will  also 
occasion  some  surprise,  for  although  our  English 
seals  of  the  best  period  are  among  the  finest  ever 
produced,  to  dismiss  all  foreign  examples  in  some 
fifty  pages  is  to  accord  them  less  consideration 
than  they  deserve.  Too  little  notice,  again,  has 
been  given  to  matrices,  a  most  important  part  of 
the  subject.  Any  one  unfamiliar  with  our  museums 
would  hardly  gather  from  this  work  that  large  col- 
lections of  matrices  are  still  in  existence. 

These  are  the  cardinal  defects  which  seriously 
detract  from  the  value  of  the  book  ;  compared 
with  them,  errors  of  detail  are  perhaps  of  secondary 
interest.  But  since  accuracy  in  works  of  this  kind 
is  of  fundamental  importance,  a  few  conspicuous 
errors  may  be  noticed.  The  head  on  the  seal  of 
Bernard  of  Parma  is  a  copy  of  the  portrait  of 
Frederick  II  from  the  gold  coins  of  that  emperor, 
but  Dr.  Birch  describes  it  as  an  unconventional 
portrait  of  Our  Lord,  conceived  after  the  style  of 
a  Roman  emperor.  Corone,  the  seal  of  whose 
bishop  is  illustrated  on  plate  xxxvi,  is  not  near 
Athens,  but  almost  as  far  away  as  it  could  well  be 
while  remaining  within  the  limits  of  Greece. 
Neither  the  intaglio  with  a  wyvern  nor  that  with 
the  Agnus  Dei,  reproduced  on  plate  iii,  can  ac- 
curately be  described  as  ancient,  in  the  sense  of 
antique,  gems.  The  mistakes  in  the  first  chapter, 
which  is  necessarily  a  compilation,  should  receive 
greater  indulgence  than  those  committed  elsewhere, 
but  some  of  them  are  too  glaring  to  escape  at- 
tention. There  is  a  strange  confusion  between 
Sylla  and  Scylla  ;  and  of  Greek  gems  of  the  fourth 
century  it  is  said  that  their  designs  'possess  the 
stiff  unnatural  drawing  which  characterises  that 
epoch.'  After  this,  the  statement,  in  another  part 
of  the  book,  that  Diocletian  lived  in  the  fifth 
century  ceases  to  surprise.  There  is  more  than  one 
unnecessary  error  in  the  description  of  Egyptian 
and  Babylonian  signets.  Engraved  cylinders  go 
back  very  much  further  than  B.C.  2200;  and  the 


use  on  p.  II  of  the  form  Uzukh  (Ur-ukh  ?)  instead 
of  the  modern  version  Ur-Engur,  seems  to  show 
that  Dr.  Birch  has  relied  for  his  information  upon 
books  which  are  now  quite  out  of  date. 

It  is  an  ungrateful  task  to  dwell  upon  the  faults 
of  a  book  which  contains  a  mass  of  useful  informa- 
tion. Better  digested,  relieved  of  the  more  serious 
maccuracies  which  disfigure  it,  the  work  might 
have  attained  a  high  level  of  excellence;  even  as 
it  is,  it  IS  by  no  means  to  be  regarded  as  valueless 
Though  it  fails  to  reach  the  standard  set  by  the 
better  volumes  in  the  series  to  which  it  belongs,  it 
will  continue  of  service  until  the  appearance  of  the 
exhaustive  book  for  which  we  are  still  condemned 
to  wait.  The  student  already  familar  with  the 
general  history  of  seals  will  find  here  a  great  number 
of  details  assembled  for  the  first  time  between  two 
covers  ;  and  if  he  uses  ordinary  caution,  may  con- 
sult the  volume  with  profit  and  convenience. 

As  has  been  the  case  with  all  the  numbers  of 
this  series,  the  publishers  have  done  their  best  in 
the  present  instance  :  the  book  is  well  printed  and 
well  illustrated.  It  is  a  pity  that  these  advantages 
should  be  partly  neutralized  by  the  absence  of 
references  from  the  text  to  the  plates,  a  source  of 
some  annoyance  to  all  but  the  rare  class  of  leisured 
readers.  q 

The  Coins  and  Medals  of  the  Knights  op- 
Malta.     Arranged  and  described  by  Canon 
H.   Calleja   Schembri.     London  :   Eyre   and 
Spottiswoode.     42s.  net. 
The  admirable  work  of  E.  H.  Furse,  '  Memoires 
Numismatiques  de  I'Ordre  Souverain  de  Saint  Jean 
de  Jerusalem,'  has,  since  its  publication  in  1885, 
been  the  chief  authority  on  the  coins  and  medals 
of  the  Knights  of  Rhodes  and  Malta.     It  is  true 
that   certain  additions   have    been    made   to   our 
knowledge  of  the  series  in  the  last  two  decades, 
and    most   of   them   are   incorporated   in    Canon 
Schembri's  book.    It  is  doubtful,  however,  whether 
these  additions  are  important  enough  to  warrant 
the  publication  of  a  volume,  nine-tenths  or  more 
of  which  are  merely  a  repetition  of  information 
already  to  be  found  in  Furse.     We  should   not 
complain  if  the  writer  showed  any  particular  com- 
petence for  his  task.    But  his  qualification  may  be 
gauged  by  the  fact  that  at  the  outset  he  misin- 
terprets the  legend  on  the  gold  sequins  of  Philip 
Villiers  de  I'Isle  Adam,  apparently  not  realizing 
that  it  is  merely  a  blundered  version  of  the  legend 
on  the  ordinary  Venetian  sequin.   It  is  improbable 
that   this   Grand    Master   exercised    the    right   of 
strikmg  coins  at  all  in  Malta,  and  the  writer,  who 
admits  that  there  is  nothing  to  prove  where  the 
coins  were  struck,  would  have  done  better  to  follow 
Furse  in  relegating  them  to  Rhodes.   The  author's 
treatment  of  the  medals  cannot  be  called  scholarly 
his  acquaintance  with  the  literature  of  the  subject 
being  slight.     We  find  an  occasional  reference  to 


D 


Engraving  and  Numismatics 

the  work  of  Armand  ;  but,  had  he  used  it  intelli- 
gently, he  might  have  given  the  names  of  the  artists 
of  some  medals  which  in  his  descriptions  appear 
as  anonymous,  although  they  bear  signatures.  He 
might  also  have  added  one  to  his  list  of  medals  of 
Jean  Parisot  de  la  Vallette.  The  half-tone  plates 
are  none  of  them  good,  and  some  quite  the  worst 
we  have  seen — in  curious  contrast  with  the  sump- 
tuousness  of  the  binding. 

PAINTERS    AND    PAINTING 

A  Catalogue  Raisonn£  of  the  Works  of  the 

Most  Eminent  Dutch  Painters  of  the 

Seventeenth  Century.     Based  on  the  work 

of   John  Smith.     By  C.   Hofstede  de  Groot 

(with  the  assistance  of  Dr.  W.  R.  Valentiner). 

Translated  and  edited  by  Edward  G.  Hawke. 

Vol  I.     London  :  Macmillan.    25s.  net. 

Though  inclusion  in  Smith's  catalogue  has  long 

been  an  advertisement  in  the  auction-room,  the 

distinction  has  lost  force  of    recent  years.     John 

Smith   was  a   wonderful   man,  and  the  book  by 

which  he  immortalized  himself  a  wonderful  book. 

But  he  made  no  pretence  either  to  completeness 

or  accuracy,  and  it  was  thus  inevitable  that  the 

advance   of   modern    knowledge  should   make   a 

revised  edition  essential.     In  the  first  place  Smith 

is  no  infallible  guide  as  to  authenticity ;  he  was  a 

very  clever  dealer  indeed,  but  his  critical  judgments 

were  of  a  more  rough  and  ready  kind  than  those 

which    represent   the   accumulated   labours    of  a 

generation  of  modern  scholars.    Fashion,  too,  has 

changed,  and  a  selection  which  omitted  Brouwer, 

Hals,  Vermeer,  and  several  others  who  are  now 

recognized  as  among  the  most  famous  of  Dutch 

masters  could  not  be  regarded  as  final. 

For  the  revision  of  such  a  book  no  living 
authority  could  be  more  competent  than  Dr.  de 
Groot,  and  the  English  translation  is  excellent 
and  accurate.  The  artists  dealt  with  in  the  first 
volume  are  Steen,  Metsu,  Dou,  de  Hooch,  Carel 
Fabritius  and  Vermeer  of  Delft.  The  250  pages 
devoted  to  Jan  Steen  alone  represent  a  colossal 
amount  of  labour.  We  should  not,  perhaps,  feel 
inclined  to  describe  the  exquisite  Lute  Player 
in  the  Wallace  collection  (150)  as  '  similar  in  style  ' 
to  the  Terrace  Scene  in  the  National  Gallery  (142 1), 
for  the  former  is  among  the  most  superb  and 
translucent  of  Steen's  works,  while  the  latter,  with 
all  its  grand  design,  is  hard  and  opaque.  Nor 
does  Egbert  Heemskerk  deserve  to  be  dismissed 
as  '  a  very  indifferent  artist.'  He  was  narrow  and 
exceedingly  unequal,  but  his  best  works  in  jewel- 
like richness  of  colour  and  in  painter-like  handling 
deserve  a  far  more  generous  recognition.  The  list 
of  works  by  Metsu  and  de  Hooch  suggests  the 
hope  that  a  notice  of  the  paintings  of  Ochterveldt, 
on  occasion  an  admirable  master,  may  some  day 
be  found  possible.     Carel  Fabritius  and  Vermeer 

43 


'Painters  and  Painting 

of  Delft  raise  problems  that  are  more  complicated 
than  those  of  figures  and  measurements,  and  as 
regards  both  artists  Dr.  de  Groot  adopts  a.  strictly 
conservative  attitude.  In  the  case  of  Fabritius 
caution  was  specially  necessary,  as  the  few  works 
that  are  his  beyond  all  possible  question  vary  con- 
siderably in  style,  and  the  omission  of  one  or  two 
well-known  pictures  attributed  to  him  in  English 
collections  is  comprehensible  in  a  book  which  has 
to  exclude  tentative  attributions,  but  in  the  case  of 
so  rare  a  master  a  picture  like  the  Reading  Man 
in  Sir  Frederick  Cook's  collection  at  Richmond 
deserved  at  least  a  reference,  even  if  in  the  editor's 
opinion  the  generally  received  attribution  was 
untenable.  In  omitting  The  Lesson  (National  Gal- 
lery, No.  1699)  from  the  work  of  Vermeer  there 
was  more  apparent  reason,  for  though  the  style  and 
sentiment  are  exactly  what  we  might  expect  from 
Vermeer  in  his  youth,  it  is  so  wholly  unlike  the 
Christ  in  the  Honse  of  Mary  and  Martha,  with  its 
strong  reflection  of  the  manner  of  Fabritius,  which 
is  actually  Vermeer's  earliest  known  painting,  that 
hesitation  becomes  a  duty.  The  price  (;^'2,40o) 
paid  for  our  one  indubitable  Vermeer  might  have 
been  mentioned,  and  the  initials  of  the  signature 
cannot  correctly  be  described  as  '  intertwined.' 
The  reference  to  '  pictures '  by  L.  Boursse  in  the 
Wallace  collection  is  surely  incorrect  ?  The  only 
example  known  to  us  is  No.  166 ;  Interior  : 
Woman  Cooking. 

No  brief  notice,  however,  can  do  justice  to  the 
wonderful  amount  of  information  compressed 
into  the  book,  which  will  prove  as  indispensable  to 
every  serious  student  of  Dutch  pictures  as  it  is  to 
their  owners  and  collectors. 

Die  Kunst  des  Portrats.  By  Wilhelm  Waetzoldt. 

Leipzig  :  Hirt  and  Son.    1908.     Paper,  M.  12  ; 

bound,  M.  14.50. 
The  art  of  portrait-painting  has  from  the  earliest 
days,  since  the  painter  became  an  artist  on  his 
own  account,  exercised  a  growing  fascination  for 
the  minds  of  both  artist  and  spectator,  and,  it  may 
be  added,  for  the  patron  of  art  as  well.  This  is 
easily  intelligible,  for  where  the  artist  has  the 
advantage  of  a  series  of  living  models  to  work 
from,  each  presenting  some  different  aspect  to  in- 
terest him  and  call  out  his  ability,  the  spectator 
sees  something  which  is  akin  to  his  own  person- 
ality and  therefore  more  easily  apprehended  by 
the  untutored  mind.  When,  however,  the  question 
arises,  what  is  a  good  portrait  ?,  there  is  a  bewilder- 
ing diversity  of  opinion,  with  which  the  average 
mind  finds  some  difficulty  in  coping. 

Should  a  portrait  be  an  exact  counterfeit,  or  an 
interpretation  ?  Should  it  only  please,  or  should 
it  convey  a  lesson  ?  Should  it  show  the  sitter  in 
a  conventional  pose,  or  should  it  illustrate  some 
momentary  action  or  expression  ?  Should  the 
lace  or  the  costume  predominate  ?     Such  are  a 

44 


few  among  the  many  questions  which  rise  to  the 
lips,  and  have  to  be  answered  by  the  portrait 
painter.  Herr  Waetzoldt  has  set  himself  the  task 
of  reviewing  the  history  of  portrait-painting  from 
the  earliest  day  to  the  present,  from  the  rude  efforts 
of  primitive  man  and  of  children  to  Watts,  Len- 
bach,  Boecklin  and  Anders  Zorn.  It  can  be  under- 
stood therefore  that  within  the  450  pages  of  his 
book  there  is  a  great  deal  to  read,  and  as  the 
author's  style  is  not  easy,  while  the  sentences  are 
long,  and  many  of  the  words  small  sentences  in 
themselves,  the  reader  requires  some  time  and 
leisure  for  his  task. 

Herr  Waetzoldt  does  not  lay  down  any  rules 
for  the  painting  of  portraits.  He  merely  reviews 
the  long  list  of  portrait  painters  in  different  styles 
and  different  periods  in  order  to  illustrate  the 
different  phases  of  the  art  and  the  various  pro- 
blems arising  therefrom  which  the  painter  is  called 
upon  to  solve.  The  latter  portion  of  the  book  is 
devoted  to  an  interesting  study  of  the  self-portraits 
of  artists.  As  a  contribution  to  the  history  of 
Kunst  nnd  Wissenchaft  the  book  has  considerable 
value,  and  those  who  have  patience  to  read  sen- 
tences like  the  following  will  be  rewarded  for  their 
pains.  In  his  concluding  words  the  author  says  : — 
'  Von  den  prinzipiellen  iisthetischen  Problemen  der 
Menschendarstellung  zu  den  individuell-psycholo- 
gischen  des  darstellenden  Menschen  ging  der  Weg 
unserer  Betrachtung.  Wir  begannen  mit  der 
Kunst  der  bildnerischen  Individualiserung  und 
schlossen  mit  der  malerischen  Selbstoffenbarung 
der  kunstlerischen  Individualitat.  .  .  .' 

One  of  the  most  satisfactory  features  of  this  in- 
teresting book  is  the  high  place  given  to  the  great 
portrait  painters  of  the  English  school — to  Hogarth, 
Reynolds,  Gainsborough  and  Watts — and  the  re- 
spect shown  not  only  for  the  paintings  of  this 
school  but  for  the  value  of  the  written  works  of 
Jonathan  Richardson  and  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  as 
a  source  of  inspiration  to  the  artist.  L.  C. 

La  Peinture  Anglaise  de  ses  Origines  A  nos 
Jours.  Par  Armand  Dayot.  Avec  25  helio- 
gravures et  282  illustrations  dans  le  texte. 
Paris  :  Lucien  Laveur.  50  francs. 
This  large  and  profusely  illustrated  book  is  one 
of  the  many  signs  of  the  interest  which  the  conti- 
nent is  now  taking  in  British  art.  M.  Dayot  brings 
to  his  task  uncommon  assiduity  and  enthusiasm 
as  well  as  the  practical  experience  of  all  kinds  of 
painting  which  an  Inspector-General  of  the  Fine 
Arts  in  France  is  bound  to  possess.  The  field 
covered  by  his  book,  moreover,  is  as  wide  as,  and, 
so  far  as  living  painters  are  concerned,  even  wider 
than,  that  occupied  by  the  vast  work  of  Muther ; 
and  the  pictures  selected  for  illustrations  are  less 
hackneyed.  Here  and  there,  indeed,  we  notice 
mistakes  in  attribution,  notably  in  the  case  of 
Constable.     But  for  the  most  part  the  scope  and 


appearance  of  the  book  are  all  that  could 
be  desired  in  an  introductory  study  of  the  sub- 
ject. 

When  we  come  to  details  the  verdict  cannot  be 
quite  so  satisfactory.     In  the  first  place  the  proofs 
ought  to  have  been  read  by  an  Englishman,  since 
misprmts   in   names   and   dates  are   distressingly 
common,  and  some  of  them  will  baffle  even  those 
whose  acquaintance  with  the  subject  is  more  than 
elementary.     Nor  are   the  blunders   confined    to 
names  and  dates.     The  list  of  Ruskin's  principal 
works  omits  all  mention  of    'Modern   Painters,' 
'The  Stones  of  Venice'  and    'Seven    Lamps   of 
Architecture' ;  J.  F.  Lewis  is  mentioned  with  John 
Linnell  as  a  painter  of  stormy  landscapes  ;  while 
the   list   of    Preraphaelites   who   imitated  Madox 
Brown  in  the  painting  of  detail  includes  the  names 
of    Burne  Jones,  Stanhope,  \V.    Fisk    (sic)    and 
Strudwick.   To  call  old  James  Ward  a  painter  'd'un 
metier  sec  et  penible'  does  not  suggest  any  very 
definite  memory  of  that  artist's  fluid  and  forcible 
brushwork,  and  many  other  instances  of  similar 
inaccuracy  might  be   enumerated.     The   fact    is, 
M.   Dayot  has  tried  to  assimilate  rapidly  a  subject 
which  even  in  England  has  proved  too  much  for 
any  single  writer,  and  he  hasadded  to  his  difficulties 
by  sweeping  both  small  and  great  into  his  net,  and 
dealing  with  water  colour  and  caricature  as  well  as 
with  oil  painting.     We  cannot  always  in   conse- 
quence see  the  wood  for  the  trees.     It  would  have 
been  wiser  to  concentrate  attention  upon  the  chief 
figuresand  thecardinal  movements  in  English  paint- 
ing, and  leave  the  minor  men  alone.    Even  in  Eng- 
land they  havealready  become  negligible  quantities, 
and  it  is  unlikely  that  they  will  ever  be  more  than 
that  elsewhere.  In  afield  so  limited  it  would  be  pos- 
sible to  obtain  good  authority  for  the  essential  facts, 
and  to  do  critical  justice  to  the  artists  selected. 
The  present  work,  in  spite  of  its  comprehensive- 
ness, its  enthusiasm    and   the  admirable  way  in 
which  it  IS  produced,  cannot  be  called  trustworthy 
in  either  of  these  respects. 

C.J.  H. 

Sir    Henry    Raeburn.      By    R.    S.    Clouston. 
London  :  Newnes.     3s.  6d.  net. 

Sir  TH0M.4S   Lawrence.     By   R.   s.  Clouston. 
London  :  Newnes.     3s.  6d.  net. 

The  short  biographies  prefixed  to  the  collections 
of  pictures  which  are  the  feature  of  Messrs. 
Newnes's  series  are  well  adapted  to  their  purpose, 
and  preserve  a  just  balance  between  biography 
and  criticism.  In  the  Lawrence  volume  the  por- 
trait called  Miss  PheUfs  (sic),  on  p.  16,  has  surely 
been  inserted  in  error.  Neither  costume  nor 
painting  shows  a  trace  of  Lawrence.  The  portrait 
of  a  lady  on  p.  22  also  does  not  look  like  Lawrence 
though  it  IS  evidently  a  very  good  picture,  not  un- 
worthy of  Watts  in  his  early  days. 


T^atnters  and  T^ainting 

Velasquez.     By  R.  A.  M.  Stevenson.     London : 

Bell.     3s.   6d.   net.      Perugino.     By  G.   C. 

Williamson,  Litt.D.     London  :  Bell.     3s.  6d. 

net.     Piero  della  Francesca.     By  W.  G. 

Waters,  M.A.     London  :    Bell.     3s.  6d.  net. 

PINTURICCHIO.     By  Evelyn  March   Phillips. 

London  :  Bell.  3s.  6d.  net. 
Messrs.  Bell  have  done  well  in  reissuing  their 
'  Handbooks  of  the  Great  Masters '  at  a  cheaper 
price,  for,  though  the  volumes  of  the  series  are  of 
unequal  merit,  the  majority  of  them  exhibit  a 
higher  standard  of  scholarship  than  is  common  in 
popular  English  books  on  art,  and  a  considerable 
proportion  of  them  deal  with  painters  of  whom  no 
other  account  is  generally  accessible.  The  late 
Mr.  R.  A.  M.  Stevenson's  book  on  Velazquez  has 
always  enjoyed  a  great  reputation,  and  in  its  present 
form  should  find  a  still  larger  circle  of  readers. 
The  book  on  Pinturicchio  shows  evidence  of 
careful  study  and  is  moderate  and  sensible  in  tone. 
In  that  on  Piero  della  Francesca  the  author  was 
evidently  overwhelmed  by  the  greatness  of  his 
subject,  which  called  for  more  largeness  and  clarity 
of  treatment  than  have  been  given  it.  The  book  on 
Perugino,  too,  was  no  easy  task,  for  few  painters 
have  combined  such  considerable  beauties  with 
so  much  weakness. 

Fifty  Years  of  Modern  Painting— Corot  to 
Sargent.  By  J.  E.  Phythian.  London: 
Grant  Richards.  los.  6d.  net. 
The  various  attempts  that  have  been  made  to 
sum  up  the  art  movements  of  the  last  half-century 
seem  to  show  that  the  task  is  at  present  almost  an 
impossible  one.  The  chief  actors  on  the  stage  are 
always  so  closely  beset  by  a  crowd  of  lesser  "lights 
and  supers  that  we  cannot  distinguish  them  plainly. 
Time  is  necessary  for  the  revelation  of  the  real 
protagonists,  and  thus  in  his  careful  book  Mr. 
Phythian  has  been  most  sucessful  with  his  earlier 
chapters.  When  he  comes  to  artists  who  are  but 
recently  dead  or  are  still  working  among  us  his 
vision  becomes  less  clear.  A  tendency  to  moralize, 
an  occasional  reliance  upon  Dr.  Muther,  and  the 
not  infrequent  verbal  confusions  are  more  impor- 
tant faults  than  the  few  errors  of  fact  we  have 
noticed,  so  that  the  book,  if  not  inspired,  is  by  no 
means  a  bad  introduction  to  the  subject— the 
more  so  because  its  judgments  are  fair  to  many 
diverse  ideals  and  are  generally  backed  by  a  sound 
appreciation  of  design.  It  is  therefore  unlucky 
that  Mr.  Phythian,  while  praising  the  painting  of 
Sandys  and  Israels,  should  be  unjust  to  Paul 
Baudry,  and  miss  the  significance  of  Daumier. 
Being  intended  chiefly  for  English  readers,  the 
volume  pays  special  attention  to  British  art,  with 
results  that  are  sometimes  odd.  Daubigny  is  but 
a  name  in  a  list,five  words  are  devoted  to  Monticelli, 
but  Mr.  Yeames  has  a  whole  paragraph  to  himself, 
and    Boughton   more   than    a    page.     The    little 

45 


Painters  and  Painting 

illustrations  are  not  ill  selected,  though  L'^mou; 
Vainqiiciir  does  not  show  the  real  Millet,  and  the 
landscape  by  Camille  Pissarro  surely  represents 
Louveciennes,  not  Vincennes  ?  C.  J.  H. 

L'CEUVRE    DE   J.    B.    S.   Chardin    et  de  J.   H. 
Fragonard.     230  reproductions.     Introduc- 
tion par  Armand  Dayot.     Notes  par  Ldandre 
Vaillant.     Paris  :  F.  Gittler. 
This  profusely  illustrated  memorial  of  the  exhibi- 
tion of  Chardin  and  Fragonard  held  last  year  at  the 
Galerics  Georges  Petit  makes  no  pretence  to  the 
completeness  of  a  catalogue  raisonm,  since,  as  M. 
Vaillant   remarks,  the  notes  are  no  more  than  a 
summary  of  the  information  he  obtained    while 
acting  as  secretary  to  the  exhibition.     We  at  once 
detect,  for  instance,  the  absence  of  certain  famous 
works  by  Chardin,  and  in  the  case  of  one  example 
illustrated  the  notes  mention  the  replica  in  the 
Cook  collection  at  Richmond  but  omit  the  second 
replica  in  the  National  Gallery.     Yet  if   the  book 
makes  no  pretence  to  completeness  it  is  none  the 
less  a  valuable  series  of  reproductions  of  two  of 
the    most    notable  masters  of  eighteenth-century 
France,  and  representing  the  two  strongly  con- 
trasted   aspects   of   the   national   character.       In 
Chardin  we  have  French  logic,  science,   balance 
and  good  sense  applied  consistently  to  the  art  of 
painting  as  they  have  rarely  or  never  been  applied 
elsewhere,    except     perhaps     by    Velazquez ;     in 
Fragonard  the  ease,  gaiety  and  luxury  of  the  court 
which  the  Revolution  overwhelmed  attain  complete 
aesthetic  fruition. 

Wilton  House  Pictures.     By  Nevile  R.  Wil- 
kinson.    2  vols.     London  :  Chiswick  Press. 

Captain  Nevile  Wilkinson's  catalogue  of  the 
collection  at  Wilton  House  is  conceived  on  a 
sumptuous  scale,  is  admirably  printed,  and  is  illus- 
trated with  good  photogravures  of  the  most  famous 
works  in  Lord  Pembroke's  possession.  Even  from 
a  cursory  examination  it  is  evident  that  the  cata- 
loguing has  been  most  carefully  and  completely 
done,  and  the  work  is  a  worthy  summary  of  present 
expert  knowledge  on  the  subject  to  which  it  is 
devoted.  We  note  that  in  the  discussion  of  the 
Diptych  the  late  M.  Bouchot's  name  is  misspelled. 


MISCELLANEOUS 

Art  in  Needlework.  By  Lewis  F.  Day  and  Mary 
Buckle.     B.  T.  Batsford.     5s. 

The  handbook  on  embroidery  by  Mr.  Louis  F.  Day 
and  Miss  Mary  Buckle,  of  which  a  new  edition  has 
lately  been  issued,  illustrates  sufficiently  the  difficul- 
ties that  the  compiler  of  such  a  volume  has  to 
deal  with.  The  question  of  illustration  is  the  first 
preoccupation  ;  such  a  book  has  to  be  issued  at  a 

46 


price  that  shall  make  it  available  for  students,  and 
the  result  is  a  small  page  and  illustrations  cramped 
and  reduced  until  most  of  the  detail  is  lost  and 
they  are  not  of  much  value  to  just  the  person  for 
whom  the  book  is  intended.  Miss  Buckle  is  an 
accomplished  embroideress  and  Mr.  Day  a  prac- 
tised writer  on  art-manuals,  and  they  have  dealt 
with  this  difficulty  with  considerable  but  not  un- 
qualified success  ;  most  of  the  illustrations,  too,  are 
very  clear  considering  their  small  scale. 

The  stitches  described  are  given  in  a  series  of 
samplers  of  which  the  wrong  side  is  also  pictured, 
an  ingenious  device  greatly  helping  the  already 
clear  explanations.  Five  or  six  of  the  samplers 
and  the  accompanying  letterpress,  however,  might 
well  have  been  cut  out.  A  great  many  useless  and 
trifling  fancy-stitches  are  discussed,  taking  up 
space  that  could  then  have  been  given  to  more 
serious  sides  of  the  art.  This  is  a  defect  not 
particular  to  Mr.  Day's  book  but  common  to  all 
handbooks  on  this  subject ;  they  all  make  too  much 
of  the  stitch  and  too  little  of  style.  In  the  chapter 
on  chain-stitch,  nothing  issaid  about  the  fascinating 
bird  which  initials  the  chapter  ;  two  lines  are 
devoted  to  the  beautiful  piece  of  German  white 
work  on  page  44  ;  while  the  rest  is  mostly  given  to 
explanation  of  a  sampler  dull  enough  to  frighten 
any  student  away  from  the  work.  All  the  freshness 
and  ingenuity  of  this  charming  stitch  have  trickled 
away  under  the  enchanter's  wand.  The  inlay 
Rescht  work,  with  its  bold  use  of  chain-stitch,  is 
dealt  with  in  a  rather  languid  spirit  that  gives  little 
reflection  of  its  splendour,  and  the  example  shown 
is  not  striking  or  of  the  best  time.  "The  finest 
Rescht  work  leaves  one  breathless  with  delight 
before  its  flower-like  beauty  and  wonderful  large- 
ness of  handling. 

Mr.  Day  never  loses  sight  of  the  importance  of 
thoroughness  in  technique,  but  he  does  sometimes 
lose  sight  of  the  importance  of  quickening  the 
interest  and  stimulating  the  taste  of  his  student- 
readers.  The  writing  is  too  impersonal,  not  human 
enough.  The  chapters  on  church  work  and  on 
treatment  of  the  figure  would  have  been  better 
away.  A  few  pages  on  figure-work  and  a  bare 
mention  of  the  finest  mediaeval  embroideries 
merely  puzzle  a  student ;  she  will  have  heard  some- 
thing of  their  romance  and  beauty,  and  will  want 
to  know  more  about  them,  but  Mr.  Day  is  too 
busy  with  careful  and  able  explanation  of  lesser 
things  to  tell  the  tale  of  these. 

The  chapter  on  a  '  Plea  for  Simplicity '  is  the 
best  in  the  book,  and  I  wish  to  give  it  unqualified 
praise.  Putting  myself  in  the  place  of  an  inquiring 
student,  I  know  that,  coming  to  the  book  for 
guidance,  I  should  get  more  out  of  these  few  pages 
— an  epitome  of  suggestion  and  information  and 
the  best  sort  of  advice— than  from  all  the  rest  of 
the  book.     It  is  an  admirably  skilful  bit  of  writing. 

May  Morris. 


Miscellaneous 


A   History   of   the   Minories,   London.    By 
E.  M.  Tomlinson,  M.A.     Smith,  Elder  &  Co. 
i8s.  net. 
The  eastern  wards  of  the  city  of  London  are  rich 
in  associations  with  the  early  rehgious  guilds,  and 
the  writer  of  this  interesting  volume  has  earned  the 
gratitude   of    all   lovers   of   antiquarian    research. 
Comparatively  few  persons  frequenting  the  thor- 
oughfare  between   Houndsditch  and    the   Tower 
Bridge   are   aware  that  they  are  passing  through 
Knighten  Guild,  so  named  by  King  Edgar  in  com- 
memoration of  the  accomplishment  of  three  com- 
bats— one  above  ground,  one  underground,  and  the 
third  in  the  water — and  a  successful  tournament  in 
East  Smithfield  by  each  of  thirteen  of  his  bravest 
knights.     Such  was  the  ancient  designation  of  the 
ward  of  Portsoken,  which  was  ruled  over  by  the 
prior  of  the  church  of  the  Holy  Trinity   within 
Aldgate  until  the  priory  was  surrendered  to  King 
Henry  VIII,  when  his  reverence   was  superseded 
by  an  alderman  of    London.     The  priory  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  on  the  one  side  and  the  Tower  of 
London   on   the   other    have   hitherto   somewhat 
obscured  the  Sisterhood  of  the  Order  of  St.  Clare, 
which  settled  in  this  ward  and  gave  its  name  to  the 
street   known   as   the    Minories.     Dugdale  in  his 
'  Monasticon  '  says  :    '  King  Edward  the  I  in  the 
2 1st  year   of    his    reign    granted   his   licence    in 
mortmain    to    Edmund  his  brother  and  his  wife 
Blanche  Queen  of  Navarre  to  build  a  house  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Botolph's  without  Algate  for  nuns 
of  the  order  of  Minoresses  there  to  remain  in  the 
service  of  God,  the  Blessed  Mary  and  St.  Francis.' 
The  abbey  which  was  then  erected  covered  about 
five  acres  of  ground  outside  the  city  wall  between 
Aldgate  and  the  Tower  and  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Minories.     It  was  enclosed  by  walls  with  gates,  and, 
although  within  the  area  of  the  parish  of  St.  Botolph, 
Aldgate,  obtained  all  the  privileges  and  immunities 
of  a  'peculiar.'    Formerly  a  precinct,  it  subsequently 
became  annexed  to  the  Liberty  of  the  Tower,  until 
a  few  years  since  it  was  absorbed  into  the  county  of 
London.     Mr.   Tomlinson    has  compiled  a  most 
interesting  account  of  the  abbey,  which  will  be  a 
valuable  nucleus  for  a  more  detailed  history  of  the 
order.    Upon  the  suppression  of  the  abbey  in  1538 
King  Henry  VIII,  desiring  when  at  his  palace  at 
Westminster  '  to  have  the  nobles  of  his  Realm  and 
his  faithful  and  trustie  Counsaillours  to  be  nere 
unto  the  said  Palace,'  granted  the  precinct  of  the 
Minories  to  the  See  of  Bath  and  Wells  in  exchange 
for  the  bishops'  residence  then  near  Temple  Bar,  and 
for  the  next  ten  years  it  was  known  as  Bath  Place 
and  occupied  first  by  John   Clerk,  formerly  rector 
of  Hothfield  (not  Northfield,  as  Mr.  Tomlinson 
has  it),  Kent,  a  devoted  servant  of  Cardinal  Wolsey; 
then    by    W.    Knight    (who    succeeded    Clerk   as 
bishop),  at  one  time  rector  of  Romald  Kirk  (not 
Ro/iald  Kirk),  and  vicar  of  Bangor,  and  holder  of 
numerous   other   preferments.      Bishop    Barlow, 


Knight's  successor,  was  the  last  bishop  of  Bath 
to  occupy  Bath  Place,  for  in  1548  he  transferred 
the  entire  precinct  to  King  Edward  VI,  who  in  the 
sixth  year  of  his  reign  granted  it  to  the  ill-fated 
Henry  Grey,  duke  of  Suffolk,  and  it  was  subse- 
quently acquired  by  the  marquis  of  Winchester,  who 
presented  it  in  1563  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  when  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  buildings  was  con- 
verted into  storehouses  and  workshops  for  the 
ordnance  department. 

A  residence  was  assigned  to  the  Lieutenant- 
General  of  the  Ordnance,  an  important  post  held 
by  many  distinguished  men.  The  rules  devised 
by  Sir  William  Pelham,  Lieutenant-General  in 
1566,  for  organizing  a  volunteer  office  contain  some 
practical  suggestions  which  would  not  be  now  out 
of  date — viz.,  amongst  others:  '  that  all  men  joining 
the  force  should  be  free  from  all  taxes  and  that  the 
towns  provide  prizes  to  be  shot  for  annually." 
It  was  during  Pelham's  tenure  of  office  that  the 
body  of  the  gallant  Sir  Philip  Sidney  was  brought 
to  the  Minories  and  laid  in  state  there  until  its 
burial  at  S.  Paul's.  Sir  William  Heydon  and  his 
brother  Sir  John,  the  last  Lieutenant-General  of 
Ordnance  before  Cromwell's  government  took  pos- 
session, were  long  resident  in  the  Minories  and 
took  an  active  interest  in  the  concerns  of  the  parish : 
their  name  is  preserved  to  the  present  day,  as 
Haydon  Square  and  Haydon  Street  still  remain. 
Colonel  Legge  was  appointed  by  King  Charles  II, 
and  his  vault  in  the  church  was  until  quite  recently 
the  burial-place  of  the  Dartmouth  family.  This 
little  church  is  the  only  building  of  interest  now 
remaining. 

Owning  no  allegiance  to  the  bishop  of  London, 
its  ministers  claimed  and  long  exercised  the  right 
of  performing  marriages  without  banns  or  licence, 
and  the  fees  which  were  received  for  these  cere- 
monies formed  the  main  part  of  their  income,  for 
although  the  precinct  was  subject  to  a  2s.  9d. 
tithe  under  an  Act  of  Henry  VIII,  the  inhabitants 
appear  to  have  claimed  the  ownership  of  the  tithes 
as  if  they  were  lay  rectors,  and  only  raised  amongst 
themselves  a  very  small  pittance  for  their  minister. 
In  an  adjacent  parish  where  a  2S.  Qd.  tithe  was 
payable,  the  parishioners  quarrelled  with  their 
patrons  (recently  described  as  '  the  poorest  col- 
lege in  Cambridge'),  and  the  dispute  was  settled 
by  a  private  Act  of  Parliament  fixmg  in  perpetuity 
the  amount  to  be  paid  in  lieu  of  tithe,  which  is  now 
raised  by  an  occasional  rate  of  a  fraction  of  a  penny, 
evidence  that  the  citizens  of  London  were  perhaps 
wiser  in  their  generation  than  the  patrons.  The 
parish  registers  and  other  parochial  records  being 
in  excellent  preservation  have  enabled  the  author  to 
continue  the  history  of  this  interesting  piece  of  Old 
London  down  to  modern  days.  The  illustrations 
have  been  selected  with  care,  but  the  index  is  some- 
what meagre. 

C.  R.  R. 


47 


Miscellaneous 


Alice's  Adventures  in  Wonderland.  I5y 
Lewis  Carroll.  Illustrated  by  Arthur  Rack- 
ham.  London  :  Heinemann.  6s.  net. 
No  better  testimony  to  the  skill  and  humour  of 
Tenniel  could  be  adduced  than  this  new  edition 
of  the  '  Alice  in  Wonderland '  which  he  immor- 
talized. Mr.  Rackham  is  among  the  cleverest, 
daintiest  and  most  fanciful  of  our  illustrators, 
and  his  taste  in  colour  carries  off  the  variations  on 
Tenniel's  inventions  which,  form  the  .  full-page 
plates.  When  restricted  to  black-and-white,  the 
draughtsmen  meet  on  even  ground,  and  the 
younger  one  is  hopelessly  beaten  :  there  is  no 
disguising  it.  The  colour  plates,  however,  will 
ensure  a  certain  sale  for  the  book,  and,  after  all, 
it  was  presumably  produced  to  that  end. 

MONATSHEFTE  FUR  KUNSTWISSENSCHAFT.  Leip- 
zig :  Klinkhardt  and  Biermann.  M.  i6  yearly. 
This  new  periodical,  edited  by  Dr.  Georg  Bier- 
mann, has  made  a  successful  first  appearance  with 
a  double  number  for  January  and  February.  The 
contributors  include  Dr.  Bode,  with  an  article  on 
Donatello ;  Dr.  Habich,  who  has  discovered  a 
portrait  of  Burgkmair  in  a  picture  by  the  elder 
Holbein  ;  Professor  Strzygowski,  whose  article  on 
Orientalism  in  mediaeval  Italian  architecture  is 
beautifully  illustrated  ;  and  Dr.  Steinmann,  who 
writes  on  the  less  known  portraits  of  Michelangelo. 
Shorter  articles  deal  with  Ostendorfer,  Griinewald 
and  Velazquez,  while  Dr.  Pauli  traces  the  compo- 
sition of  Manet's  Dejcmicr  snr  I'herbe  to  an  unex- 
pected source,  an  engraving  by  Marcantonio  ;  the 
juxtaposition  of  the  two  designs  is  both  convinc- 
ing and  amusing  in  the  extreme.  Correspondence 
from  the  chief  cities  of  Europe,  reviews  and  notes 
of  interest  to  collectors,  which  form  the  remaining 
sections  of  the  magazine,  are  intelligently  written 
and  arranged.  The  carefully  classified  biblio- 
graphy mentions  articles  in  the  '  Saturday  Review,' 
besides  other  weekly  and  even  daily  journals.  If 
the  standard  achieved  by  the  first  number  can  be 
maintained,  the  '  Monatshefte,'  published  at  a 
moderate  price  and  in  a  handy  size,  should  be 
assured  of  success  in  Germany  and  elsewhere. 
Contributions  will  appear  in  English,  French  and 
Italian,  though  in  the  first  number  the  only  article 
by  a  foreign  contributor  has  been  written  in 
German.  C.  D. 

The  Bibliophile.    A  magazine  and  review  for 
the   collector,   student    and    general    reader. 
Vol.  I,  No.  I.     March,  1908.     Thanet  House, 
Strand.     6d.  net. 
The  promoters  of  this  new  magazine  have  inter- 
preted the  word  '  bibliophile  '  in  its  widest  sense. 
There  is  a  tacitly  acknowledged  difference  between 
the  Greek  and  the  English  form  of  the  expression, 
and  this  first  number  is  adapted  to  appeal  rather 
to  the  latter  class — to  the  '  book-loving '  general 

48 


reader  than  to  the  bibliophile  proper.  Mr,  A.  W. 
Pollard  stands  pre-eminent  among  the  contributors 
as  at  once  a  bibliophile  and  a  bibliographer,  and 
in  the  article  on  '  Early  Book  Advertisements '  he 
gives  a  delightful  taste  of  his  stores  of  out-of-the- 
way  learning.  Mr.  Samuel  Clegg  writes  well  on 
Thomas  Hollis,  and  among  other  good  things  is 
Dr.  Peachey's  note  on  history  in  book-plates.  The 
inclusion  of  such  names  as  G.  K.  Chesterton  and 
Arthur  Hayden  will,  no  doubt,  promote  a  healthy 
circulation.  The  magazine  is  well  printed,  and 
includes  among  the  illustrations  four  good  colour- 
plates. 

F£DfiRATI0N   ARCH£0L0GIQUE    ET    HiSTORIQUE 
DE  BeLGIQUE:  ANNALESDU  XX''  CONGRES. 
(Gand,    1907.)     Publiees  par  Paul  Bergmans, 
secretaire  general  du  Congres.   2  vols.  419  and 
542  pp.  ;  18  plates  and  83  text-illustrations. 
Gand.     1906-7. 
The  last  fascicle  of  the  Annals  of  this  admirably 
organized  congress,  held  at  Ghent  August  2  to  7, 
has  lately  reached  us.     There  were  three  sections : 
the  first  devoted  to  prehistoric  and  proto-historic 
archaeology  ;  the  second  to  history  ;  and  the  third 
to   monumental   archaeology  and  the   history  of 
art.      The   memoirs   submitted   to    the   congress 
were  printed  as  soon  as  they  were  received  by  the 
secretary,    and   circulated   among    the   members, 
giving  them  ample  time  to  prepare  whatever  obser- 
vations they  might  wish  to  make  to  the  assembly. 
These   memoirs,  classed   and  reprinted,  form  the 
second   volume   of   the   Annals  of   the  twentieth 
congress  issued  on  the  opening  day,  while  in  the 
first,  now  published,  will  be  found  a  full  report  of 
the  proceedings  and  discussions. 

In  the  third  section  considerable  attention  was 
given  to  domestic  architecture,  and  an  immense 
collection  was  exhibited  of  elevations  and  photo- 
graphs, and  of  some  plans  illustrating  examples 
remaining  in  each  of  the  provinces  of  Belgium ; 
incidentally  the  origin  of  stepped  gables,  so  often 
spoken  of  as  Flemish,  was  discussed  ;  many 
examples  were  cited  not  only  in  Belgium,  but  in 
Germany,  France,  Switzerland  and  Scotland, 
ranging  from  the  twelfth  century  onwards.  It 
was  clearly  demonstrated  that  the  adoption  of 
stepped  gables  and  of  crenelated  house-fronts  was 
the  natural  and  logical  outcome  of  the  employ- 
ment of  brick,  or,  as  in  Scotland  and  at  Tournay,  of 
rag  stone,  these  not  being  suitable  for  a  continuous 
slope.  There  was  also  some  discussion  on  certain 
points  relating  to  the  history  and  works  of  the 
Van  Eycks,  and  M.  Hulin  pointed  out  that  the 
lighting  in  two  contrary  directions  in  some  of 
their  works  was  due,  not  to  these  having  been 
executed  by  two  persons,  but  to  the  backgrounds 
having  been  painted  from  studies  of  landscapes 
made  in  the  open  air  and  the  figures  from  models 
in  the  studio. 


Miscellaneous 


Another  point  discussed  was  whether  buildings 
were,  as  a  rule,  designed  and  carried  out  by  the 
same  individual.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  in 
Belgium,  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century, 
buildings  were  sometimes  designed  by  painters,  a 
practice  which,  unfortunately,  became  pretty 
general  in  the  sixteenth,  and  led  to  the  erection 
of  such  architectural  monstrosities  as  the  palace 
of  the  prince  bishop  of  Liege.  In  stating  that  the 
Bruges  painter,  James  Coene,  was  summoned  from 
Paris  to  Milan  at  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  century 
to  make  designs  for  the  entire  cathedral  from  the 
foundations  upwards,  that  generally  very  exact 
critic,  M.  Hulin,  was  evidently  misled  by  the  asser- 
tions of  the  late  M.  H.  Bouchot.  Had  he  examined 
the  original  documents,  he  would  have  seen  that 
Coene  was  merely  employed  to  make  drawings  of 
all  that  had  been  executed,  which  drawings  he 
began  on  the  morrow  of  his  arrival  in  August,  1399. 
{Sec  Burlington  Magazine,  Vol.  vu,  p.  160, 
May,  1905.) 

The  desirability  of  multiplying  the  number  of 
local  museums  was  urged  by  some  persons.  This 
is  a  common  enough  fad  with  many  people  at  the 
present  day,  especially  in  France,  where,  owing  to 
the  confiscation  of  churches,  many  paintings  and 
works  of  art  which,  if  sometimes  not  too  well  cared 
for,  were  at  all  events  seen  by  the  people  and  in 
their  proper  surroundings.  On  the  other  hand 
most  of  the  museums  in  the  smaller  towns  are 
little  better  than  warehouses  where  such  works  as 
are  relegated  to  them  are  difficult  of  access,  and, 
when  admission  is  obtained,  are  in  many  cases 
found  to  be  perishing  from  damp  and  neglect.  No 
new  museums  should  be  built  unless  sufficient  funds 
can  be  raised  to  ensure  proper  care,  and  the  ser- 
vices of  a  competent  person  to  catalogue  the  objects 
and  make  them  educationally  useful,  and  a  proper 
number  of  guardians  to  protect  them  from  injury 
and  theft.^  Belgium  is  better  off  in  this  respect, 
and  some  of  her  museums  are  admirably  arranged 
and  well  cared  for,  as  for  instance  those  of  Namur 
and  St.  Nicolas  ;  but  in  some  of  the  larger  towns, 
in  spite  of  the  wealth  of  many  of  the  inhabitants, 
there  is  a  sad  lack  of  dignified  feeling  which 
ought  long  ere  this  to  have  secured  the  erec- 
tion of  a  suitable  building.  A  paper  by  Canon 
Van  der  Gheyn  as  to  the  loan  of  works  of  art  by 
public  museums  to  temporary  exhibitions  gave  rise 
to  an  interesting  discussion  and  to  the  adoption  of 
a  motion  that  no  work  of  any  importance  belong- 
ing to  a  public  institution  should  be  lent  except 
when  the  object  of  the  exhibition  is  to  aid  the 
solution  of  some  archaeological  or  artistic  problem, 
and  even  then  only  if  a  proper  building  is  provided 
with  a  suitable  staff  of  guardians.    There  have  of 

'  Even  the  paintings  in  the  Louvre  are  neither  well  cared  for 
nor  properly  protected,  and  the  catalogue  o£  those  by  the  Old 
Masters  is  one  of  the  dearest  and  least  well  edited  of  any  of  the 
principal  collections  in  Europe. 


late  years  been  too  many  exhibitions  the  main 
object  of  which  has  been  the  attraction  of  a  number 
of  visitors.  The  recent  exhibition  of  the  Golden 
Fleece  may  be  cited  as  an  example  :  valuable 
paintings  were  borrowed  from  museums  as  far 
away  as  St.  Petersburg  and  Madrid  which  had  no 
connexion  with  the  Order,  whilst  many  of  less 
iinportance  as  works  of  art  which  would  have 
helped  to  illustrate  the  history  of  the  Order  might 
have  been  and  were  not  obtained.  Several  other 
papers  of  interest,  including  one  on  Hugh  Van  der 
Goes  and  another  on  the  domestic  architecture  of 
Bruges,  will  repay  perusal. 

W.  H.  James  Weale. 


SMALL  BOOKS,  PAMPHLETS  AND 
CATALOGUES 

Professor  Lethaby  has  just  published,  through 
Messrs.  Batsford  (2s.  net),  the  first  of  a  series  of 
studies  of  Greek   buildings  represented    by  frag- 
ments in  the  British  Museum.     It  deals  with  the 
temple  of  Diana  at  Ephesus,  and  makes  out  a  good 
case  for  a  structure  differing  essentially  from  that 
formerly  proposed  by  Dr.  Murray.     '  Murillo,'  by 
Albert    F.  Calvert,  is   the  latest   addition  to   the 
Langham  Series  of  Art  Monographs  (Siegle,  Hill 
and  Co.,  cloth   is.  6d.  net,  leather  2s.  6d.  net). 
'The  Sanity  of  Art '  (New  Age  Press,  is.  net)  is  a 
reprint  of  a  reply,  written  by  Mr.  G.  Bernard  Shaw 
some  years  ago,  to  Dr.  Nordau's  '  Degeneration.' 
While  ostensibly  beating   the  bones  of  a  buried 
reputation,  it  does  so  with  so  much  science  and 
vigour  as  to  remain  a  sound  and  stimulating  piece 
of  criticism.     The  '  Bulletin  of  the  Metropolitan 
Museum  of  New  York'  and  the  '  Boston  Museum  of 
Fine  Arts '  are  as  usual  well  written  and  well  illus- 
trated.    The  chief  articles  in  the  former  deal  with 
Greece   and    Crete,  in   the   latter   with   Japanese 
colour-prints.     The  catalogue  of  the  John  Gooch 
collection  of  Old  Masters  of  the  Dutch,  Flemish, 
Spanish,  Italian  and  French  schools   (Paiba  and 
Paiba,  is.  6d.),  which  will  be  sold  early  in  May, 
with  that  of  the  Municipal  Gallery  of  Modern  Art 
at   Dublin  (Dollard,  is.),  and  the  Report  of  the 
Board  of  Education  on  the  National  Competition 
for    1907    (3s.),  are   the   three    largest   illustrated 
catalogues  we  have  received.     The  reproductions 
of  the  Dublin  pictures   deserve  a  special  word  of 
praise.    Four  good  catalogues  of  Mr.  Karl  Hierse- 
mann,  of  Leipzig,  must  also  be  noticed  :  Oriental 
Art  (No.  343),   including  a  number  of  Japanese 
colour-prints ;  Antique  Art  (No.  344)  ;  Architec- 
ture (No.  345)  ;  Costumes  and  Uniforms  (No.  349). 
Messrs.  Baer,  of  P'rankfort,  send  the  latest  number 
of  their  '  Biicherfreund,'  which  contains  a  special 
illustrated  list  of  cuts  by  Jorg  Breu. 


49 


^  RECENT  ART   PUBLICATIONS*    c^ 


ART  HISTORY 
Maspero  (G.).     L'archeologie  egyptienne.     Collignon   (M.). 
L'archeologie    grecquc.     (9x6)     Paris   (Picard   &   Kaan), 

3  fr.  50  ;  bound,  4  fr.  50.  Revised  and  enlarged  t  ditions  of 
well-known  handbooks  of  the  '  Bibliothecjue  de  I'enseigne- 
ment  des  Beaux-Arts.' 

Brinton  (S.)    The  Renaissance :    its  art  and  life ;    Florence, 

1450-1550.       (13  X  10)        London     (Goupil),    10    guineas. 

Photogravures. 
RiEGL  (A).     Die  Entstehung  der  Barockkunst  in  Rom.     Aus 

seiiien   hinterlassenen    Papieren    herausgegeben   von   A. 

Burda  und  M.  Dvorak.     (10x7)    Vienna  (Schroll). 
Gnoli  (U.).     L'Arte  umbra  alia   Mosfra  di  Perugia.     (10x7) 

Bergamo  (Istituto  d'Arti  grafiche).     Illustrated. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL  ANTIQUITIES 

WiEGALL  (A.  E.  P.).  A  report  on  the  antiquities  of  lower 
Nubia  (the  first  cataract  to  the  Sudan  frontier),  and  their 
condition  in  1906-7.  {14  x  10)  Oxford  (Univ.  Press),  65  fr. 
Publication  of  the  Egyptian  Dept.  of  Antiquities.    Illustrated. 

Angeli  (D.).  Koma.  Parte  la.  Dalle  origini  al  regno  di 
Costantino.  (11x7)  Bergamo  (Istituto  d'Arti  gratiche), 
1.3.50.     128  illustrations. 

LABBfe  DE  LA  Mauvini^re  (H.).  Poiticrs  et  Angouleme,  Saint- 
Savin.  Chauvigny.  (ux8)  Paris  (Laurens),  4  fr.  '  Villes 
d'Art  Celebres  '  series.     113  illustrations. 

Keymond(M.).     Grenoble  etVienne.    (11x8)    Paris  (Laurens), 

4  fr.     Illustrated. 

ViTRY  (P.)  and  BriIcre  (G.).      L'^glise  abbatiale  de  Saint-Denis 

et  ses  tombeaux,  notice  historique  et  archeologique.    (7x5) 

Paris  (Longuet),  2  fr.  50.     18  phototypes,  plans,  etc. 
Martin  (J.  B.).     Histoire  des   eglises  et  chapelles  de  Lyon. 

Tome  I.     (13x10)     Lyons  (Ladrauchet).     Illustrated. 
Godfrey  (J.  T.)     Notes  on  the  churches  of  Nottinghamshire. 

Hundred    of    Bingham.     (10x6)     London    (Phillimore). 

Illustrated. 
BIOGRAPHICAL  WORKS  AND  MONOGRAPHS 
LoNDl    (E.).      Alesso    B.aldovinetti,    pittore     fiorentino,    con. 

I'aggiunfa  dei  s>uoi  ricordi.     (10x7)     Florence  (Alfani  & 

Venturi),  I.  4.     Illustrated. 
Zottmann  (L.).     Zur  Kunst  der  Bassani.     (12x8)     Strasburg 

(Heitz),  10  m.    26  plates. 
GoFriN  (A).  Thiery  Bouts.   (9x6)  Brussels  (Van  Oest),  3  fr.  50 

Illustrated. 
Frey  (K.).     Michelagniolo  Buonarroti.    Sein  Leben  und  seine 

Werke.    Vol.1.    (10x8)    Berlin  (Curtius).    With  a  volume 

of  documents,  etc.     Phototypes. 
HoRNE  (H.  P.)    Alessandro  Filipepi,  commonly  called  Sandro 

Botticelli,   painter  of    Florence.     (15x10)   London   (Bell), 

10  guineas.     Photogravures. 
Dayot  (A.).    J.  B.  Simeon  Chardin.     Avec  un  catalogue  com- 

plet  de  Iceuvre  du  niailre  par  J.  Guiffrey.     (15x12)     Paris 

Piazza,  200  fr.     Photogravures. 
Klossowski  (E.).    Honore  Daumier.    (11x8)    Munich  (Piper), 

30  m.     90  plates. 
Hymans  (H).     Les  van  Eyck.      (9x6)     Paris  (Laurens),  2  fr. 

50.     'Les  Grands  Artistes.'    24  illustrations. 
Mayr  (J.).     Wilhelm  Leibl  :    sein  Leben  und  sein   Schaffen. 

(11x8)     Berlin  (Cassirer),  18  m.     Illustrated. 
Klaiber  (H.).     Leonardostudien.     (12x8)     Strasburg  (Heitz), 

6  m. 
ToESCA  (P.).     Masolino  da  Panicale.     (10x7)     Bergamo  (Isti- 
tuto ital.  d'arti  grafiche),  1.  7.     Illustrated. 
De    Bosschere    (J.).     Quinten     Metsys.     (9x6)     Brussels  (v. 

Oest),  3  fr.  50.     Illustrated. 
Mayer  (A.  L.). "  Jusepe  de  Ribera,    (Lo  Spagnoletto).    (10x7) 

Leipzig  (Hiersemann),  24  m.      43  phototypes. 
Knapp  (F.).     Andrea  del  Sarto.     (11x7)     Leipzig  (Knackfuss), 

4ni.     122  illustrations. 
Collignon  (M.).     Scopas  et  Praxitele,  la  sculpture  grecque  au 

IVe   siccle  jusqu' au   temps   d'Alexandre.     (9x6).     Paris 

(Plon),  3  fr.  50.     Illustrated. 

ARCHITECTURE 
Lethaby  (W.  R.).  Greek  buildings  represented  by  fragments 
in  the  British  Museum.  I— Diana's  Temple  at  Ephesus. 
(10x6)  London  (Batsford).  2s.  Illustrated. 
Beschrijving  van  de  Grafelijke  Zalen  op  het  Binnenhof  te 
's  Gravenhage.  (14x11)  Hague  (Mouton),  18  fl.  Illus- 
trated. 

•  Sizes  (height  x  width)  in  inches. 


BEYLife  (General  L.  de).  Prome  et  Samara.  Voyage  archeo 
logique  en  Birmanie  et  en  Mesopotomie.  (11x8)  Paris 
(Leroux),  7  fr.  50.  Vol.  I  of  the  publications  of  the  Societe 
fran9aise  des  fouilles  archeologiques. 
Arnott  (J.  A.)  and  Wilson  (J.).  The  Petit  Trianon,  Versailles. 
(19x15)  London  (Batsford),  3  pts..  each  21s.  net,  sub- 
scription price.  Illustrated  with  measured  drawings  and 
photographs,  including  the  furniture,  metalwork,  etc. 
Baum  (J.).     Die  Bauwerke  des  Elias  Holl.     (10x7)     Strasburg 

(Heitz),  10 m.     33  plates. 
Victoria  and  Albert  Museum.  Topographical  index  to  measured 
drawings  of  architecture  which  have  appeated  in  the  prin- 
cipal  British  architectural   pubbc.ations.     (9x6)     London 
(Wyraan),  ijd. 

PAINTING 
Pictures   in  the  collection  of  J.  Pierpont  Morgan  at  Prince's 
Gate  and  Dover  House,  London.     With  an  introduction  by 
T.  Humphrey  Ward  and  biographical  and  descriptive  notes 
by  W.    Kober;s.      3    vols.      (22  x  17)      London  (privately 
printed).     Photogravure  plates. 
Farrer  (Rev.  E.).     Portraits  in  Suffolk  houses  (West).    (11x9) 
London   (Quaritch).      25s.   net ;    50s.    net,    large    paper. 
Illustrated. 
Martin  (W.).     Galerie  Gustav  Rittcr  Hoschek  von  Miihlheim 
in  Prag.    (8x5)    Prague  (Dr.  Melnik,  Grubengasse,  nr.  5). 
59  plates. 
Konstantinowa  (A.).     Die  Entwickelung  des  Madonnentypus 
bei  Leonardo  da  Vinci.     (12x8)    Strasburg  (Heitz),  6  m. 
10  plates. 
Temple  (A.  G.).     Modern  Spanish  painting,  being  a  review  of 
some  of  the  chief  painters  and  paintings  of  the  Spanish 
school  since  the  time  of  Goya.     (11x9)     London  (Fair- 
bairn),  5  guineas  net.     59  photogravures. 
Phythian  (J.  E.).     Fifty  years  of  modern  painting:  Corot  to 
Sargent.      (8x6)     London    (Grant     Richards),     los.    6d. 
net.     Illustrated. 
HopPNER   (J.,   R.A.).     Essays  on  art.    Edited,   and   with   an 
introduction   by    F.   Rutter.     (7x4)    London    (Griffiths), 
2S.  6d. 

SCULPTURE 
EsPfeRANDlEU  (E.).     Recueil  general  des  bas-reliefs  de  la  Gaule 
romaine.      Vol.    I  :    Alpes    Maritimes,   Alpes   Cottiennes, 
Corse,  Narbonnaise.    (11x9)    I'ar's  (  Ministere  de  I'lnstruc- 
tion  Publique),  40  fr.     Illust'-ated. 
Nebbia   (L.).     La  scultura   nel   duomo   di   Milano.     (14x10) 
Milan  (Hoepli),  1.  85.    Official  publication  of  the  '  Fabbrica 
del  Duomo.'     384  photfitypes. 
Serrano  Fatigati   (E.).     Port.adas  artisticas  de  monumentos 
espanoles  desde  el  siglo  xiii.  hasla  nuestros  dias  (11x7). 
Madrid  (Hauser  &  Menet),  20  pesetas.     Illustrated. 
Dieulafoy    (M.).      La    statuaire     polychrome    en    Espagne. 
(14x10)      Paris   (Hachette),   100  fr.     83  phototypes,  3  in 
colour. 

ILLUMINATED  MSS. 
Uspensky  (T.).     L'Octateuque  de  la  BibliothSque  du  Serail  a 
Constantinople.     (12x9)    Leipzig  (Harrassowitz).     Text  in 
Russian  ;  with  phototype  plates  in  atlas. 
CoCKERELL  (S.  C).     The  Gorleston  Psalter.     A  manuscript  of 
the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  in  the  library  of 
C.  W.    Dyson   Perrins.     London   (Quaritch),  73s.6d.net. 
21  plates. 
Thompson  (H.  Y.).     Illustrations  of  one  hundred  manuscripts 
in  the  library  of  H.  Yates  Thompson.     Vol.  I,  containing 
48  plates  illustrating  ten  French  MSS.,  eleventh-sixteenth 
centuries.     (14x10)     London  (Chiswick  Press),  42s.  net. 
DoREZ  (L.).     Les  manuscrits  a  miniatures  dela  bibliotheque  de 
Lord  Leicester  a  Holkhain  Hall,   Norfolk.     Choix  de  minia- 
tures et  de  reliures.     (18x13)     Paris  (Leroux),  125  fr.  60 

Delisle(L.).  Recherches  sur  la  librairie  de  Charles  V.  Two 
vols.  (10x6)  Paris  (Champion),  30  fr.  Vol.  "con- 
tains the  inventories  of  Charles  V,  Charles  VI  and  John, 
duke  of  Berry.    With  portfolio  of  26  phototypes  (15  x  11). 

DURRIEU  (P.).  Les  Antiquites  Jud.aiques  et  le  peintre  Jean 
Foucquet.     (16x13)     Paris  (Plon),  60 fr.     27  plates. 

DRAWINGS 
Lindner  (A.).     Handzeichnungen  alter  Meister  im  Besitze  des 
Museum   Wallraf-Kich.artz  zu   Koln  am   Rhein.     (15x12) 
Cologne  (Abels),  20  m.    25  phototype  plates, 


5° 


Recent  Art  Publications 


Moreau-Nelaton  (E.).  Le  portrait  a  la  cour  des  Valois. 
Crayons  franfais  du  XVIe  siecle  conserves  au  Musee 
Conde  a  Chantilly.  5  vols.  (17  x  12)  Paris  (Lib.  centrale 
des  Beaux-Arts).  Vol.  I  text,  and  4  portfolios  of  mounted 
phototypes. 

ENGRAVING 

WUSTMANN  (G.).  Der  Leipziger  Kupferstich  im  16,  17  und 
18  Jahrhunderts.  (10x6)  Leipzig  (Hirschfeld).  Forms 
Part  III  of  the  Neujahrsbliitter  of  the  Leipzig  civic  library 
and  archives,     i  plate. 

Lehrs  (M.).  Karl  Stauffer-Bern,  1857-1891,  ein  Verzeichnis 
seiner  Radierungen  und  Stictie.  Mit  dem  Manuscript  zu 
einem  '  Traktat  der  Radierung'  aus  dem  Nachlas  des 
Kunstlers.    Dresden  (Arnold),  40  m.     12  plates. 


GOLDSMITHS'  WORK 
Vernier   (E.).      La    bijouterie  et    la   joaillerie    egyptiennes. 

(14x11)     Cairo  (Institut  frani;ais  d'arch^ologie  orientale), 

45  fr.     25  plates,  and  200  text  illustrations. 
Ball  (T.  S.).      Church  plate  of  the  City  of  Chester.      London 

(Sherratt  &  Hughes),  los.  6d.  net.     12  plates. 
Jones  (E.  A.).     The  old  silver  sacramental  vessels  of  foreign 

Protestant  churches  in  England.    (12x10)    London  (Dent), 

21S.  net.    22  plates. 

CERAMICS 
Crisp  (F.  A.).  Catalogue  of  Lowestoft  china.  (13  x  10)  Privately 
printed   (Grove  Park   Press,  270  Walworth    Road,  S.E.), 
21S.     14  chromo  plates  and  i  photogravure. 


;A^  ART  IN  FRANCE  cK, 


HE  exhibition  season  is  now 
almost  at  its  height.  The 
'Ind^pendants'  opened  their 
salon  in  the  Cours-la-Reine 
on  March  21st,  too  late  for 
any  notice  of  it  here  this 
month  ;  it  will  remain  open 
until  the  end  of  April.  The 
New  Salon  will  open  its  doors 
as  usual  on  April  15th  and  the  Old  Salon  on  May 
1st.  An  exhibition  of  an  unusual  character,  which 
promises  to  be  interesting,  is  announced  for  the 
beginning  of  April  at  the  Mus6e  des  Arts  D^coratifs, 
but  its  opening  is  not  likely  to  take  place  before 
the  middle  of  the  month.  This  is  the  retrospective 
theatrical  exhibition,  which  will  include  everything 
connected  with  the  history  of  the  theatre — models 
and  designs  of  scenery,  reproductions  on  a  reduced 
scale  of  theatrical  machinery,  theatrical  costumes 
and  other  accessories,  etc.  Puppet-shows  and  the 
theatre  of  the  marionette  will  have  their  section  of 
the  exhibition.  The  exhibits  of  the  greatest  interest 
from  a  purely  artistic  point  of  view  will  be  the 
pictures  and  sculptures  relating  to  the  history  of 
the  theatre  and  the  portraits  of  famous  plajrwrights, 
theatrical  decorators,  actors  and  actresses.  I  hope 
to  give  some  account  of  the  exhibition  in  a  future 
number  of  The  Burlington  Magazine.  The 
exhibition,  which  has  been  organized  by  the  Union 
Centrale  des  Arts  Decoratifs,  will  remain  open 
until  the  end  of  September  so  that  summer  visitors 
to  Paris  may  have  the  opportunity  of  visiting  it. 

The  Lyceum  Club,  which  has  lately  established 
itself  in  Paris,  celebrated  the  formal  opening  of  its 
house  in  the  Rue  de  la  Bienfaisance  by  an  inter- 
esting exhibition  of  pictures  by  deceased  women 
artists.  Madame  Vigee-Lebrun  was  represented  by 
eleven  pictures,  most  of  them  representative. 
Perhaps  the  finest  was  the  portrait  of  Yolande  de 
Polastron,  duchesse  de  Polignac,  lent  by  the  due 
de  Polignac.  The  portrait  of  Le  Bailly  de  Crussol, 
from  the  collection  of  the  due  d'Uzes,  was  another 
picture  of  high  quality.  The  due  de  Rohan  lent 
the  well-known  portrait  of  Madame  Dubarry  in 
his  possession.  Two  pictures  of  still-life  by 
Madame  Vallayer-Coster,  a  pupil  of  Chardin,  were 


among  the  most  interesting  in  the  exhibition.  This 
excellent  eighteenth-century  artist  is  less  well- 
known  than  she  deserves  to  be — perhaps  because 
her  pictures  get  labelled  with  the  greater  name  of 
her  master ;  one  of  the  pictures  exhibited  belongs 
to  the  well-known  painter,  M.  Albert  Besnard. 
There  were  two  pictures  by  Judith  Leyster,  an 
interior  of  good  quality,  and  a  portrait  of  a  man 
which  was  as  fine  an  example  of  her  work  as  could 
be  found.  Of  the  more  recent  artists  represented 
perhaps  the  most  interesting  was  Eva  Gonzales,  a 
pupil  of  ALanet,  five  of  whose  pictures  were  shown. 
The  little  society  of  painters  and  sculptors,  which 
used  to  be  called  La  Nouvelle  Societe  and  is  now 
without  a  name,  is  holding  its  annual  exhibition 
at  the  Galeries  Georges  Petit.  As  usual,  it  is  one 
of  the  best  modern  exhibitions  of  the  year ;  the 
standard  maintained  by  the  twenty-three  members 
represented  is  relatively  a  very  high  one.  On  the 
whole  M.  Jacques  Blanche  carries  off  the  honours. 
He  shows  no  less  than  fourteen  pictures  and  has 
never  appeared  to  greater  advantage ;  the  little 
picture  La  Hoiissc  dc  Chintz  is  a  fine  piece  of  paint- 
ing and  is  extraordinarily  charming,  though  it  is 
but  a  picture  of  a  sofa  in  the  corner  of  a  room.  Of 
the  more  important  works  shown  by  M.  Blanche, 
the  two,  Fenuue  devant  une  glace  (robe  grise)  and 
Jcnne  Fille  devant  line  glace  (jupe  rouge),  deserve 
special  mention  in  the  cursory  remarks  for  which 
alone  we  have  space.  The  portrait  of  Sir  Coleridge 
Kennard  must  also  be  noticed.  Altogether,  this 
exhibition  will  further  enhance  M.  Blanche's  reputa- 
tion. M.  Raoul  Ulmann,  the  young  painter  whose 
pictures  attracted  attention  in  this  exhibition  last 
year,  has  had  the  honour  of  selling  one  of  the 
pictures  which  he  is  exhibiting  to  the  State.  The 
choice  is  a  good  one,  for  the  picture — a  view  of  the 
Seine  in  a  mist  with  the  Trocadero  faintly  seen 
in  the  background — is  one  of  the  best  of  the  dozen 
that  M.  Ulmann  shows ;  it  will  go  to  the  Luxem- 
bourg. M.  Ulmann  is,  perhaps,  too  much  influenced 
by  Cazin,  but  his  work  has  both  charm  and  origin- 
ality and  is  certainly  improving  every  year.  One 
of  the  most  remarkable  pictures  in  the  exhibition 
is  M.  Lucien  Sivnon's  La  Recolte  de  poininesdc  ten c, 
quite  the   best   piece    of  work   that    he    has    yet 


fArt  in  France 

produced.  M.  Gaston  la  Touche  shows  a  charming 
picture,  La  Belle  an  Boh  dormanl,  in  his  best 
manner,  and  M.  Le  Sidaner  is  as  interesting  as 
usual.  M.  Lobre's  pictures  of  the  interior  of 
Chartres  Cathedral  deserve  a  special  mention,  as 
do  the  portrait  of  Mademoiselle  de  Mornant  by 
M.  Antonio  de  La  Gandara  and  La  Plage  and 
other  pictures  of  M.  Ren6  Prinet.  M.  Besnard 
is  disappointing,  though  his  unfinished  portrait 
promises  to  be  good.  M.  Henri  Martin  is  as 
clever  and  as  disagreeable  as  usual.  Mr.  Sargent, 
by  his  Portrait  of  Lady  S.  .  .  .,  more  than  ever 
justifies  his  claim  to  be  considered  the  Lawrence 
of  our  time  ;  the  picture  is  as  brilliant  as  it  is 
superficial.  Among  the  best  work  in  the  exhibition 
is  that  of  M.  Zacharian,  an  Armenian  painter  of 
still-life  ;  one  can  see  that  M.  Zacharian  has  studied 
Chardin,  but  he  is  no  imitator,  although  his  work 
is  intensely  French.  Among  the  sculpture  is  a 
fine  bust  of  Mr.  J.  Pulitzer,  by  M.  Rodin,  the 
President  of  the  Society,  who  also  sends  a  strange 
composition  called  Le  Scnlptciir  ct  sa  muse,  quite 
unworthy  of  his  great  reputation.  The  latter  would 
more  fitly  have  been  entitled '  Le  Sculpteur  s'amuse' 
— at  the  expense  of  his  admirers.  A  bust  of  Pro- 
fessor Pozzi  by  M.  Troubetzkoi  is  an  excellent 
piece  of  work. 

There  are  and  will  be  during  the  next  two 
months  innumerable  one-man  exhibitions  in  the 
various  galleries,  many  of  which  ought  to  be 
noticed,  did  not  space  fail.  A  very  interesting  and 
much-discussed  exhibition  was  that  of  M.  Rent^ 
Seyssaud  at  the  Galeries  Bernheim.  Nothing  could 
be  in  greater  contrast  to  M.  Seyssaud's  extreme 
impressionism  than  the  water  colours  of  ^L 
Charles-Louis  Geoffroy  exhibited  at  the  Galeries 
Shirleys  ;  M.  Geoffrey  has  studied  but  does  not 
imitate  the  great  English  masters  of  water  colour, 
and  he  has  a  future.  The  work  of  M.  Henri 
Tenr6,  exhibited  at  the  Galeries  Georges  Petit, 
must  also  be  mentioned. 

The  system  of  admission  by  payment  is  at  last 
established  in  the  museums  of  the  town  of  Paris, 
the  difficulties  mentioned  last  month  having  been 
overcome.  The  result  is  that  the  museums  are 
empty  except  on  Thursdays  and  Sundays,  when 
admission  is  free,  and  they  are  so  crowded  that  it 
is  dilScult  to  move  about  or  see  anything.  In  the 
first  week  of  the  new  system  rather  more  than  500 
people  in  all  visited  the  museums  on  the  paying 
days  ;  since  then  no  figures  have  been  published, 
and  it  is  believed  that  the  numbers  are  steadily 
decreasing.  Unfortunately,  although  the  Dutuit 
collection  is  still  free,  most  visitors  to  the  Petit 
Palais  are  not  aware  of  the  fact,  as  the  separate 
entrance  to  this  collection  is  through  a  small  door 
at  the  side  which  is  scarcely  visible.  This  collec- 
tion has,  therefore,  suffered  like  the  others.  It  is 
generally  believed  that  this  foolish  experiment  will 
be  short-lived  ;  the  opinion  of  those  responsible 

52 


for  the  management  of  the  museums  seems  to  be 
tiiat  the  pecuniary  results  of  the  new  system  are 
no  compensation  either  for  its  disastrous  effect  on 
the  attendance  or  for  the  additional  trouble  and 
expense  which  it  entails. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Grand  Palais, 
where  the  Salons  and  other  public  exhibitions  are 
held,  was  built  by  the  State  at  the  time  of  the 
International  Exhibition  of  1900  on  land  belong- 
ing to  the  town  of  Paris.  The  lease  of  the  land 
will  expire  at  the  end  of  this  year,  and  the  State 
has  proposed  to  buy  it ;  this,  however,  would  be 
impossible  without  a  new  law,  as  the  Champs- 
Elysees  were  given  to  the  town  by  Charles  X  in 
1828,  under  a  law  which  enacted  that  they  should 
never  be  alienated.  The  Municipal  Council  intends, 
it  is  said,  to  propose  to  the  State  that  it  shall  take 
over  the  Grand  Palais,  power  being  reserved  to 
the  State  to  hold  there  those  exhibitions  for  which 
it  is  responsible.  It  is,  however,  probable  that  the 
State  will  prefer  to  renew  the  lease  of  the  land. 

The  State  museums  have  lately  made  some 
interesting  acquisitions.  The  Louvre  has  acquired 
for  the  very  moderate  price  of  25,000  francs  an 
extremely  fine  picture  by  El  Greco,  which  has  not 
yet  been  hung  in  the  galleries  but  which  I  have 
had  the  opportunity  of  seeing.  The  picture,  which 
measures  8  ft.  8  in.  by  5  ft.  8  in.,  represents  Christ 
on  the  cross  against  a  background  of  the  extra- 
ordinary thunder-clouds  that  Greco  loved  ;  at  the 
foot  of  the  cross  on  either  side  are  the  half-length 
portraits  of  the  donors,  Diego  and  Antonio 
Covarrubias,  sons  of  the  celebrated  architect  of 
Charles  V.  Diego,  who  was  a  priest,  is  represented 
in  a  surplice  or  rochet,  his  brother  in  the  dress  of 
a  gentleman  of  the  period.  The  picture  was 
painted  for  an  altar  in  the  church  of  the  nuns  of 
the  Visitation  at  Toledo,  where  it  remained  until 
1835,  when,  on  the  suppression  of  the  religious 
orders  in  Spain,  it  passed  into  private  hands.  Later 
it  became  the  property  of  the  late  M.  Isaac  Pereire 
of  Prades  (Pyr6nees-0rien tales)  who,  in  1869, 
being  at  that  time  a  candidate  for  the  representation 
of  the  arrondisscment  in  the  Chamber,  offered  the 
picture  to  the  parish  church  of  Prades.  The  offer 
was  refused  and  M.  Pereire  presented  the  picture 
to  the  local  Palais  de  Justice ;  in  1904  it  was 
removed  to  the  Mairie  in  consequence  of  the 
decision  to  remove  religious  emblems  from  the  law 
courts,  and  M.  Leprieur  has  acquired  it  from  the 
Mayor  and  Municipal  Council.  M.  Paul  Laforce 
points  out  in  the  '  Gazette  des  Beaux-Arts  '  that  the 
picture  must  have  been  painted  before  1577,  in 
which  year  Diego  Covarrubias  died,  and  probably 
dates  from  a  time  very  shortly  after  Greco's 
arrival  at  Toledo  and  a  few  years  before  he  painted 
the  famous  Burial  of  the  Count  D'Orgaz,  in  which 
also  there  is  a  portrait  of  Antonio  Covarrubias. 
The  picture  is  a  great  and  majestic  work  of  art, 
worthy  alike  of  its  painter  and  of  the  Louvre  ;  the 


Art  in  France 


Christ  IS  a  noble  and  beautifuj  figure,  and  the 
portraits  are  intensely  real. 

M.  de  Nolhac  has  made  a  most  interesting  and 
valuable  acquisition  for  the  palace  of  Versailles, 
a  portrait  of  Camille  and  Lucille  Desmoulins  with 
their  infant  child.  At  present  no  attribution  has 
been  found  for  the  picture,  which  has  consider- 
able artistic  qualities  in  addition  to  its  historical 
interest  and  seems  to  have  been  painted  about 
1793.  It  will  be  placed  in  the  rooms  devoted  to 
the  Revolution.  M.  Henry  Marcel's  annual  report 
in  regard  to  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  mentions 
several  important  acquisitions  in  addition  to  the 
bequest  of  M.  Audeoud  mentioned  some  months 
ago.  Among  them  are  a  copy  of  the  Hemes  de 
Rome,  of  Simon  de  Collines  (1543),  of  which  there 
is  only  one  other  known  example  in  France,  and 
that  incomplete,  and  also  some  interesting  manu- 
scripts. The  departments  of  prints  and  medals 
have  also  received  valuable  additions. 

The  sales  continue  to  be  rather  unimportant. 
The   only  one  of  any   special  interest  since   last 


month  has  been  that  of  the  collection  (mostly  of 
modern  pictures)  of  the  late  M.  Jules  Cronier. 
The  highest  price  of  the  sale  was  that  of  39,100 
frs.  for  the  Pecheiir  amarre  a  la  rive  of  Corot. 
Three  pictures  by  Harpignies  fetched  the  high 
price  of  20,000  frs.  apiece,  and  other  pictures  by 
this  artist  sold  well.  The  prices  of  the  pictures  by 
Ziem  were  lower  than  they  have  been  hitherto  ; 
a  good  one,  Le  Port  de  Marseille,  fetched  only 
16,800  frs.,  and  the  others  lower  prices — but  none 
of  theZiems  were  of  the  first  quality.  The  Bergere 
gardaiit  ses  moiitons  of  Charles  Jacque  sold  for 
30,000  frs.,  a  very  high  price  for  this  artist,  but  it 
was  a  specially  fine  example  of  his  work,  and  the 
other  pictures  by  him  went  for  much  smaller  sums. 
The  pictures  by  Jongkind  sold  very  well,  at  prices 
ranging  from  2,450  to  6,400  frs.  There  were 
several  pictures  by  A.  L.  Bouchd:,  which  were 
much  more  contested  than  has  ever  been  the 
case  with  his  work  before.  One  went  up  to  2,600 
frs.  In  all  cases  ten  per  cent,  has  to  be  added  to 
the  prices  mentioned.  R.  E.  D. 


cA^  ART  IN  GERMANY,  AUSTRIA  AND  SWITZERLAND  a^ 


of 


English 


HE  tremendous  success 
the  exhibition  of 
eighteenth  century  art  at  Berlin 
was  of  course  due  in  part  to 
the  fact  that  it  was  a  society 
function.  Every  one  con- 
nected with  the  Imperial 
court  of  necessity  helped 
towards  making  this  show,  instituted  in  honour  of 
the  Emperor,  a  signal  success.  For  a  time  at  least 
the  academy  which  housed  the  collection  was 
guarded  by  regular  sentinels,  just  as  if  the  'guests' 
of  his  Majesty  had  been  living  crowned  heads, 
instead  of  painted  pictures. 

Even  London  has  seldom — if  ever  during  the 
last  fifty  years — seen  such  a  collection  of  work 
united  in  one  place.  But  it  is  a  mistake  to  imagine 
that  the  show  amounted  to  a  Wallace  Collection, 
enlarged.  There  was  perhaps  as  much  fine,  first- 
class  work  to  be  seen  here  as  the  Wallace  Collection 
contains,  and  slightly  more.  About  one-half  of 
the  paintings,  however,  were  not  quite  of  the  first 
order,  and  the  canvases  which  modern  collectors 
have  been  able  to  buy  during  the  past  era,  fine 
enough  as  they  are,  are  not  the  equal  of  those 
portraits  which  the  descendants  of  the  famous 
houses  of  nobility  still  possess  as  heirlooms. 

It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  air  of  distinguished 
respectability,  when  in  evidence  to  such  an  extent 
as  upon  the  walls  of  this  show,  grew  to  be  just  a 
trifle  oppressive.  Raeburn  alone  introduced  some 
erratic,  lively  and  amusing  tones  into  this  long 
sustained  harmony  of  reserve  and  propriety.  His 
strong  card  of  imstrained  naturalness  in  pose  and 
unconventional  coloration  was  particularly  effec- 


tive here,  where  beauty  seemed  to  be  just  a 
little  linked  with  monotony. 

The  large  full-length  representative  portraits  did 
not  please  the  beholder  the  more  he  saw  of  them, 
and  I  believe  the  reason  for  this  is  not  difficult  to 
find.  They  all  represent  a  special  effort  and  are, 
in  consequence,  all  just  a  bit  forced.  Besides,  the 
almost  chameleon-like  brown  and  green-golden 
tones  of  the  landscapes  often  serve  as  a  very 
imperfect  foil  to  the  colour-composition  of  the 
main  figure  or  group.  Even  so  admirable  a  portrait 
group  as  Lady  Betty  Deliiie  with  her  Two  Children 
is  badly  set  off  on  this  background  :  the  fine 
Valentine  Green  mezzotint  of  the  picture  awakens 
expectations  that  the  original  does  not  quite  fulfil. 

This  is  generally  the  case  with  the  mezzotints 
after  the  large,  full-length  portraits  of  ladies  or 
groups,  standing  in  landscapes. 

The  case  is  entirely  different  with  the  smaller 
half-lengths.  Here  the  background  scarcely  ever 
consists  of  a  park  or  landscape,  whose  variety  of 
tones  presents  a  kaleidoscopic  sea  upon  which  the 
colours  of  the  portrait  itself  seem  as  it  were  to 
dissolve  :  on  the  contrary,  the  background  is  some 
simple,  succinct  tone,  the  grey  of  a  stormy  skj',  the 
full,  vivid  red  of  a  plush  curtain,  or  something 
similar,'  which  sets  off  the  colour-composition  of 
the  main  figure  to  best  advantage. 

Finally,  the  brush-work  of  these  masters  was 
closely  adapted  to  the  bust  or  half-length  portrait. 
It  was  interesting,  at  times  even  bewitching,  when 
applied  to  work  on  this  scale.  But  they  did  not 
alter  it,  when  they  worked  upon  the  huge  canvases: 
consequently  a  face,  when  it  looms  up  there  a 
couple  of  yards  above  us,  appears  too  delicately^ 


SI, 


Art  in  Germany 


softly  handled.  The  energy  of  the  small  work  has 
not  been  properly  transplanted  into  the  larger 
dimensions. 

The  Berlin  'connoisseur'  has  been  somewhat 
perplexed  by  this  wonderful  exhibition.  He  cannot 
help  being  impressed,  and  yet  it  is  by  work  so 
totally  different  from  that  which  he  has  been 
slowly  and  indomitably  trained  to  appreciate. 
There  have  been  forces  at  work  for  years  to 
educate  the  '  higher '  Berlin  public  up  to  Manet, 
Monet,  Renoir,  Sisley,  to  Israels  and  Liebermann. 
Bright  coloration  and  the  refusal  of  everything 
that  smacks  in  the  very  least  of  '  composition ' 
and  selection  are  the  '  connoisseur's  '  standbys,  and 
his  battle-cry  is  :  Look  forward  1  never  backward  I 

But  here  we  have  an  art  of  tradition  :  a  retro- 
spective art  which  has,  at  bottom,  sought  its 
inspirations  in  the  Titianesque  schools  of  the 
Renaissance ;  which  is  brown  and  luscious,  not 
grey,  or  silvery,  or  white.  Yet  it  seems  first-class 
art — and  so  the  Berlin  public  is  decidedly  troubled, 
as  every  one  naturally  would  be,  who  has  gradually 
forgotten  that  there  are  more  gods  than  one  in 
Olympus. 

The  quite  untutored,  however,  came  there  simply 
to  enjoy  what  they  saw,  and  they  enjoyed  with  a 
vengeance,  without  any  misgivmgs. 

A  list  of  the  principal  contributors  to  the 
exhibition  has  already  been  given  in  a  former 
issue.  The  continental  contributions,  with  but 
two  or  three  exceptions,  were  not  first-class.  It 
may  be  of  interest  as  a  record  to  note  the  principal 
pictures  exhibited. 

The  Bine  Boy  (Duke  of  Westminster)  heads  the 
list  of  the  large  Gainsboroughs.  Viscountess 
Ligonicr  (Ch.  Wertheimer)  and  Anne  Dnnconibe 
(do.)  were  excellent,  but  Jnlia  Lady  Petie  (do.). 
Viscount  Ligonicr  (do.)  and  General  Honeyivood 
(Messrs.  Agnew)  already  somewhat  less  attractive. 
None  seem  quite  to  attain  to  the  charm  of  the 
small  Miss  Linley  (Ch.  Wertheimer).  The  quaint, 
Chardin-like  portrait  of  Gainsborough's  two 
daughters  (do.)  and  the  piquante  dancer  Madame 
Bacelli  (O.  Beit)  were  the  only  two  pictures  in  the 
exhibition  which  one  would  at  all  be  inclined  to 
call  rococo  art. 

The  Romneys,  although  there  was  not  a  single 
Lady  Hamilton  among  them,  were,  almost  all  of 
them,  superb.  Viscountess  Clifden  and  Lady 
Elizabeth  Spencer  ('  Beauty  and  the  Arts,'  Ch. 
Wertheimer)  is  perhaps  a  little  strained  in  the 
composition,  but  nobody  could  find  anything  but 
words  of  admiration  for  the  lovely  Mrs.  John 
Johnson  (Ch.  Wertheimer),  the  entrancing  Mrs. 
Long  (Ed.  Simon),  the  Mrs.  Buchanan  (A.  V. 
Goldschmidt-Rothschild),  the  fine  Lady  Poulett 
(A.  de  Rothschild),  that  fascinating  picture  of  a 
little  girl.  Miss  Holbeck  (Ch.  Wertheimer),  and 
Thomas  Fane  (Lord  Burton).  The  much-admired 
J.  Walter  Tempesi{k.  Wertheimer)  is  magnificently 

54 


drawn  and  conceived,  but  the  coloration  is  not 
altogether  pleasing.  It,  too,  belongs  to  the  class 
of  pictures  which  reproduce  so  well  in  black-and- 
white  that  such  a  reproduction  leads  one  to 
expect  features  which  the  original  lacks. 

The  inimitable  Duchess  of  Devonshire  with  her 
little  daughter  (,Duke  of  Devonshire)  was  alone 
worth  a  journey  to  the  exhibition.  No  other 
portrait  painter  in  the  world  has  ever  surpassed 
Reynolds  in  the  fertility  with  which  he  invented 
captivating  and  unrestrained  poses,  nor  in  the 
ability  in  catching  a  charming  expression  and 
making  it  appear  to  be  the  natural  one  of  the 
sitter.  This  applies  especially  to  the  picture  just 
named,  to  the  Mrs.  Payne  Gallwey  (J.  P.  Morgan) 
and  ioiheLady  Betty  DcUne{].  P.  Morgan).  Among 
the  other  superfine  Reynoldses  to  be  seen  here,  I 
should  note  the  Mrs.  Fronde  with  a  lute  (Ch. 
Wertheimer),  the  marvellous  Lady  Caroline  Price 
(Sir  Julius  Wernher),  Cupid  as  Link  Boy  (J.  P. 
Morgan),  Mrs.  J  elf  Pouys  (C.  Wertheimer),  Lady 
Stanhope  (ditto).  The  Babes  in  the  Mood  (J.  P. 
Morgan),  and  a  Corregiesque  Sketch  of  a  Girl  (Ch. 
Wertheimer). 

The  Raeburns  were  all  first-class  :  The  Elphinstone 
Children  (Ch.  Werthsimer),  Sir  William  Maxwell 
(Messrs.  Agnew),  Mrs.  Mackenzie  (ditto),  Lady 
Raeburn  (Sir  Ernest  Cassel),  and  Lady  Maitland 
(J.  P.  Morgan). 

Hoppner  could  only  with  difficulty  hold  his 
own  in  this  society,  even  with  Mrs.  Jerningham 
as  Hebe  (Ch.  Wertheimer)  and  the  Setting  Sun 
(The  Godsall  Children,  J. P.  Morgan),  and  Shee  and 
Beechey  were  scarcely  in  the  race.  Lawrence's 
Miss  Farren  (J.  P.  Morgan)  was  one  of  the  clous  of 
the  exhibition,  a  marvellous  feat  for  a  youth  to 
perform  and  a  huge  contrast  to  the  mannered  and 
insipid  Childhood's  Innocence  (Julia,  Countess  of 
Jersey,  Ch.  Wertheimer)  of  his  later  years. 

A  mere  mention  of  some  magnificent  landscapes 
by  Gainsborough  and  Constable  (Lord  Svvaythling, 
the  Royal  Academy)  must  close  this  imperfect  list. 

The  question  of  a  new  municipal  museum  for 
Frankfort-on-the-Main  has  now  been  definitely 
settled  in  the  manner  indicated  in  our  February 
issue.  The  new  museum  is  to  contain  four  depart- 
ments :  I.  Modern  paintings.  2.  The  work  of 
local  Frankfort  artists.  3.  Sculpture  ;  and  4. 
Collections  subservient  to  the  study  of  the  history 
of  art  (books,  magazines,  photographs,  casts, 
etc).  The  city  councillors  have  voted  half  a 
million  marks  to  begin  purchases  with.  The 
director  of  the  new  museum — who,  for  the  present, 
at  least,  is  to  be  identical  with  the  director  of  the 
Stiidel  Museum — has  already  brought  together  a 
noteworthy  collection  of  Gothic  and  Renaissance 
sculptures  and  car\'ings.  For  the  second  depart- 
ment the  purchase  of  a  large  number  of  works  by 
Boehle,  paintings  and  etchings,  is  contemplated. 
The    municipality   have    likewise    purchased  the 


CONSTAXCli.    BY   ALBERT   I>.    RYDEK.      IN  THE 
COLLECTIUN    OE    SIR    WILLIAM     YAN    HORNE 


ART    IX   AMERICA 
PLATE  I 


s< 


Art  in  Germany 


entire  collection  of  Graeco  -  Roman  antiquities 
formed  by  the  late  Adolf  Furtwaengler,  Professor 
of  Classical  Archaeology,  for  its  museum. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  new  Deutscher  Verein 
fiir   Kunstwissenschaft  took  place  on  March  7th, 
at   Frankfort.      The   proposed    constitution    was 
submitted  for   adoption.      It   transpired  at  once 
that  there  are  apparently  two  currents  already  in 
this  early  stage  of  the  society's  existence.     To  the 
one    belong    the    specialists     and     art-historians 
proper,   who  aim    at   furthering   the    interests  of 
their  profession  by  the  publication  of  the  so-called 
'  Monumenta  Artis   Germaniae,'    by  launching  a 
serious  magazine  and  publishing  annuals  and  a 
bibliography.     To  the  other  there  belong  the  con- 
noisseurs, art-enthusiasts   and  patrons,  who  take 
less   interest   in  the   purely  scientific   plans,    but 
rather  wish  to  direct  attention  to  the  various  pro- 
posals for  spreading  a  general  interest  and  under- 
standing  for  art.     Although   these  latter  are  the 
financial  support  of  the  new  society,  they  do  not 
seem  to  have  succeeded  in  pushing  their  claims  to 
the  fore.    One  influential  member  openly  confessed 
that  he  cared    little  for  the  '  Monumenta '  and  a 
magazine,   and  that  his  support  was  secured  on 
the  strength  of  the  proposed  general  cult  of  the 
fine  arts.     The  provisions  which  section  6  of    the 
submitted  constitution    made  for  this  cult    were 
justly  deemed  unsatisfactory  and  were  all  dropped. 
One  gentleman,  a  university  professor,  very  aptly 
remarked  that  to  introduce  the  study  of  art-history 
as  a  compulsory  feature   in  the  curriculum  of  the 
lower  schools  and  gymnasia    would  tend  rather 
to   put  fine  art    in    disfavour    with    the  growing 
generation. 

In  the  face  of  this  chaos,  a  museum  director 
suggested  that  the  real  foundation  of  the  society 
be  deferred  until  the  initiators  of  the  scheme. 
Bode  and  Althoff,  with  a  few  of  their  assistants, 
had  grappled  with  the  issues  in  question  sufficiently 
to  offer  more  definite  proposals  after  the  lapse  of  a 
year.  Something  very  like  this  plan  was  finally 
adopted.  A  dircctorinm  of  twenty-five  members 
and  a  general  committee  of  one  hundred  are  to 
be  established,  with  power  to  call  a  second  con- 
vention about  this  time  next  year,  when,  it  is  hoped, 
matters  will  have  clarified  sufficiently  to  make 
feasible  the  foundation  of  a  society  with  definite 
and  attainable  ends  in  view.  If  the  present 
meeting  gives  one  a  fair  forecast  of  what  we  may 
expect,  there  is  little  chance  of  the  society  taking 
up  the  bibliography,  or  the  annual  reports  ;  nor 
will  it  publish  a  new  magazine,  though  it  possibly 
may  support  the  '  Repertorium  '  in  such  a  way  as 
to  enable  the  publishers  to  make  of  it  a  monthly, 
purely  scientific  but  liberally  equipped. 

From  the  heirs  of  Menzel,  the  Bavarian  Govern- 
ment has  received  the  gift  of  sixty  of  the  late 
master's  works.  There  are  nine  oil  sketches  and 
half  a  dozen  small  water  colours  among  them  ;  the 


rest  is  made  up  of  drawings  and  pastels.  The 
whole  collection  will  probably  be  housed  in  the 
Munich  Print  Room,  which  institution  Menzel  is 
said  to  have  specially  favoured. 

At  the  Winter  Secession  Exhibition  the  Bavarian 
Government  purchased  four  paintings  by  Albert 
von  Keller,  An  AxuUcncc  (iSji),  Empress  Fatistina 
in  the  Temple  0}  Juno  at  Praeneste  (1881),  In  the 
Gardens  of  the   Villa    Wolkonsky  at  Rome  (1885), 
and  Ten  Time  (1886),  for  the  new  Pinakothek  at 
Munich,   which   already    contains   two   excellent 
works  by  this  master.     Revisiting  this  gallery  the 
other   day,    it   struck   me  that   the  possibility  of 
adapting  the  walls  to  the  new  acquisitions  is  by 
no    means    the    greatest    difficulty    with    which 
the   director   has    to    battle.      It   seems    scarcely 
credible  that  the  building  is  not  heated  during 
winter  time,  and,  as  far  as  I  could  make  out,  it  is 
quite  impossible  to  heat  it  at  all.     The  halls  are  as 
cold   and    damp   as   cellars.      A   Sunday   crowd, 
during  this  early  spring  season,  naturally  brings  a 
good  deal  of  warmth  with  it,  and  some  of  the 
pictures   seemed   to  reek  with   moisture.     There 
were  several — bright   day  that  it   was — glistening 
with  all  the  hues  of  the  rainbow  :  it  was  impossible 
to    find  a  point  of  view  from  which  the  whole 
painting  could  be  taken  in  at  a  glance.   There  was 
always  a  reflection  somewhere,  apparently  due  to 
the  moisture.     Possibly  some  of  the  paintings  are 
undergoing  chemical   changes,  too,  owing  to  the 
indifferent  quality  of  the  paints  employed.    There 
has  been   much    complaint  of  this  lately,   and  I 
have  referred  to  Mr.  Keim  and  his  society  for  the 
improvement  of  pigments  and  vehicles  before  now. 
The  invaluable  collections  in  the  old  Pinakothek 
are  better  cared  for  ;  this  building  is  beatable  and 
kept  at  an  average  temperature  all  the  year  round. 
It  astonished  me  to  find  in  an  institution   which 
does  not  shirk  the  responsibilities  incumbent  on 
elaborate   restoration    (the    Diirer  Adoration   and 
Baumgiirtner  altar  wings  ! )  some  pictures  sorely 
neglected.     The  wonderful    Rubens  Massacre   of 
the  Innocents  threatens  to  crack  seriously,  and  on 
the  left  hand  side  of  the  picture  there  is  a  triangle 
of  paint  and  ground  altogether  gone,  about  half 
an  inch  across.     Speaking  of  Diirer  restorations, 
by  the  way,  calls  to  mind  the  circumstance  that 
Gliick  of  Vienna  recently  maintained,  with  much 
likelihood,  that  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi  in  the 
Uffizi  has  been  repainted  along  the  left  hand  side, 
behind     the    Virgin,    where     St.     Joseph     must 
originally  have  stood.     Probably  we  shall  soon  see 
this  Diirer  too  in  its  pristine  state. 

This  year  will  again  see  an  important  art 
exhibition  at  Darmstadt.  Painters  living  in  Hesse 
or  connected  therewith  will  be  invited  to  exhibit. 
The  principal  feature,  however,  will  be  the  show 
of  applied  art.  Among  other  things  five  furnished 
labourers'  cottages  for  one  and  for  two  families  will 
be  exhibited,     l^he  former  are  to  cost,  furnishing 

57 


Art  in  Germany 


and  all,  4,500  marks  ;  the  latter,  8,000  marks — and 
the  exhibitors  are  bound  to  supply  any  subsequent 
order  for  such  a  house  at  the  prices  affixed  to  the 
objects  they  exhibit.  This  is  an  excellent,  novel 
idea.  The  cry  of  '  Art  for  the  people '  has  been 
much  abused,  and  even  such  an  artist  as  H. 
Vandevelde  has  shown  himself  utterly  unable  to 
carry  his  popularization  of  art  into  effect.  He  once 
proclaimed  that  his  aim  was  to  produce  true  art 
so  cheaply  as  simply  to  crowd  the  sham  and  taste- 
less article  out  of  the  market.  But  he  did  not 
progress  very  far  in  the  direction  of  this  goal.  His 
furniture  and  his  silver -ware  are  about  the  most 
expensive  one  can  find,  and  producing  objects 
which  only  millionaires  can  buy  does  not  seem  a 
very  effective  way  of  spreading  a  love  for  art 
among  the  lowly.  It  remains  to  be  seen  what  the 
men  at  Darmstadt  will  be  able  to  put  up  for  these 
small  sums.  The  experiment,  in  any  case,  will  be 
valuable  and  interesting. 

That  lovely  and  unique  Mecca  for  all  students 
of  historic  black-and-white,  the  Albertina  at 
Vienna,  has  a  wonderful  exhibition  of  portrait 
drawings  on  view.  Few  directors  in  the  world, 
drawing  solely  upon  the  resources  of  their  own 
establishment,  are  able  to  make  the  show  Dr. 
Meder  has  brought  together.  Beginning  with 
Gentile  Bellini,  a  Lippi  and  other  early  Italians, 
the  heads  range  via  Diirer  and  the  little  masters, 
Rubens  and  Van  Dyck,  Vaillant,  Silvestre,  Nan- 
teuil,  Watteau,  to  name  but  a  few,  down  to  the 
men  of  our  own  time,  among  whom  I  noted  an 
interesting  portrait  of  Keller  by  Bocklin,  and 
William  Strang's  colour-craj'on  drawing  of  his 
daughter  Nancy.  The  Albertina  need  not  curry 
favour  with  the  public :  the  attendance  is  as  large 
as  can  be  accommodated,  it  being  virtually  a 
private  collection.  So  there  are  only  two  or  three 
exhibitions  arranged  every  year.  But  every  one  of 
them  is  worth  travelling  miles  to  see. 

Probably  no  private  art  gallery  has  ever  before 
collected  so  fine  a  show  of  Goyas  as  those  to  be 
seen  at  present  in  the  Galerie  Miethke,  at  V'ienna, 
with  which  we  hope  to  deal  next  month. 

An  alarming  rumour  is  just  spreading,  to  the 
effect  that  the  director  of  the  Berlin  National  Gal- 
lery, von  Tschudi,  is  to  leave  his  post  in  the  course 
of  a  year.  At  the  time  of  his  entry  into  office, 
the  National  Gallery  was  by  some  styled  the 
Catacombs  of  German  nineteenth-century  art.  It 
fell  to  the  lot  of  von  Tschudi  to  turn  it  into  a 
collection  worthy  of  the  German  capital,  and  really 
representative  of  the  art  of  the  past  and  present 
century.  In  England,  where  the  opposition 
between  conservative  and  progressive  art-enthu- 
siasts has  never  been  driven  to  such  a  point  as  on 
the  continent,  the  difficulties  of  the  position  will 
hardly  be  realized.  The  National  Gallery  at  Berlin 
contained  many  specimens  of  the  best  masters,  but 
more,  of  a  larger  circle,  were  entirely  missing  ; 

58 


everything  that  savoured  of  modernity  was  rigidly 
excluded  since  the  year  1880.  The  previous  autho- 
rities did  not  seem  to  be  aware  of  the  art  which 
descended  from  the  school  of  Fontainebleau  and 
of  Manet.  Nothing  by  foreigners  found  its  way 
into  the  halls  of  the  National  Gallery.  Half  of 
them  were  occupied  by  battle  pictures,  which  were 
but  patriotic  offerings  at  best,  and  by  ephemeral 
historical  or  genre  essays.  The  few  years  that 
von  Tschudi  has  been  at  work  have  altogether 
changed  the  character  of  the  gallery.  Uninteresting 
work  has  been  removed  from  the  walls,  and  the 
most  important  lacunae,  which  prevented  the 
collection  from  reflecting  a  true  picture  of 
German  nineteenth-century  art,  have  been  filled 
up.  The  'recent  retrospective  exhibition  was  a 
great  help  thereto.  Finally,  the  show  of  foreign 
work  is  at  least  equal  to  that  in  the  Luxem- 
bourg or  the  Tate  Gallery.  All  this  has  been 
effected  in  constant  strife.  The  director  was 
hampered  by  such  rules  as,  for  example,  that 
his  acquisition  of  works  by  foreign  masters  must 
be  restricted  to  one-tenth  of  the  annual  additions, 
and,  that  one-tenth  once  reached,  he  was  not  per- 
mitted to  accept  a  further  foreign  painting,  even 
as  a  gift.  Reactionary  views  have  gained  the 
upper  hand,  and  in  the  Prussian  Diet,  a  member 
blandly  proposed  reinstating  the  National  Gallery 
in  the  status  quo  in  which  von  Tschudi  found  it. 
Rumour  has  even  hinted  that  Dr.  Bode  is  going  to 
resign  his  position  because  of  the  lack  of  support 
on  the  part  of  the  Government  which  von  Tschudi 
has  received.  Probably  there  is  no  foundation 
whatever  for  this  report,  but  it  is  an  indication  of  the 
consternation  with  which  the  former  has  been 
received  by  all  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the 
National  Gallery. 

The  Kaiser  Friedrich  Museum  at  Berlin  ac- 
quired some  time  ago  the  life-size  portrait  of 
Sir  James  Montgomery,  Lord  Chief  Baron  of  the 
Exchequer,  by  Raeburn.  The  subject  is  seated  in 
black  robes  and  powdered  wig,  looking  some- 
what wistfully  at  the  spectator.  It  is  rather  quieter, 
not  so  buoyant  with  life  as  some  of  Raeburn's 
best  work. 

The  Kunstgewerbemuseum  at  Berlin  has  come 
into  possession  of  some  fine  porcelain,  bought  at 
the  recent  Clenini  sale,  the  principal  articles  being 
three  sets  of  early  Berlin  ware.  The  first  of  these 
is  a  coffee  service,  sent  on  the  22nd  of  April,  1764, 
by  Frederick  the  Great  as  a  gift  to  General  De  la 
Motte  Fouquet,  to  convince  him  that  Berlin  was 
producing  as  fine  a  quality  of  work  as  the  Meissen 
factory.  The  porcelain  shows  the  rosy  tint  com- 
mon to  Berlin's  early  produce,  and  great  delicacy 
in  the  painting.  A  triple  tea  service  in  Louis  XVI 
style,  dates  from  about  1780,  and  is  reminiscent 
of  antique  vases  in  its  shapes.  The  third  set  is 
an  '  Empire'  chocolate  service,  once  a  present  from 
Prince  Biron  of  Curland  to  Count  VVassiliew,  with 


,Mli(l\M.ll.IlT  MARINK.     BY  AIJiKKT  I'.  RYDl-Ii. 
IX  THK  Clil.l.ECTluX    ill'    MK.  X.  [:.  MdXTKuSJ 


Mi>iiXL1i;HT    MAKIXE.  liV     AI.I'.KkT    ]'.    K>lill;. 

IX  THE  CdLI.KCTIilX  OK  SI  k'  WILLIAM  \' \  X    HOKXE 


-5^1 


ART   IN   AMKK'ICA. 
PLATE  II 


f^ 


THE   FOREST  OF  AKDKX.      BY   AI.BHKT   P.    RYDER. 
IN'    THE    COLLECTION    OF    MR.    X.    E.     MOXTROSS 


DE.\TH   OX   THE   P.\LE    HORSE.      I!Y    .ALBERT    1'.    RVDEK 


.ART    IX   .\MERICA. 
PL.\TE      III 


Art  in   Germ. 


any 


portraits  of  Frederick  the  Great,  Queen  Louise  of 
Prussia  and  her  sister  Friederike.  Further  acquisi- 
tions are  a  tine  but  incomplete  Viennese  coffee-set, 

^  ART  IN 

THE   ART   OF   ALBERT   P.   RYDER 
While  we  blame  the  gods  for  denying  us  what 
we  regard  as  our  due  proportion  of  creative  talent, 
it  is  a  tactical  mistake  to  overlook  a  single  one  of 
those  who  have  the  authentic  gift  and  who  work 
scarcely  regarded  in  our  midst.     The  names  of 
quite  a  number  of  American  artists  are  known  to 
most  art  lovers  on  this  side  of   the  Atlantic,  but  I 
believe   comparatively  few   have    ever    heard    of 
Ryder,  and  yet   he  appears  to  me  to  merit  very 
serious  attention.      I   do  not  know  whether  our 
European  ignorance  is  our  own   fault  or  the  fault 
of  those  American  critics  who  ought  to  have  made 
clear   to    us  long    ago  what   undeniable    genius, 
what  unmistakable  inspiration,  shine  through  the 
works  of  this  artist.     Nor  is  it  worth  while  to  con- 
sider whose  the  fault  is.     I  believe  that  one  has 
only  to  show  his  work — even  in  the  accompanying 
reproductions — to  convince  those  who  have  an  open 
mind  and  a  seeing  eye  of  Ryder's  definite  achieve- 
ment.    It  is  the  kind  of  achievement  by  which 
landscape   art  can  justify   itself,    and  the   art   of 
pure  landscape    assuredly    often    stands   in  need 
of  justification.      Ryder's    genius    is    essentially 
akin  to   that   of   the   lyric   poet  :    it   might  arise 
almost  at  any  moment,  and  in  any  circumstances  ; 
it   does    not   belong   particularly   to    its    age    or 
its  place;  one  might  almost  say  that  it  was  in- 
dependent  of   the    artistic   tradition   it  inherited. 
Certainly,  its  effects  depend  upon  no  slowly  built- 
up  knowledge  of  technique  and  construction,  no 
inherited    craftsmanship    handed    on    from   one 
generation  to  another.     What  Ryder  has  to  say  is 
so  entirely  personal,  so  immediately  the  fruit  of 
his  own  peculiar  humours,  that  he  was  bound  to 
find  for  it  a  mode  of  expression  equally  peculiar 
and  individual.     Ryder,  of  course,  belongs  quite 
definitely  to  his  age,  and,    though  not  quite   so 
obviously,   to   his  country  ;    but  it  is    partly   by 
virtue  of  this  very  exaggeration   of  individualism 
in  his  art  that  he  does  so.     So  that  it  seems  of 
little  importance  to  explain,  even  if  I  were  able  to, 
his  genesis  and  development.     One   accepts  him 
merely  as  an   isolated  phenomenon,    a  delightful 
and  unexpected  freak  of  his  stock.    Still,  it  is  impos- 
sible not  to  associate  him  almost  immediately  with 
one  other  American  creator,  namely,  Edgar  Allan 
Poe,  nor  to  wonder  whether  similar  circumstances, 
or  a  similar  violence  of  reaction  from  them,  have 
been  at  work  in  the  formation  of  their  kindred  spirits. 
In  any  case,  Ryder,  though  he  is  happily  still  in 
full   possession  of    his   powers,  still  a  producer, 
belongs  to  the  pre-Whistlerian  age.     He  is  the  last 
gleaning  of  the  harvest  of  1830  ;  his  romanticism 


about  1735  ;  some  of  Bottger's  red  earthenware  ; 
and  little  figures  of  Berlin,  Fulda,  Nymphenburg 
and  Viennese  porcelain.  H.  W.  S. 

AMERICA  ci^ 

has  the  fervour  and  heat  of  the  earlier  votaries  of 
the  movement,  he  has  the  unconsciousness  and 
abandonment  which  one  looks  for  in  vain  in 
contemporary  art.  One  thinks  first,  as  I  said,  of 
Poe,  because  something  in  their  isolation  has 
given  a  common  quality  to  the  work  of  the  two, 
but  after  him  one  thinks  of  the  earlier  romanticists, 
of  Shelley,  of  Coleridge,  of  Schubert. 

Take  for  instance  his  Constance  (Plate  i).  It  has 
the  audacity  of  conviction,  the  sheer  indifference 
to  all  ordinary  plausibility,  of  an  inspired  vision. 
It  might  be  dangerous  to  hazard  a  guess  as  to 
which  way  the  boat  is  moving,  or  how  it  is 
constructed  or  can  float  at  all ;  but  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  it  is  moving  forward  by  some  magic 
spell  with  the  silent  swiftness  of  Alastor's  bark 
'As  one  that  in  a  silver  vision  floats.  Beneath  the 
cold  glare  of  the  desolate  night.'  And  all  this,  so 
comparatively  easy  to  poetry,  so  difficult  to  painting 
with  its  more  specialized  vision,  is  given  by  a  very 
peculiar  method,  by  a  most  elaborate  and  hyper- 
subtle  simplification.  The  actual  forms  are  almost 
childishly  simple,  but  they  have  a  mass  and  content 
essential  to  the  effect  they  produce. 

And  this,  I  take  it,  is  one  of  the  crucial  problems 
of  the  painter,  especially  the  modern  painter, 
namely,  to  give  a  sense  of  the  complexity,  infinity 
and  richness  of  matter  without  involving  his 
design  with  a  corresponding  complexity  of  form. 
Ryder  has  solved  it  by  painting  over  and  over 
again,  loading  his  paint  sometimes  to  a  dangerous 
extent,  and  producing  at  last  a  wonderful  enamelled 
surface  overlying  a  broken  and  highly  varied  im- 
pasto.  It  may  be  that  this  peculiar  technique, 
which  he  has  worked  out  for  himself,  is  also  due 
to  a  certain  tentativeness,  almost  a  hesitation,  in  his 
manner,  which  leads  him  continually  to  refine  on 
the  idea,  changing  gradually  every  element  in  the 
design  until  each  part  becomes  expressive.  In 
any  case,  the  result  of  this  infinitely  laborious  pro- 
cess is  one  of  great  simplicity  in  the  achieved 
result.  The  actual  units  of  composition  are  few, 
and  only  by  the  subtlest  perfection  of  their  relation 
could  such  a  rich  content  be  given  by  such  bare 
material.  Here  the  placing  and  shape  of  the 
ungainly  mass  of  the  boat  have  clearly  been  refined 
upon  endlessly,  they  could  not  have  been  arrived 
at  an  premier  coup ;  but  surely  the  whole  design 
would  fall  apart  or  lapse  into  dullness  if  it  were 
not  for  the  fine  discovery  and  the  exquisite  adjust- 
ment of  the  diagonal  masses  of  the  nearer  clouds 
giving  a  drift  of  motion  opposed  to  the  horizontal 
lines  of  the  distant  strata. 

As  simple  in  its  elements  and  yet  as  full  of  nicety 

63 


Art  in  America 


is  another  Marine  by  him  (Plate  ii,  No.  2).  It  too 
has  movement,  though  of  another  kind — more 
buoyant,  more  exhilarating,  less  ghostly — for  the 
mood  is  entirely  different  from  the  last.  But  here 
again  the  simplification  of  the  forms,  the  willed 
awkwardness  and  ^(7»c/jt'm'  of  the  ship's  silhouette, 
gives  I  know  not  what  of  conviction  to  our  sense  of 
the  infinite  planes  of  wind-swept,  moon-illumined 
air.  And  again  as  always  in  Ryder's  works  the  cloud 
arabesque  has  the  symbolism  of  high  romance. 

For  purest  romanticism,  it  would  indeed  be 
hard  to  surpass  the  Forest  of  Arden  (Plate  iii,  No.i). 
What  invitation  in  the  winding  stream,  what 
unrealized,  oft-dreamt  possibilities  beyond  those 
undulating  hills,  what  seclusion  and  what  delicious 
terrors  in  the  brooding  woods,  and  what  happy 
augury  in  the  sky  !  One  might  perhaps  wish  the 
lovers  away.  Mr.  Ryder  has  not  quite  the  power 
to  people  his  own  landscape,  and  after  all — for 
romanticism  is  the  most  egoistic  effort  of  the  ima- 
gination— we  each  want  the  Forest  of  Arden  for 
our  own  loves.  How  he  could  have  got  his  com- 
position without  these  figures  I  cannot  tell,  but 
that  is  Mr.  Ryder's  concern. 

In  quite  the  opposite  vein  is  the  Death  on  the 
racecourse  (Plate  iii,  No.  2).  Here  the  planning 
of  masses  is  less  deliberate  ;  the  whole  effect  is 
more  elusive  ;  the  technique,  if  I  remember  right, 
thinner — it  approaches  more  to  the  feeling  and  the 
handling  of  Matthew  Maris,  with  whom  Ryder 
has  much  in  common.  But  this  shows,  too,  his 
likeness  with  Poe,  for  both  have  the  quality  of 
lyrical  macabre,  though  Ryder's  have  not  the 
perversity  of  Poe's  inventions.  This  seems  to  me 
slighter  than  those  I  have  hitherto  discussed,  both 
in  motive  and  in  execution.  It  is  rather  by  way 
of  a  poetical  conceit  than  a  deeply-felt  poetical 
truth  to  give  us  Death,  the  racer  who  has  ridden 
down  all  rivals  and  now  is  condemned  to  ride 
round  for  ever,  deprived  of  the  dear  companion- 
ship of  his  enemy  and  victim,  man.  I  lay  no  stress 
on  my  interpretation,  which  as  likely  is  not  is 
wrong  ;  but  some  such  ideas  are  prompted  in  my 
mind  by  the  vague  but  not  serious  dread  of  the 
cloud  arabesque  and  the  admirably  thought-out 
contour  of  the  distant  hill. 

Finally,  let  me  speak  of  what,  so  far  as  I  have 
seen  his  work,  is  Ryder's  masterpiece,  the  Flying 
Dutchman  (Plate  ii.  No.  i).  I  am  by  no  means 
sure  that  I  have  any  right  to  give  it  this  title,  but 
somehow  the  ideas  have  got  associated  in  my  mind. 
It  seems  to  possess  the  weird  and  legendary  awe 
that  befits  that  theme.  Here  the  emotion  is  more 
serious,  more  profound,  than  in  those  we  have 
discussed  before.  And  in  correspondence  with 
that  the  design  is  more  absolutely  ascertained,  the 
tone  and  colour  harmonies  more  definite,  and, 
finally,  the  quality  of  the  paint  has  the  perfection 
and  the  elusive  hardness  of  some  precious  stone. 
I  doubt  whether  the  artist  himself   could   to-day 

64 


tell  us  by  what  unconscionable  processes,  by 
snatching  at  what  felicitous  accidents,  by  obedience 
to  what  half-guessed  principles,  he  has  wrought 
the  slimy  clay  of  oil  pigment  to  this  gem-like 
resistance  and  translucency.  The  whole  effect  is 
that  of  some  uneven  enamel,  certainly  of  some- 
thing that  has  passed  through  fire  to  give  it  so 
unyielding  a  consistency.  That  this  extraordinary 
quality  has  been  reached  only  with  infinite  labour 
is  evident  from  the  dangers  that  this  little  panel 
has  undergone  of  cracking  up  altogether  owing 
to  the  incessant  overloading  of  one  coat  of  paint 
on  another.  Such  a  technique  is  for  that  very 
reason  not  in  itself  desirable  ;  and,  could  the  result 
here  attained  have  been  reached  by  more  controlled, 
more  craftsmanlike  methods,  one  would  certainly 
have  preferred  it.  But  we  accept  it  none  the  less 
as  it  is,  as  something  unique  in  its  method,  but 
something  in  which  the  peculiar  method  is  felt  to 
be  essentially  bound  up  with  the  imaginative  idea 
and  to  be  justified  by  the  perfection  with  which  it 
renders  that. 

I  wish  I  could  translate  the  ominous  splendour 
of  the  colouring  into  words.  I  can  only  give  a  faint 
idea.  The  sky  is  of  a  suffused,  intense  luminosity, 
so  intense  that  the  straw-coloured  moon  and 
yellower  edges  of  the  clouds  barely  tell  upon  it. 
The  clouds  themselves  (one  may  guess  from  them 
that  Ryder  has  been  a  student  of  Blake),  the 
clouds  are  of  a  terrible,  forbidding,  slatey  grey, 
not  opaque,  but  rather  like  the  grey  of  polished 
agate,  only  darker,  harder,  more  unyielding.  These 
are  so  dark,  and  their  silhouette  on  the  sky  is  so 
fiercely  emphasized,  that  the  utter  blackness  of  the 
sails  can  barely  tell  upon  them.  Almost  equal  in 
tone  with  the  clouds  is  the  mass  of  the  sea  itself, 
but  in  colour  it  contrasts  with  them,  being  of  an 
intense  malachite  green,  dark,  inscrutable,  and  yet 
full  of  the  hidden  life  of  jewels  and  transparent 
things.  This  note  is  taken  up  again,  if  I  remember 
rightly,  in  the  sky  at  the  top  left  hand  side,  but 
with  a  tendency  to  dull  peacock.  I  need  say 
nothing  of  the  composition,  of  the  effect  of  unend- 
ing, relentless  movement  given  by  the  diagonals 
crossing,  at  such  nicely  discovered  points  and  with 
such  just  inclinations,  the  barred  horizontals — its 
rare  quality  is  evident  even  in  our  reproduction. 
Here,  then,  is  a  vision  recorded  for  us  so  absolutely 
that  once  seen  it  can  never  be  forgotten.  It  has 
the  authoritative,  arresting  power  of  genuine 
inspiration. 

Sensations  such  as  this  little  picture  arouses  are 
not  so  common  that  one  can  afford  to  pass  them 
by  without  dedicating  one's  tribute  of  praise  to 
their  authors,  or  without  desiring  that  a  wider 
circle  should  enjoy  so  much  of  them  as  can  be 
conveyed  by  a  reproduction.  I  have  to  thank  Sir 
William  van  Home  and  Mr.  Montross  for  their 
courtesy  in  permitting  me  to  make  use  of  their 
examples  of  Ryder's  work.         Roger  E.  Fry. 


(^' 


/ 


Jro  //n-    rof/eclUn.  of.,  .^/r  Siaud^.  i^^^  i/Z'/^- 


S^.^tV^jL^.^^-'^i'^- 


EDITORIAL  ARTK 
^  TRF  CRISIS  TV  GERM  ^-  * 

'"  ■  -  by  mutual   l 

nne  will  hope  , 
•'hanee   of  n* 


■i:    la    j::<iigiajia,  vvnere 

, has   been  in  operation 

.ic  time,  its  objectionable    fe^tvr(^< 
been  considerably  nHtijrateci 

MODERN. 

HE     picture     -„uv 
London  of  the  past  '• 
or    three    months 
been  of  considerable  i. 
tercst.     A  great  v 

Vw«^  of   works    of    art     . 

^or  iude:^ment,  and,  in  spite  of  r 
>f  trade,  there  ha^ 


y  iU-advised 
apart  from  the 
one  1^1^  -•   •■  1 
Dr. 


tc 

v  teit  for 

work  as 


.merit 

t.                ■'- 

h:, 

..itea 

evci- 

'•f  firs:  , 

pictu, 
kind, jut 

standard. 

'lOugh 

e  up  to  th 

No  doubi 

:;arcity  of  n ;-,... ^ 

has  somethi)' 

his  discrimina- 

tion.    For  th' 

s  there  must 

r 

always  be  a  m- 
can    wait    till 

'ess  good 
•tlook    is 

If,  T/te 
work  of 

I'^rt  (r>l  »-,'■  )•              T\  :* 

fnr   in- 

rA>mc  !• 

.'>  ia.<iuJj<u7w;j   U'' 

r.was  apt  to  , 
artists  whom  he  patron; 
e  once  made  he  was  faiti; 

'*'■''■  picture  after  -  

,    tnter  or  favouj  .      _ 
id  schools  seem  to  have 
vork  of  art  be 


EDITORIAL 

^  THE  CRISIS 

MONG  those  who  have 
made  any  study  of  the  pro- 
gress of  public  galleries 
'during  the  past  few  years 
there  can  be  no  two 
^opinions  as  to  the  report- 
ed retirement  of  Dr.  Von  Tschudi.  It  has 
been  generally  recognized  that  the  great 
progress  made  by  Germany  and  American 
art  collections  during  the  last  decade  has 
been  due  to  the  courage  with  which  both 
nations  have  adopted  the  principle  of 
choosing  able  directors  and  giving  them 
a  free  hand.  Even  in  England,  where 
the  contrary  plan  has  been  in  operation 
for  some  time,  its  objectionable  features 
have  been  considerably  mitigated  of  recent 


ARTICLES 
IN  GERMANY  rjkp 

years  by  mutual  tact  and  good  sense,  and 
every  one  will  hope  that  the  report  of  this 
sudden  change  of  attitude  in  Germany 
will  prove  to  be  unfounded.  Whatever 
interest  we  may  take  in  the  friendly  rivalry 
between  the  great  collections  of  our  own 
and  other  countries,  that  feeling  in  the  case 
of  Germany  is  tempered  by  so  much  ad- 
miration for  the  acumen  and  enterprise  her 
great  museum  directors  have  shown,  that 
we  should  be  genuinely  sorry  if  her  appre- 
ciation of  the  fine  arts  was  to  be  narrowed 
by  ill-advised  official  interference,  quite 
apart  from  the  personal  sympathy  felt  for 
one  who  has  done  such  splendid  work  as 
Dr.  Von  Tschudi. 


MODERN  PICTURES  IN  THE  SALEROOM 


HE  picture  sales  in 
London  of  the  past  two 
or  three  months  have 
been  of  considerable  in- 
terest. A  great  variety 
of  works  of  art  have 
come  up  for  judgment,  and,  in  spite  of  the 
general  depression  of  trade,  there  has  been 
no  disinclination  to  pay  for  the  very  finest 
things  even  larger  prices  than  have  ever 
been  paid  for  them  before.  Things  of 
average  merit  have,  on  the  other  hand, 
fallen  considerably  in  value,  and  buyers 
have  discriminated  more  sharply  than 
ever  between  quite  first-rate  examples  and 
pictures  which,  though  good  of  their 
kind,  just  fail  to  come  up  to  the  highest 
standard. 

No  doubt  the  general  scarcity  of  money 
has  something  to  do  with  this  discrimina- 
tion. For  the  very  best  things  there  must 
always  be  a  market,  but  things  less  good 
can  wait  till  the  financial  outlook  is 
brighter.      But  with   this    reason    for  in- 

Thk  Burungton  Magazine,  No.  63.    Vol.  XIII— May.  1908. 


equalities  of  price,  others,  hardly  less 
potent,  must  be  reckoned. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that,  though 
the  number  of  picture  buyers  may  not  have 
increased  greatly,  their  critical  faculty  has 
been  considerably  augmented.  In  the  past 
the  collector  was  apt  to  pick  and  choose 
the  artists  whom  he  patronized,  but  the 
choice  once  made  he  was  faithful  to  it, 
and  bought  picture  after  picture  from  his 
favourite  painter  or  favourite  school.  Now, 
names  and  schools  seem  to  have  lost  their 
glamour  :  the  work  of  art  becomes  more 
and  more,  the  painter  less  and  less. 

Ten  years  ago  any  painting  by  Millais 
that  came  into  the  market  would  have 
fetched  a  high  price  on  the  mere  strength 
of  his  reputation.  Now  it  is  generally 
recognized  that  his  later  pictures  are  hardly 
better  than  those  of  his  academic  contem- 
poraries, and  so  they  share  a  similar  fate. 
If  The  Huguenot  or  any  other  important 
work  of  Millais's  wonderful  youth  were  to 
come  into  the  market,  it  would  still  fetch 

67 


Modern  Pictures  in  the  Saleroom 


an  enormous  price,  but  that  price  would 
be  of  little  or  no  assistance  to  the  artist's 
feebler  products. 

Even  a  name  like  that  of  Turner  will 
not  sustain  any  Turners  that  fall  short  of 
supreme  excellence.  A  superb  drawing 
like  the  Constance  will  fetch  more  than  two 
thousand  guineas  ;  a  drawing  of  the  same 
size  but  less  perfect  in  conception  and  con- 
dition will  hardly  be  worth  a  twentieth  of 
that  sum.  Even  the  great  masters  of  the 
Barbizon  school,  though  they  are  supported 
by  very  strong  cosmopolitan  patronage, 
cannot  escape  these  fluctuations  entirely, 
though  the  oscillations  of  price  are  never 
so  violent  as  in  the  case  of  men  like 
Millais,  whose  reputation  was  for  the 
most  part  a  fashion  of  one  country  and 
one  period. 

But  if  the  great  names  of  the  auction-room 
are  subjected  to  this  fierce  ordeal,  can  wc 
wonder  that  the  minor  men  sometimes  fall 
into  utter  disrepute  ?  Over  the  fate  of  such 
painters  as  Boughton  and  Calderon  it  is  hard 
to  feel  much  pity.  They  painted  for  popu- 
larity and  achieved  it,  and  the  prices  their 
pictures  now  fetch  seem  low  only  because 
the  prices  which  they  once  asked  and 
obtained  were  absurdly  high.  Hook  and 
Henry  Moore  stand  on  a  somewhat  difi^erent 
footing.  Both  possessed  a  fresh  and  vigorous 
talent,  and,  though  the  taste  of  the  public 
compelled  them  to  work  in  a  narrow  groove, 
the  work  they  did  was,  in  its  way,  good. 

Yet  facts  seem  to  show  that  the  obvious 
naturalism  which  their  public  compelled 
Hook  and  Henry  Moore  to  practise  is  a  field 
in  which  other  men  may  (like  Mr.  Hemy) 
obtain  similar  competence,  and  they  have 
lost  the'  affections  of  the  market  in  some 
degree,  quite  apart  from  such  actual  weak- 
nesses as  may  exist  in  their  work,  because  a 
number  of  other  painters  have  produced  and 
arc  producing  seascapes  of  the  same  char- 
acter and  force.     Able  naturalism  is  com- 

68 


mon  in  these  days,  and  the  expert  collector 
needs  something  that  is  more  than  common. 

Yetamong  the  artists  whose  work  answers 
that  description,  who  have  been  more  than 
capable  painters  of  natural  phenomena,  we 
find  considerable  fluctuations  in  value. 

The  great  Preraphaelites,  for  example, 
have  been  looming  larger  and  larger  in 
the  public  eye,  and  receiving  more  gene- 
rally the  appreciation  which  they  have 
long  deserved.  In  the  past  they  were 
patronized  chiefly  by  a  small  body  of 
enthusiastic  admirers  and,  possibly  as  a 
reaction  from  outside  hostility,  these 
admirers  were  w^ont  to  value  both  the 
weak  and  the  strong  works  of  the  school 
at  a  level  which,  if  not  very  high,  was 
more  or  less  uniform.  Now  that  recog- 
nition of  Preraphaelite  work  has  become, 
as  it  w^ere,  a  part  of  the  common  stock  of 
artistic  knowledge,  the  market  has  begun 
to  pick  and  choose  between  the  best  things 
and  the  things  that  are  not  quite  so  good. 

Rossetti,  in  consequence,  is  now  taking 
his  true  place,  and  his  early  works,  more 
especially  those  in  water  colour,  in  which 
is  concentrated  the  essence  of  his  great 
genius  as  an  imaginative  designer,  are 
rising  rapidly  in  value,  while  his  larger, 
later  oil  paintings  and  studies,  where  his 
hold  both  on  life  and  on  design  is  relaxed, 
are  somewhat  less  highly  prized. 

The  art  of  Burne-Jones  is  being  subjected 
to  a  similar  ordeal,  and  it  would  appear 
that  in  his  case  the  public  judgment  is 
still  unreliable.  Otherwise  it  is  difficult 
to  understand  why,  on  the  very  day  when 
A  Wood-Nymph  quite  deservedly  fetched  a 
high  price,  A  Sea-Nymph,  the  companion 
picture,  and  in  its  way  no  less  delightful, 
reached  only  a  very  moderate  figure. 
Possibly  the  design  was  too  boldly  sym- 
bolic and  decorative  for  the  public  com- 
prehension, and  it  may  be  noticed  that 
another  fine  designer,  Ford  Madox  Brown, 


Modern  T^ictures  in  the  Saleroom 


has  never  yet  attained  anything  like  the 
appreciation  which  must  inevitably  some 
day  be  his.  We  seem,  in  fact,  to  have  got 
to  a  stage  when  we  recognize  the  absence 
of  good  design,  but  are  still  not  quite 
accustomed  to  its  presence. 

The  press  has  made  much  of  the  collapse 
which  has  taken  place  in  the  prices  ob- 
tained for  the  work  of  well-known  Acade- 
micians. We  can  now  see  pretty  clearly 
what  the  causes  of  the  collapse  have  been. 
It  is  generally  recognized  that  the  prices 
they  once  obtained  were  quite  artificial,  and 
had  no  relation  to  current  market  value. 
Had  they  sold  their  pictures  originally 
for  fifty  or  a  hundred  pounds  apiece,  and 
been  content  to  live  like  artists,  the  prices 
their  works  fetch  to-day  would  not  be  a 
matter  of  comment.  They  made  the  mis- 
take of  wishing  to  live  like  merchant 
princes,  and  are  paying  for  it  in  posthu- 
mous discredit.  The  only  painter  who  can 
afford  such  luxurious  ideals  is  the  success- 
ful portrait  painter,  for  his  success  is  based 
on  the  everlasting  foundation  of  human 
vanity.  All  other  artists  have  to  build 
upon  the  uncertain  sands  of  contemporary 
taste  and  intelligence. 

It  is,  however,  in  the  matter  of  colour 
and  design  that  the  Academicians  as  a 
group  have  failed  most  signally  to  satisfy 
a  more  critical  age,  and  the  chief  cause  of 


their  unpopularity  lies  in  the  simple  fact 
that  their  works,  when  hung  on  the  wall 
at  Christie's,  fail  to  hold  their  own.  The 
tender  talent  of  such  a  painter  as  George 
Mason,  for  example,  still  charms  us  be- 
cause, though  it  may  reflect  the  senti- 
mentality of  a  bygone  epoch,  it  is  expressed 
in  pictures  that  are  pleasantly  coloured  and 
rhythmically  designed  ;  while  the  accom- 
plishment and  minute  observation  of  a 
Brett,  the  breezy  naturalism  of  a  Henry 
Moore,  and  the  undeniable  talent  and  skill 
of  a  Hook  (not  to  mention  the  poor,  futile 
anecdotists  associated  with  them)  are  dis- 
played in  vain,  because  the  sense  of  design 
and  colour  is  in  abeyance  or  wholly 
absent. 

The  verdict  of  the  market  may  have 
been  severe,  but  it  has  not  been  entirely 
unjust.  Nor  is  it  without  promise  of  a  more 
speedy  recognition  in  the  future  for  the 
artists  who  are  above  all  things  good 
designers  and  good  colourists,  and  for  the 
collectors  who  have  the  judgment  to 
patronize  them  in  time.  The  weeding 
process  that  is  now  taking  place  is  an  un- 
pleasant but  much-needed  preUminary,  if 
not  to  a  millennium,  at  least  to  a  state  of 
things  in  which  a  good  artist  ought  to  be 
tolerably  sure  of  a  modest  competence.  If 
he  is  really  a  good  artist,  that  prospect 
should  content  him. 


SOME  NOTES    ON  THE   ORIGIN    AND    THE    DEVELOPMENT 
OF  THE  ENAMELLED  PORCELAIN  OF  THE  CHINESE— IP 

^  BY  EDWARD  DILLON  r*^ 

N  the  first  part  of  this  paper  I 


6t:4 


spoke  of  the  two  main  classes 
into  which  the  enamelled  porce- 
ain  of  late  Ming  times  may  be 
divided,  and  I  gave  some  account 
of  the  group  with  prevalent  iron- 
y^^'li^red  decoration.  The  other  and 
Jt^t^  larger  group  is  of  quite  a  differ- 


ent character.     Under  this  division  we  must  bring 

'  For  Part  I  see  The  Burlington  Magazine,  vol.  xiii,   r-  4. 
April  igoS. 


together  the  earliest,  or  nearly  the  earliest,  members 
of  a  large  class  of  enamelled  porcelain  that  is 
known  to  the  Chinese  .as  the  zvu-tsai  from  the  five 
colours  that  occur  in  the  decoration.  These  colours 
are,  in  the  order  of  their  importance,  in  Ming  times 
at  least,  an  under-glaze  cobalt  blue,  a  leafy  green 
of  two  shades,  an  iron-red  often  of  a  rich  orange 
hue,  a  poor  purple  and  a  yellow  passing  from  straw- 
colour  to  full  Naples  yellow— the  last  two  colours 
generally  very  sparingly  applied. 

Now  unlike  the  iron-red  family  lately  described, 

69 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

this  five-colour  group  probably — but  we  have  no 
definite  proof  of  this — had  its  origin  before  the 
time  of  Wan-li.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  next 
dynasty  we  may  regard  an  important  contingent  of 
the  vast  series  of  enamelled  porcelain  that  we  know 
as  the  faiiiille  vcrte  as  a  development  or  a  revival  of 
the  Wan-li  pentad.'  From  the  predominance  of 
the  under-glaze  blue  in  the  earlier  specimens,  this 
Wan-li  five-colour  group  may  be  perhaps  held  to 
be  itself  a  development  of  the  Ming  'blue  and  white.' 
There  is  in  the  British  Museum  a  handsome  plate 
with  scenes  from  the  Taoist  heaven  that  well  illus- 
trates this  stage.  On  this  plate  the  blue  is  only 
enlivened  here  and  there  by  a  few  passages  of  other 
colours.  Near  to  it,  in  the  same  case,  is  a  pear- 
shaped  vase  with  magnolia  blossom  and  the  fan- 
tastic figure  of  a  cock  ;  on  this  vase  the  over-glaze 
colours  play  a  more  prominent  part,  although  the 
under-glaze  blue  is  still  predominant.  Both  these 
are  probably  examples  of  Ming  porcelain,  perhaps 
from  the  beginning  of  Wan-li's  reign,  before  the 
decadence  had  set  in. 

We  must  now  see  what  can  be  gleaned  con- 
cerning the  origin  of  these  new  enamel  colours 
and  the  conditions  under  which  they  were  applied. 
The  potters  of  early  Ming  days  were  able  to  com- 
bine with  their  decoration  of  under-glaze  blue  a 
brilliant  crimson  derived  from  copper.  This 
colour  also  was  applied  under  the  glaze.  When  in 
the  sixteenth  century  the  art  was  lost — the  under- 
glaze  copper  was  now  at  best  of  a  russet  tint — its 
place  was  taken  by  an  iron-red,  a  kind  of  bole, 
applied  over  the  glaze.  There  are  many  references 
to  this  new  colour — it  was  evidently  regarded  as  a 
makeshift — in  the  orders  sent  down  to  the  potters 
at  King-te-chen  from  Pekin  by  the  palace  officials 
of  the  later  Ming  emperors.  Along  with  the  iron- 
red  other  over-glaze  colours  make  their  appear- 
ance, completing  the  pentad — the  wii-tsai.  These 
are  a  manganese  purple,  a  copper  green  and  a 
yellow  generally  of  a  pale  straw  colour  (this  yellow 
enamel  contains,  in  addition  to  iron  sesqui-oxide, 
more  or  less  antimony).  Now — and  this  is  a  very 
significant  point  to  bear  in  mind  in  connexion 
with  the  development  of  the  enamel  decoration  of 
porcelain — these  last  are  the  three  colours  used  in 
another  important  group  of  polychrome  Chinese 
porcelain.  They  are  the  base  of  the  san-isai  or 
colour  triad  of  what  may  be  called  the  '  painted 
glazes,'  a  family  that  had  its  origin  in  early  Ming 
times,  and  of  which  I  shall  shortly  have  something 
to  say.  For  the  present  it  will  be  enough  to  state 
that  the  san-tsai  painted  glazes  are  not  properly 
enamel  colours,  but,  as  the  name  implies,  glazes 
painted  over  the  biscuit,  which  was  then  re-fired 
in  the  original  kiln,  but  at  a  lower  temperature. 

'^  There  is,  as  we  shall  see,  another  large  department  of  the 
fainillc  veiic  which  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  development  or  rather 
as  a  representative  of  the  early  Ming  ware  with  painted  glazes 
that  has  yet  to  be  described. 

7° 


They  were  revived  in  another  form  at  the  time  of 
the  great  renaissance  under  Kang-he,  but  we  are 
not  concerned  with  them  when  treating  of  the 
Wan-li  enamelled  wares.  What  I  want  to 
accentuate  is  that  the  five  colours  that  have  played 
so  important  a  part  in  the  history  of  enamelled 
porcelain  had  their  origin  in  a  combination  of  the 
under-glaze  blue,  first  with  the  iron-red  that  had 
replaced  the  under-glaze  copper,  and  then  with  the 
three  colours  of  the  painted  glazes  (otherwise  of 
the  dcuii-grand  fen)  which  were  now  employed  as 
enamels  over  the  glaze. 

Provided,  then,  with  this  pentad  of  colours,  the 
potters  of  late  Ming  times  began  to  decorate  their 
enamelled  porcelain  with  the  same  conventional 
designs  that  had  long  served  for  their  blue  and 
white  ware ;  indeed,  as  I  have  said,  in  the  earlier 
specimens  the  underglaze  blue  is  still  dominant.  A 
type  was  thus  established  which  prevailed,  it  would 
seem,  during  the  ensuing  period  of  unrest  that  pre- 
ceded the  revival  under  Kang-he.  After  the  middle 
of  the  seventeenth  century  there  arose  some  demand 
for  enamelled  porcelain  in  Europe,  and  it  was  ware 
of  this  type  that  was  then  first  exported.  Indeed  it 
would  appear  that  the  exportation  of  this  class  of 
porcelain  continued  for  some  years  after  the  intro- 
duction of  a  more  artistic  or,  at  least,  of  a  more 
refined  style  at  King-te-chen  when,  at  the  instigation 
of  the  great  viceroys  sent  down  by  Kang-he,  new 
life  was  thown  into  the  kilns.  Examples  of  this 
rather  summarily  decorated  ware,  classed  sometimes 
as  faniilleverte,  ^t  others  as  '  Ming  enamels,'  are 
often  to  be  found  in  old  houses  in  England.  As  a 
class  it  is  nowhere  better  illustrated  than  at 
Hampton  Court.^  The  great  and  varied  triumphs 
of  polychrome  decoration  which  we  include  under 
the  name  of  famille  verle  were  doubtless  at  first 
reserved  for  '  palace  '  consumption,  and  examples 
only  reached  Europe  at  a  much  later  date.  So  far 
as  these  belong  to  the  five-colour  group  (we  must 
remember  that  a  part  of  the  so-called  famille  verte 
belongs  to  the  three-colour  group  and  had,  as  we 
shall  see,  a  quite  different  origin)  they  are  distin- 
guished by  the  increased  prevalence  of  a  leafy 
green.  On  the  other  hand  the  under-glaze  blue  now 
takes  a  secondary  position  and  is  soon  replaced  by 
a  cobalt  enamel  over  the  glaze. 

There  is  another  ground  for  the  recognition 
of  the  historical  importance  of  the  five-colour 
enamels  of  late  Ming  times.  We  must  recognize 
in  them  the  origin  of  the  great  group  of  enamelled 
porcelain  of  Imari,  the  'Old  Japan'  of  our  an- 
cestors. Although  as  a  distinct  family  the  Imari 
ware — made  for  the  most  part  for  exportation 
— was   not   developed    before    the    close   of    the 

^  For  some  notes  on  the  oriental  porcelain  at  Hampton  Court, 
see  my  '  Porcelain,'  p.  225  seq.  Since  th.it  account  was  written 
the  china  in  the  palace  has  been  rearranged.  It  is  now  better 
seen,  but  one  must  regret  the  removal  of  some  quaint  old  pieces 
from  a  cabinet  in  which  they  may  very  well  have  been  placed 
by  that  enthusiastic  collector.  Queen  Mary. 


CHINESE  PORCELAIN  ENAMELLED  WITH  FIVE 
COLOURS.  XVI  CENTURY  (EARLY  OK  LATEI. 
IN     THE     VICTORIA     AND   , ALBERT     MUSEUM 


n 


CHINESE    ENAMELLED 
PORCELAIN.      PLATE   1 


,"i> 


I       CHINESE  PORCELAIN  BOWL  \Y1TH  OVERGLAZE  DESUIN  IN  EIVE  COLOURS.      DATE- 
MARK   OF   CHENG-TE   (1505-15JII.      BY    KIND   PERMISSION   OF   MR.    GEORGE   SALTlNti 


2.    WATER-VESSEL  IN  FORM  OF  CARP.     '  SAN-TSAl'  PAINTED  3-      SMALL   WATER-VESSEL  IN   FORM  OF   ^"'^''^^    ''';[''';"  _.„LV 

GLAZES    WITHOUT    BLACK     PENCILLING.       PROBABLY    XVI  :aK.     '  SAN-TSAI  '  PAINTED  GLAZES  WITH  BLACK  PENCILLING.     EARL. 

CENTURY.  IN     THE    VICTORIA     AND     ALBERT     MUSEUM  XVIII    CENTURY.        BY    KIND    PERMISSION    OF    MR.    GEOKGE   SALTING 


CHINESE   ENAMELLED 
PORCELAIN.    PLATE  II 


seventeenth  century,  yet  it  would  seem  to  be 
founded  on  a  comparatively  early  stage  of  the 
late  Ming  enamels.  The  under-glaze  blue,  of 
peculiar  tint,  is  here  distinctly  dominant,  and  is 
sometimes  combined  with  little  else  than  a  skilfully 
distributed  gilding  and  a  few  touches  of  iron-red. 
In  attempting  to  unravel  the  obscure  and  com- 
plicated history  of  the  origin  and  development  of 
enamelled  porcelain  it  is  essential  to  bear  in  mind 
that,  as  a  class,  this  ware  had  its  origin  during  a 
time  of  decadence.  To  a  Chinese  mind  the  intro- 
duction of  enamel  decoration  has  come  to  be 
associated  with  that  decadence  and  with  the 
accompanying  relaxation  of  manners— above  all, 
with  the  inroad  of  foreign  fashions  that  were  part 
and  parcel  of  the  decay.  We  have  evidence  of 
this  in  the  protest  of  the  censors  against  the  orders 
for  polychrome  ware  sent  down  to  the  potteries 
by  Wan-li  himself.  Now  it  so  happened  that  it 
was  precisely  during  the  period  of  anarchy  which 
set  in  after  the  death  of  that  emperor,  and  which 
we  have  seen  continued,  in  the  southern  provmces 
at  least,  up  to  nearly  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  that  the  great  demand  for  Chinese  porce- 
lain arose  in  India,  in  Persia,  and  somewhat  later 
in  Europe.  We  must  not,  then,  be  surprised  to 
find  that  the  wares  exported  at  this  time  were  of 
inferior  quality,  and  that  as  a  whole  they  have 
about  them  something  exotic  and  what  to  a 
Chinese  mind  would  appear  barbarous.  This 
would  apply  not  only  to  the  '  blue  and  white ' 
exported  in  such  amazing  quantities  to  India,  to 
Persia'  and  to  Holland,  but  still  more, perhaps,  to 
the  coloured  ware  for  which  the  demand,  towards 
the  end  of  this  period,  was  arising  in  Europe 
generally. 

We  must  not,  then,  be  surprised  that  when  a 
definite  revival  came  some  time  after  the  accession 
of  Kang-he,  a  sponge  was,  as  it  were,  wiped  over 
all  this  evil  period.  All  that  it  produced  was 
ignored,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to  return  to 
the  wares  of  early  Ming  and  even  more  remote 
times.  This  was  a  spirit  that  continued  to  in- 
fluence much  of  the  work  produced  under  the  two 
succeeding  emperors,  Yung-ching  and  Kien-lung. 
The  movement  in  favour  of  the  old  work  was, 
however,  carried  out  on  the  freest  lines.  To  give 
but  one  example,  an  important  class  of  Kien-lung 
porcelain  {'famille  rose  egg-shell,'  we  should  call 
it)  was  held  to  be  a  resurrection  of  the  '  chicken 
cups'  of  Cheng-hua  (1464-1487).  What  the 
original  'chicken  cups'  were  like  I  confess  myself 
quite  unable  to  pronounce,  but  if  they  even  re- 
motely resembled  in  technique  the  daintily  painted 
I  egg-shell '  of  the  middle  eighteenth  century,  then 
in  our  attempt  to  identify  the  porcelain  of  early 
*  In  the  '  Cross  Cilleries  '  at  South  Kensington  may  be  seen 
what  is  doubtless  the  most  important  collection  in  Europe  of 
Chniese  porcelain  brought  from  Persia,  and  here  the  curious 
mmghng  of  types  in  the  shapes  and  decorations  may  be  best 
studied. 


Qhinese  Knamelled  Porcelain 

Ming  times  we  are  upon  a  hopelessly  wrong  tack. 
In  many  cases  the  eighteenth-century  potter  seems 
to  have  thought  that  he  had  made  sufficient  sacri- 
fice to  the  spirit  of  antiquity  when  he  had  placed 
the  name  of  a  Ming  emperor  on  the  base  of  his 
vase  or  plate — Cheng-hua  or  Cheng-te  for  prefer- 
ence. The  name  seems  to  have  been  for  the  most 
part  selected  quite  at  random,  and  with  little  or 
no  relation  to  the  class  of  ware  known  to  have 
been  produced  at  the  earlier  date.  But  note  that 
the  name  of  W^an-li  is  never  thus  employed,  nor 
that  of  his  immediate  predecessor.  Lung-king.  It 
thus  happens  that,  apart  from  Japanese  wares, 
when  one  of  these  names  is  found  on  a  piece  of 
porcelain,  we  can  safely  pronounce  the  specimen 
to  date  from  the  late  sixteenth  or  early  seventeenth 
century.     This  at  least  is  soinething  gained. 

To  return  to  our  polychrome  porcelain — '  poly- 
chrome '  is  here  a  convenient  expression,  for  it 
covers  what  I  have  called  '  painted  glazes '  as  well 
as  true  enamels.  I  have  so  far  ignored  the  existence 
of  enamelled  porcelain  previous  to  the  time  of 
Wan-li.  Now  what  do  our  authorities  tell  us  as 
to  the  time  and  manner  of  origin  of  all  such  early 
wares  ?  To  say  the  truth  they  all  sound  an  uncer- 
tain note — I  had  almost  said  that  they  discover  a 
tendency  to  trim  or  '  hedge '  on  this  point.  Thus 
in  the  British  Museum,  on  one  of  the  cautiously 
worded  notices  that  so  carefully  guide  us  through  that 
most  instructive  of  all  collections  of  oriental  porce- 
lain, we  are  informed  that  '  it  is  doubtful  whether 
any  porcelain  was  painted  in  colours  over  the  glaze 
before  Wan-li.'  There  is  here,  it  is  true,  a  reserve 
— but  a  very  gentle  one.  On  the  other  hand  with 
regard  to  that  most  supremely  interesting  vase  with 
both  turquoise  and  green  enamels  over  the  glaze 
and  cobalt  blue  under  it  (No.  i  of  the  coloured 
plate  in  the  April  number)  the  label  attached  allows 
it  to  be  '  possibly  of  the  date '  indicated  by  the 
inscription  on  the  base.  Now  this  elaborately 
enamelled  vase  bears  the  date  mark  of  Cheng-hua, 
an  emperor  who  flourished  as  far  back  as  the 
fifteenth  century.  We  are  thus  left  in  suspense  on 
this  burning  question.  Let  us  then  turn  to  what 
we  may  regard  as  our  safest  and  most  trustworthy 
guide  in  all  that  relates  to  oriental  porcelain — the 
introduction  that  Dr.  Bushell  has  written  for  his 
catalogue  of  the  Walters  collection.  Here,  on 
p.  239,  we  find  the  statement  :  '  The  rare  pieces 
decorated  in  colour  before  this  time  \i.c.,  Wan-li 
(1572-1619)]  were  inlaid  on  it  (the  biscuit)  with 
.  .  .  coloured  glazes ' — that  is  to  say,  they  are  all  to 
be  classed,  not  in  any  sense  as  enamelled  wares, 
but  as  belonging  to  our  group  of  '  painted  glazes.' 
If,  however,  in  the  same  work  we  now  turn  to  the 
description  of  some  of  the  pieces  of  early  Ming 
porcelain  that  were  in  the  collection  of  Tsu-ching, 
we  have  the  clear  indication  of  a  ware  elaborately 
decorated  with  designs  in  colour,  of  what  in  fact 
can    be  nothing  else  than    enamelled    porcelain. 


7S 


Qhinese  Enamelled  T*orcelain 

Tsu-ching  drew  up  the  illustrated  catalogue  of  his 
collection,  so  freely  quoted  by  Dr.  Bushell,  towards 
the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century — tiiat  is  to  say,  in 
the  reign  of  Wan-li.°  Many  of  these  decorated 
specimens  are  attributed  by  the  Chinese  connoisseur 
who  describes  and  figures  them  to  the  time  of 
Cheng-hua  and  even  earlier  reigns.  Now  Dr. 
Bushell  appears  to  place  implicit  confidence  in  the 
competence  and  honesty  of  this  old  Ming  collector. 
On  the  other  hand  I  find  that  some  of  those  who 
write  with  authority  (in  America  especially)  treat  this 
Tsu-ching  as  a  '  fascinating  romancer  '  and  do  not 
hesitate  to  declare  that  the  illustrations  in  the 
original  catalogue  (now  destroyed),  when  not 
evolved  from  his  imagination,  were  copies  of  con- 
temporary objects — i.e.,  they  were  Wan-li  enamels. 

So  far  then  it  would  seem  that  both  the  evidence 
from  extant  examples  as  well  as,  on  the  whole, 
the  opinion  of  our  best  authorities  would  point  to 
the  latter  part  of  the  sixteenth  century  as  the  date 
when  coloured  enamels  were  first  applied  to  their 
porcelain  by  the  Chinese  potters.  And  yet  it 
must  be  confessed  that  there  are,  on  the  one  hand, 
individual  examples  of  coloured  enamels,  some 
of  them  of  archaic  aspect,  for  which  it  would  be 
difficult  to  find  a  place  among  the  wares  of  Wan-li, 
and  on  the  other  hand  there  are  references  in  the 
Chinese  books  to  elaborately  decorated  examples  of 
porcelain,  described  as  characteristic  ware  of  early 
Ming  emperors,  references  that  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  interpret  as  descriptions  of  ware  of 
the  '  painted  glaze  '  class. 

Of  the  examples  of  early  enamelled  ware  for  which 
it  is  difficult  to  find  a  place  and  a  date,  I  will  only 
mention — (i)  A  bowl  of  a  distinctly  archaic  aspect 
in  the  Salting  collection  (Plate  ii),  on  which,  besides 
an  under-glaze  decoration  of  fishes  in  full  copper- 
red  (the  presence  of  this  colour  would  alone  point 
to  an  early  date),  we  find  an  over-glaze  design  of 
other  fishes  painted  in  iron-red,  two  shades  of  green, 
a  brownish  purple,  and  finally  a  cobalt  blue  of  a 
poor  lavender  tint.  This  bowl  bears  the  date-mark 
of  Cheng-te  (1505-152 1).  There  is  nothing  to 
lead  one  to  think  that  the  over-glaze  colours 
were  added  at  a  later  date  than  the  under-glaze 
copper-red.  The  close  resemblance  of  the  design  to 
that  on  the  famous  bowl  in  the  possession  of  the 
Trenchard  family  should  not  be  overlooked.  This 
is  the  piece  of  Chinese  blue  and  white  porcelain 
which,  it  is  claimed,  was  given  to  Sir  Thomas 
Trenchard  by  Philip  the  father  of  Charles  V,  as 
long  ago  as  1506.  (Figured  in  Gulland's  'Oriental 
China,'  Vol.  ii.)  (2)  The  baluster-shaped  vase  in  the 
British  Museum  (with  the  date-mark  of  Cheng-hua) 
to  which  I  have  already  referred  (see  plate  in  last 
number).  In  this  case  the  noticeable  point,  from  a 
technical  point  of  view,  is  the  co-existence,  over  the 
glaze,  of  a  turquoise  blue  and  a  leafy  green,  colours 

'I  refer  to  the  famous  'Bushell  MS.'  See  'Oriental  Porcelain,' 
passim, 

76 


that  in  later  days  are  rarely  found  in  combination. 
(3)  Certain  remarkable  pieces  in  the  Grandidier 
collection  now  in  the  Louvre.  Concerning  these, 
I  unfortunately  have  not  at  hand  any  definite  notes, 
but  of  the  same  general  type  is  a  vase  at  South 
Kensington  of  which  I  give  an  illustration  (Plate  i). 
On  this  carefully  potted  vase  the  under-glaze  blue 
is  predominant  in  the  floral  decoration,  which  takes 
a  form  somewhat  unusual  in  Chinese  art.  Among 
the  other  colours  of  the  pentad,  a  pale  lavender  or 
lilac  gives  a  cachet  to  the  general  effect.  This  colour 
is  applied  to  the  petals  of  a  peculiar  flower,  with 
trailing  stem,  that  is  characteristic  of  this  ware. 

No  one  of  these  pieces  has  apparently  any  relation 
to  the  definitely  fixed  types  of  Wan-li  enamel  that 
I  have  described  above.  Nor  again  are  the 
examples  related  to  one  another  to  form  a  group 
by  themselves.  Unless  it  be  in  the  case  of  Mr. 
Salting's  bowP  (Plate  ii),  which  may  indeed  well 
be  of  the  date  indicated  by  the  inscription,  they 
do  not  fit  in  with  any  idea  that  we  can  form  of  the 
enamelled  ware  made  before  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth  century.  The  style  of  the  decoration  and 
the  comparative  excellence  of  the  potting  have 
nothing  in  common  with  the  well-known  ware  of 
Wan-li.  Perhaps  the  most  reasonable  plan  would 
be  to  attribute  these  exceptional  examples  of 
enamelled  porcelain  to  the  early  years  of  Kang-he 
(say  from  1680  to  1690')  when  Lang  Ting-tso  or 
another  was  making  his  famous  s^/i^-^t'-^a';// vases. 
We  may  regard  this  as  the  earliest  stage  of  the  great 
revival,  and  it  was  doubtless  a  time  of  experiments. 
At  any  rate  we  have  no  other  class  of  enamelled 
porcelain  that  can  be  definitely  attributed  to  this 
period. 

I  will  now  say  a  word  as  to  the  sources  from 
which  the  Chinese  derived  their  knowledge  of 
polychrome  decoration.  Before  the  end  of  the 
fifteenth  century  the  Chinese  were  masters  of  the 
use  of  cobalt-blue  and  copper-red  applied  upon 
the  unbaked  porcelain  and  subsequently  covered 
with  a  refractory  {i.e.,  non-plumbaginous)  glaze. 
Now  already  by  this  time  in  the  West  complete 
command  had  been  attained  of  processes  of 
decoration  which  depended  upon  the  tinting  of 
a  colourless,  readily  fusible  silicate  of  lead  by 
means  of  various  metallic  oxides.  This  decoration 
took  two  forms  :  (i)  the  lead  flux  was  applied  in 
various  ways  to  the  surface  of  metal  to  produce  the 
cloisonne  and  champlevc  enamels  of  the  Greeks 
and  the  Western  peoples  ;  (2)  the  flux  was  applied 
either  as  a  bead-like  decoration  or  painted  over  the 
surface  of  glass  vessels  on  the  enamelled  lamps  and 

«  I  have  perhaps  not  given  a  place  of  sufficient  importance  in 
my  argument  to  this  remarkable  bowl.  It  is  the  only  example 
of  enamelled  porcelain  I  know  of  in  English  collections  to  which 
a  date  earlier  th:in  Wan-li  can  be  positively  assigned.  Obviously 
of  later  date,  at  least  in  my  opinion,  is,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
vase  with  llie  Cheng-hua  mark. 

'  Possibly  a  few  years  earlier.  See  note  i,  in  the  first  part  of 
this  paper. 


beakers  of  the  Saracens.  This  last  method  of  decora- 
tion is  closely  allied  in  technique  to  the  application 
of  enamels  over  the  glaze  of  porcelain.  Already 
before  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century  this 
process  had  been  brought  to  great  perfection  ; 
indeed,  it  had  by  that  time  reached  a  stage  of 
development  equivalent  to  that  of  the  enamels  on 
the  finest  porcelain  of  the  time  of  Kang-he.  There 
is  some  evidence  that  examples  of  this  enamelled 
glass  had  already  in  early  Ming  days  found  their 
way  through  to  Western  China,  starting  probably 
from  Samarkand.  Other  specimens  may  have 
been  brought  to  Chinese  ports  in  the  dhows  of 
the  Arab  merchants.  And  yet,  it  must  be  con- 
fessed, it  has  so  far  been  impossible  to  find  any 
intermediate  link  connecting  this  Saracenic  glass 
with  the  earliest  enamelled  porcelain  of  the  Far 
East.  Quite  otherwise  is  it  when  we  come  to  the 
other  application  of  coloured  lead  fluxes.  The 
Chinese  themselves  acknowledge  the  foreign  origin 
of  their  cloisonne  and  chaniplcvc  enamels.  Every- 
thing points  to  their  introduction  towards  the  close 
of  the  Mongol  dynasty,  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
But  it  was  not  probably  until  the  middle  of  the 
next  century  that  these  enamels  were  generally 
known.  It  is  the  Ching-tai  period  (1450-56)  that 
has  given  them  their  Chinese  name. 

Now  it  was  probably  about  this  time — whether 
before  or  after  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century 
is  uncertain — that  the  first  attempts  were  made  at 
the  decoration  of  porcelain,  not  indeed  yet  with 
true  enamels  but  with  glazes  of  more  than  one 
colour.  Again,  it  was  at  this  period,  it  would 
seem,  that  lead  was  for  the  first  time  employed  as 
an  integral  part  of  the  glaze.  Of  this  early  type 
of  polychrome  Ming  porcelain  I  have  no  space  to 
speak  at  large.  It  takes  many  forms  ;  but  what  is 
above  all  characteristic  of  it  is  that  the  decoration 
is,  as  a  rule,  more  or  less  in  relief.  In  what  appear 
to  be  the  oldest  examples  the  colours  are  applied 
to  the  recesses  of  what  may  be  called  countersunk 
cloisons  with  definite  margins  of  greater  or  less 
projection.  The  ground  is  generally  blue,  either 
of  a  deep  tint  or  turquoise,  and  the  colours 
in  the  cloisons  are  confined  to  turquoise,  pale 
yellow  and  manganese  purple.  We  have  here 
the  earliest  form  of  the  san-tsai  or  triad  of  colours 
(PI.  iii).  The  use  of  these  colours  and  the 
presence  of  lead  necessitated  the  employment  of 
an  entirely  new  process  of  manufacture.  The 
flux-like  glaze  was  painted  on  the  surface  of  the 
already  fired  biscuit,  and  the  subsequent  firing  was 
at  a  comparatively  gentle  heat.  A  distinctly 
Buddhist  type  prevails  in  the  decoration.  Indeed, 
there  is  some  reason  to  believe  that  this  polychrome 
ware  was  first  employed  for  figures  of  Buddhist 
divinities,  coloured  in  imitation  of  still  earlier 
idols  of  lacquer  or  painted  wood.  In  the  case  of 
some  specimens  of  what  are,  apparently,  decora- 
tions for  the  walls  or  railings  behind  or  around 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

such  images,  the  porcelain  cloisons  are  nearly  an 
inch  in  depth  with  steep  ridges  between. 

This  biscuit-painted  ware  of  early  Ming  times 
took  also  another  form — one  which,  with  various 
modifications,  held  an  important  place  in  the 
ensuing  centuries.  On  the  small  objects — water- 
vessels,  pen-rests,  etc. — that  find  their  place  on  the 
writing-table  of  a  man  of  culture,  the  three  colours 
were,  in  the  first  instance,  painted  side  by  side, 
without  dividing  lines  or  shading.  At  a  later  date 
we  find,  traced  upon  iJie  glazed  surface,  accentuating 
the  design,  or  filling  the  plain  grounds,  outlines 
and  spiral  scrolls.  These  lines  are  painted  with  a 
brush  and  are  of  a  dark,  opaque,  purple  brown  ; 
their  presence  must  have  necessitated  a  third 
baking  in  some  kind  of  muffle.  In  any  case  we 
have  in  this  simple  brush  drawing  what  is  probably 
the  earliest  form  of  a  true  enamel  applied  over  the 
glaze.  We  may  compare  this  use  of  an  outlining 
in  dark  brown  with  the  shading  and  definition 
with  a  similar  material  upon  our  stained  glass 
windows  ^  It  is  of  this  glaze-painted  biscuit 
ware,  pencilled  with  a  manganese  brown  or, 
in  the  earlier  specimens,  quite  plain,  rather 
than  of  true  enamelled  porcelain,  that  we 
must  probably  think  when  we  read  descriptions 
of  the  various  elaborately  decorated  objects  that 
adorned  the  writing-table  of  a  man  of  letters  of 
Ming  times.*  When,  early  or  late  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  probably  under  foreign  influence,  true 
enamelled  wares  came  into  vogue,  this  painted 
biscuit  lost  favour.  Probably  only  coarsely  exe- 
cuted examples,  often  not  of  a  true  porcelain,  were 
turned  out ;  many  such  have  lately  been  imported 
and  are  now  classed  as  '  early  Ming  ware.'  Some 
of  these  coarsely  executed  inagots,  generally  painted 
in  various  shades  of  blue  and  purple,  with  the 
uncovered  biscuit  showing  in  places,  may  well 
date  from  the  '  intermediate  period  '  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  ;  others  may  be  quite  modern. 

When,  however,  at  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  at  the  instigation  of  the  high-class  super- 
intendents sent  down  by  Kang-he,  the  great  revival 
was  brought  about  at  King-te-chen,  it  was  the 
earlier  painted  biscuit  rather  than  the  enamels  of 
Wan-li  that  nominally  served  as  models  where 
decoration  in  colour  was  desired.  But  for  all  that, 
the  advances  that  had  in  the  interval  been  made 
in  the  application  of  enamel  colours  over  the  glaze 
could  not  be  ignored,  and  the  result  was  a  kind  of 
compromise.  In  this  compromise  we  have,  it 
would  seem,  the  origin  of  what  is  upon  the  whole 
the  most  characteristic  among  the  varied  t}'pes  of 

I*  Indeed,  this  distinction  between  porcelain  with  painted 
glazes  and  that  truly  enamelled  runs  parallel  with  that  between 
the  stained  glass  of  Gothic  windows  and  the  Swiss  or  South 
German  enamelled  '  qrarries  '  of  the  sixteenth  century.  This 
holds  good  even  lor  the  dates. 

''The  two  small  water-vessels  illustrated  on  Plate  ii  are 
examples  of  the  san-tsai  painted  glazes  :  that  representing  the 
Chinese  poet,  Li  Tai-po,  is  pencilled  with  black  lines  and  scrolls  ; 
the  other,  with  the  carp,  is  plain. 


77 


Qhinese  Enamelled  Porcelain 

enamelled  porcelain  made  during  Kang-he's  reign. 
In  this  glorious  series  nothing  is  more  noticeable 
than  the  tendency  to  keep  to  the  simple  colours 
of  the  old  triad.  In  the  biscuit-painted  ware, 
which  now  takes  new  developments,  the  colours 
are  still  restricted  to  manganese  purple,  to  pale 
shades  of  yellow,  and  to  copper  blues  or  greens." 
These  blues  and  greens  are  now,  however,  never 
found  in  combination.  But  even  when  enamelhng 
over  the  glaze  is  freely  adopted,  we  find  that  on 
the  examples  of  the  highest  class— those  made  for 
imperial  use,  no  doubt— the  iron-red  characteristic 
of  Wan-li  times  is  sparingly  used  or  altogether 
dispensed  with.  So  of  the  under-glaze  cobalt — we 
do  not  find  it  on  the  finest  specimens.  In  this 
true  enamelled  ware  practical  considerations  neces- 
sitated the  replacement  of  the  turquoise  blue  of 
the  painted  biscuit  by  a  leafy  green  which  now 
becomes  the  dominant  colour. 

It  is  indeed  with  these  three  colours — copper 
green  (or  blue),  manganese  purple,  and  a  yellow 
derived  from  antimony  and  iron— that  many  of  the 
greatest  triumphs  of  the  arh  dn  fen  have  been 
attained,  and  this  not  in  China  only.  It  was  with 
these  that  the  ancient  Egyptians  coloured  their  little 
glass  unguentaria.  The  decoration  on  the  so-called 
mezza-majolica  of  the  fifteenth  century  is  practi- 
cally confined  to  these  colours,  and  the  same  may 
be  said  of  nearly  the  whole  of  the  picturesque 
fayence  of  the  Mediterranean  basin.  I  have  before 
me  a  roughly  decorated  jug  of  '  Dardanelles'  pottery 
where  on  a  ground  of  a  pale  straw  yellow  is 
painted  a  design  of  a  leafy  green,  accentuated  here 
and  there  with  a  few  lines  and  patches  of  purple. 
In  this  rude  ware  the  colours  and  the  general 
scheme  of  decoration  are  identical  with  those 
employed  upon  some  of  the  greatest  triumphs  of 
the  potters  of  the  time  of  Kang-he.  Add  to  these 
simple  colours  a  cobalt  blue  and  reds  of  various 
shades,  derived  at  first  from  iron  and  later  from 
gold,  and  we  have  the  whole  gamut  of  colours  by 
means  of  which  such  surprising  effects  have  been 
attained  by  the  Chinese.  So  of  the  other  mis  dn 
fen — enamelling  on  metal,  for  instance.     In  these 

1"  The  green  variety  of  the  copper  silicate  applied  as  a  painted 
glaze  had,  no  doubt,  been  known  in  Ming  times. 


arts  the  use  of  the '  simple  palette  '  was,  fortunately 
for  those  that  practised  them,  a  stern  necessity. 

To  return  to  the  consideration  with  which  this 
inquiry  started.  Can  we  find  in  the  enamelled 
porcelain  of  the  sixteenth  century — what  we  gener- 
ally know  as  '  Ming  ' — anything  that  we  can  recog- 
nize as  of  a  stronger  or  '  fitter  '  type  than  the  well- 
known  wares  of  Kang-he's  time  ?  I  am  afraid  that 
the  answer  must  be  a  negative  one.  The  fact  is 
that  this  early  enamelled  porcelain  has  in  it  little 
that  is  characteristic  of  the  art  of  the  Ming  period. 
It  was  only  during  a  period  of  decadence  that  it  was 
produced  in  any  quantity,  and  much  of  it  bears 
traces  of  Indian  or  Persian  influence.  Wan-li  is  not 
to  be  regarded  as  a  representative  emperor  of  the 
great  Ming  dynasty.  The  rich  and  deep  colouring 
that  is  so  often  found  on  the  paintings  and  on  the 
enamelled  metal  ware  of  this  period  finds  rather 
its  equivalent  in  that  other  class  of  polychrome 
porcelain,  what  I  have  called  the  glaze-painted 
biscuit,  with  its  recessed  cloisons  and  full  tints  of 
turquoise  and  purple. 

It  may  perhaps  be  desirable  briefly  to  recapitulate 
what  seems  to  be  the  outcome  of  this,  I  am  afraid, 
rather  tedious  inquiry.  It  was  in  the  form  of  glazes 
painted  over  the  biscuit  that  the  coloured  decora- 
tion of  the  flourishing  days  of  the  Ming  period 
was  applied.  Of  this  nature  must  have  been  the 
elaborate  decoration  for  which  the  Cheng-hua 
porcelain  was  noted.  Not  until  the  time  of  Cheng- 
te  (early  sixteenth  century)  were  these  enamels 
painted  over  the  glaze  of  porcelain,  at  first  rudely 
and  experimentally.  The  further  development  of 
the  process  under  Wan-li  was  never  regarded  with 
favour  by  the  cultured  classes,  but  during  the 
unruly  times  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  art  of 
enamelling  (chiefly  for  the  foreign  market)  had 
made  such  progress  that  when  the  great  reformers, 
under  Kang-he,  at  the  end  of  the  century,  wished 
to  return  to  the  earlier  and  to  them  more  sym- 
pathetic methods  of  decoration  they  were  fain  to 
avail  themseves  of  much  that  had  been  learned  in 
the  interval.  A  large  division  of  the  porcelain  of 
Kang-he,  including  what  are  artistically  the  most 
beautiful  specimens,  may  then  be  regarded  as  a 
compromise  between  the  two  systems. 


AN  UNKNOWN  PORTRAIT  BY  LOUIS  DAVID 
^  BY  CLAUDE  PHILLIPS  cK> 

ERE  is,  as  I  believe,  an  entirely 


in  his  cenv 
give  as  to 


re. 


unknown  portrait  by  Jacques 
Louis  David,  and  one  which,  as  I 
venture  to  assert,may  not  only  be 
put  down  to  him  with  something 
like  certainty,  but  may  even 
be,  without  undue  temerity, 
placed,  within  a  year  or  two, 
At  present  I  have  no  indication  to 


which  was  obtained  by  me  at  a  public  sale  in 
London,  the  catalogue,  so  far  as  I  can  remember, 
making  no  statement  as  to  the  person  represented, 
or  as  to  the  collection,  or  the  house,  whence  the 
picture  was  thrown  upon  the  troubled  sea  of  the 
auction-room.  Luckily,  it  carries  with  it  its  own 
credentials,  its  own  birth-marks,  and  by  no  student 
of  the  master's  portraiture  will,  I  imagine,  be 
questioned.     The  thin,  delicate,  firm,  perhaps  a 


the  provenance  of  this  Por/ra  (7  o/rt  Bo>',         little    over-finished    painting    of    the    face;    the 


78 


<'  >     i 


JAk  WITH  BLUE-BLACK  GROIXD.  IIECORATION  IN  KKLIEF,  SLU;HTLV 
COIXTEKSL'NK,  PALE  YELLOW  AND  GREENISH  BLl'E.  PRuBABLY 
XV    CENTURY.         1!Y     KIND     PERMISSION     t)F     MR.      CiEORGE     SALTING 


An  Unknown  Portrait  by  David 


beautiful    drawing    of    the   mouth,  the   nose,  the 
eyes,    the   fine   construction    of  the     head ;    the 
simple,  decisive   brush-work   in    the   white  linen 
pleats  of  the  soft  shirt  and  tie,  in  the  white  collar 
and  rcvers,  which  so  well  set  off  the  rose  and  grey 
tones  of   the   youthful  face — all  these   points   of 
technique  suggest  the  best  period  of  David's  prac- 
tice.    This  is  covered  by  that  momentous  time  in 
the  Revolution  which  extends  from  about    1790 
to  1800,  during  which  decade,  passing  with  what 
must,  on  the  whole,  be  deemed  singular  good  for- 
tune through  the  tremendous  vicissitudes  of  vol- 
canic years,  he  rose  to  an  absolute  dictatorship  of 
the  fine  arts,  and  in  his  own  domain  enjoyed  a 
supremacy  less  questioned  than  that  of  Napoleon 
himself.     The    great   technical    characteristic    of 
this  time  of  fresh  and  vigorous  maturity — I   refer 
to  the  portraits  only — is  the  vibriste  quality  of  the 
touch  in  the  background,  the  hair,  and  some  other 
passages.     And   with   this   go  the  simplicity,  the 
brightness,    the  assurance  without  affectation   of 
the  presentment,  the  joie  etc  vivre  that  is  still,   in 
a  sense,  of  the  late  eighteenth  century — the  time 
of    La   Tour   and    Peronneau,   of    Chardin    and 
Fragonard,  of  Drouais,  of  Madame  Vigee-Lebrun 
and  Madame  Labille-Guiard,     But  these  qualities 
are  present  without  its  too  evident  desire  to  please 
quand  uicme,  its  anxiety  to  express,  above  all,  grace, 
amiability,  sensibility.     This  peculiarity  of   tech- 
nique is  very  noticeable  in  the  Porlrait  of  a  Boy 
now  made  known,  especially  in  the  hair  and  back- 
ground, though  it  is  not  pushed  to  such  excess  as 
in  the   curious   (seemingly   unfinished)    Madame 
Chalgrin  of  the  Louvre,  a  painting  which  we  shall 
not  bj  wrong  in  ascribing  to  the  period  which 
closes   with   the    Madame   Rkamici:     David  the 
portraitist — and  it  is  with  him  alone  that  we  are 
concerned  on  the  present  occasion — is  through- 
out his  career  radiant  with  life  and  good  humour. 
A  paradoxical  statement,  it  will  be  said,  to  make 
as    to    the    alternately    morose    and    hysterically 
passionate  Jacobin,  who  afterwards  became   the 
dignified   chef  d'ecole,   the   dictator   from    whose 
word  there  was  no  appeal  in  any  matter  apper- 
taining to  the  theory  and  practice  of   art  !      But 
none  the   less   true.     In    such   early   pictures   as 
those  masterpieces   of  bourgeois  portraiture,  but 
not     bourgeois     art,     the    Madame    Pccoiil    and 
Monsieur  Pcconl   of    the    Louvre   (1783),     David 
shows   indeed  a   bonhomie  that  not    even    such 
predecessors    as    Chardin     and    Fragonard    ex- 
ceeded.    Fully   to    appreciate    his    triumph    one 
must  know  that  this  smiling,  exuberant  Madame 
Pecoul  was  the  painter's  bcllc-mcrc,  a  family  role 
much  more  important  and  more  ungrateful  than 
its    equivalent  in    English   home-life.      Learning 
this,  one  is  left  wondering  whether  ever  before  or 
since  an  artist  has  rendered   with    such   evident 
gusto,  nay,  with  such  sympathy  and  love,  a  lady 
standing    in   this  peculiar   and    difficult   relation 


to   him.     The   Lavoisier  and   his  Wife   (1787)    is 
one    of   the   most   charming   and   in    its   simple 
grace,  its   unforced   honucfete,  one   of  the    most 
moving  eighteenth-century  portraits  in  existence. 
On   the   other   hand,  the    Madame   Vigee-Lebrun 
in  the  Rouen  Gallery  is — an  absolute  exception  in 
this  respect— cold  and  mannered,  exhibiting  for 
once  the  side  of  eighteenth-century  art  which  to 
us  of  the  present  day  is  the  most  unsympathetic. 
One  can  only  surmise  that  ALadame  Vig^e-Lebrun's 
frigid  mannered  elegance  of  style  must,  for  once, 
have  been  adopted  by  the  portraitist  to  express  the 
not  less  frigid  and  self-conscious  elegance  of  her 
person.     Nothing  could  be  more  simple  or  more 
moving,  more  masterly  in  the  unforced  differen- 
tiation of  character,  more  expressive  of  the  joys 
and  the  burdens  of  paternity,  than  the  portrait- 
group  Michel  Gerard  et  sa  Famille  in  the  museum 
of    Le    Mans.     It    is    a    perfect    realization     of 
David's  conception  ;  that  of  I'homme  de  bicn  who 
has   shaken    from   his   shoulders    the   oppressive 
burdens  of  the  social  hierarchy,  and  is  free  to  show 
himself,    and     to     believe     himself,     Rousseau's 
natural  man,  with  whom  the  essential  principle  of 
good   radiates   unchecked   from    within.      What 
Gerard   was  in  reality  I   know  not ;  but  this   is 
what  David  most  convincingly  and   pathetically 
conveys   as   to    his   individuality    and     his    sur- 
roundings.   And  the  Marquise  d'Orvilliers  (1790), 
so  winning  in  the  perfect  insouciance  of  her  pose, 
in  the  rondeur,  both  physical  and  spiritual,  of  her 
aspect,  does  she  not  stand  at  the  parting  of   the 
ways,  with  just  a  touch — great  lady  as  she  is — of 
the   Revolution    in    her   characterization,    in    the 
sans-gcne  of  her  demeanour,  and  the  lack,  or  the 
suppression,    of    the    conventional   deportment  ? 
It  is  just  in  the  most  palpitating  moments  of  the 
Revolution — in  the  Reign  of  Terror,  and  in  the 
periods  which  prepared  and  immediately  followed 
it — that  the  peculiar  vibriste  technique,  the  vibrant 
touch     in     the     backgrounds,     becomes     most 
noticeable  :    as,  for  instance,  in  the  great  Marat 
of   the    Brussels   Gallery   (1793),   the    unfinished 
Joseph   Bara   of    the   Avignon    Museum    {1794), 
the  Madame  Chalgrin,  the  Portrait  of  the  Artist  in 
the   Louvre  (1794).     It  is   less  noticeable  in  the 
radiantly  fresh  and  youthful  Madame  Seriziat  of 
the     Louvre     (1795)    or    the    bright,    optimistic 
Monsieur  Seriziat  (1795)  which  hangs  as  its  pendant 
there,  but  most  noticeable  again  in  the  unfinished 
Madame   Rccamier,   that   famous  and  universally 
popular    portrait    which    rescued     David     from 
oblivion  even  at  a  time  when  his  greatest  works, 
such    as  the  Sacre,  were    forgotten,    or    wilfully 
ignored,   and   from   his   pseudo-classic   histories, 
his  pseudo-Roman  tragedies  in  paint,  the  art-lover 
turned — as  more  respectfully  but  not  less  decidedly 
he  does  still — in  sad  and  sick  disdain,  or  at  the  best 
in  weariness  and  regret.     All  the  same,  I  must  not 
be  taken  to  suggest  that  this  vibrant  touch  is  to  be 

81 


An  Unknown  Tortrait  by  TDavid 


accounted  for  wholly,  or  even  principally,  by  the 
passion  of  the  moment,  or  the  passion  of  the 
artist.  As  a  fact  it  is  to  be  noted  chiefly  in  the 
simpler,  the  more  intimate  productions  of  the 
revolutionary  period — the  portraits  just  now  men- 
tioned ;  but  also,  as  should  not  be  forgotten,  in  the 
greatest  and  most  deeply  felt  production  of  David's 
brain  and  brush,  the  Marat,  as  well  as  in  the 
works  which  group  most  naturally  with  it.  For 
once,  and  once  only,  the  master,  forgetting  his 
pseudo-classicism,  his  Greeks  and  Romans — as 
unlike  those  of  antiquity  as  even  the  Louis-Quator- 
zian  Greeks  and  Romans  were,  but  of  a  wholly 
different  unlikeness — brought  forth  in  the  Marat 
a  work  truly  classical  in  spirit,  because  it  was  the 
result  of  greatness  of  vision  and  greatness  of  emo- 
tion, because  it  was  a  generalized  and  thus  the  more 
deeply  significant  statement  of  the  higher  and 
more  essential  truth.  Another  memorial  picture, 
the  portrait  after  death  of  Lepelletier  de  Saint- 
Fargeau,  who  was  assassinated  a  few  months  before 
the  '  arch-patriot '  fell,  was  marked  by  a  sculptural 
grandeur  of  conception  and  arrangement  to  which, 
in  the  Marat,  David  did  not  aspire  in  the  same 
degree,  but  fell  short  of  it  in  tragic  force  and 
poignancy  of  truth.  The  Lepelletier  de  Saiiit- 
Fargean  has  disappeared,  and  in  all  probability 
no  longer  exists;  it  is  represented  now  only  by 
Tardieu's  engraving,  of  which  a  single  example 
exists  in  the  Cabinet  des  Estampes.  It  is  thus 
seen  that  the  vibriste  technique  in  the  back- 
ground—the frottis  leger,  as  the  French  bio- 
graphers of  David  call  it— is  to  be  found  chiefly, 
as  might  be  expected,  in  the  less  laboriously 
finished  works ;  but  that  it  marks  also  these  painted- 
poems  of  republican  ardour  and  devotion,  of 
which  a  third,  the  Joseph  Bara,  of  the  Avignon 
Museum,  is  nowto  be  mentioned.  Here  we  have,  in 
a  simplified  and  poetized  form,  the  heroic  action 
of  the  drummer-boy,  Joseph  Bara,  who  died,  at 
the  age  of  thirteen,  a  dauntless  champion  of  the 
Republic,  pressing  to  his  heart  the  cockade  with 
the  national  colours.  This  sketch— or  rather 
cbauche,  which  is  not  quite  the  same  thing— stands 
wholly  apart  from  all  else  in  the  life-work  of  the 
master,  not  only  by  reason  of  the  caressing  touch, 
the  exquisite  purity  of  draughtsmanship  with 
which  the  slender  yet  rounded  nudity  of  childhood 
IS  rendered,  but  in  the  infinite  tenderness  of  the 
conception.  The  pseudo-classic  rigidity  of  the 
austere  Jacobin,  who  so  vainly  sought  to  revive 
antiquity,  with  its  cardinal  principles,  those  of 
life  and  truth,  left  out,  here  lets  his  heart— the 
heart  of  the  patriot  but  also  of  the  father— speak 
without  phrase,  without  false-tragic  emphasis. 
And  this  brings  me  back  in  somewhat  roundabout 
fashion  to  the  Portrait  of  a  Boy  which  is  the  main 
subject  of  this  note.  For,  with  no  special  fact, 
pictorial  or  documentary,  to  support  me,  I  venture 
upon  the  suggestion  that  we  have  here  one  of  the  sons 

82 


of  the  painter,  and  that  the  Joseph  Bara  represents 
the  same  youth,  or  it  may  be  his  brother,  in  an 
earlier  stage  of  adolescence.  As  we  learn  from  the 
laborious  compiled  work  'Le  Peintre  Louis  David: 
Souvenirs  et  Documents,'  by  the  master's  grandson, 
Jules  David,  he  married  in  1782,  and  had  two  sons, 
Charles-Louis-Jules,  born  on  the  15th  February, 
1783,  and  Francois-Eugene,  born  on  the  15th 
April,  1784.  The  elder  of  these  boys,  and  the 
more  staid,  became  a  bureaucrat  of  the  most 
correct  and  serious  type ;  he  rose  to  be  soiis-prefet, 
and  would  have  gone  higher  still  but  for  the 
Restoration.  The  younger,  the  more  impetuous 
and  the  less  applique,  enlisted  in  1804,  and  valiantly 
climbing  from  one  grade  to  another,  as  was  the 
fashion  in  those  days  of  passionate  enthusiasm  and 
swift  advancement,  was,  at  the  moment  of  those 
calamitous  Cf/z/yoz/rs  which  shattered  the  fortunes 
of  the  whole  David  family,  chef  d'escadron  in  the 
Cuirassiers. 

There  is  no  record  in  Jules  David's  'Souvenirs 
et  Documents '  of  any  portrait  of  either  of  these 
sons,  whether  in  youth  or  manhood,  except  the  one 
entry  in  the  catalogue  (comprising  both  works 
extant  and  works  indicated  in  the  notes  or  corre 
spondence) — '  Jules  David,  son  iils  a  I'age  de  5  ans' 
(in  the  possession  of  Baron  Jerome  David).  And 
this  helps  us  not  at  all,  since  the  handsome  youth 
of  my  picture  is  at  least  fourteen  or  fifteen  years  of 
age.  Two  excellent  biographies  of  the  master 
have  appeared  lately :  one  that  of  M.  Ltion 
Rosenthal  in  the  series  '  Les  Maitres  de  I'Art,'  the 
other  that  of  M.  Charles  Saunier  in  the  series 
'  Les  Grands  Artistes.'  But  neither  adds 
anything  material  to  our  scanty  stock  of  facts  as 
to  missing  portraits  or  other  works.  Indeed,  the 
indications  given  in  the  earlier  biography, 
compiled  from  family  records,  are  the  fuller  in  this 
respect,  as  giving  several  portraits  incidentally 
mentioned  in  the  notes  of  the  painter  but  now  no 
longer  to  be  traced. 

There  is  so  much  assurance  combined  with  so 
much  modesty,  so  great  a  promise  of  vitality 
and  of  imaginative  energy  in  the  face  of  this 
boy,  that  I  should  be  inclined  to  look  upon 
the  portrait  as  that  of  the  second  son,  the 
future  soldier,  the  valiant  chef  d'escadron  to  be. 
That  this  is  Dichtung,  in  which  there  may  or  may 
not  be  the  germs  of  Wahrheit,  I  know  full  well. 
And  yet  I  send  forth  my  conjecture  for  what  it  is 
worth  :  in  these  matters  it  is  a  case  of  nothing 
venture,  nothing  gain.  Moreover — and  this  is  more 
risky  still — I  should  like  to  think  that  the  beautiful 
adolescent  nude  in  the  Joseph  Bara  had  been 
studied — and,  after  all,  what  is  more  probable? — 
from  the  one  or  the  other  son.  The  age  of  the 
drummer-boy  at  the  time  of  his  glorious  martyrdom 
was,  as  I  have  already  stated,  thirteen  years  ;  but 
the  dead  child  in  the  picture — a  broken  lily  lovelier 
still    in  death — looks  younger  by  a  year  or  two. 


An  Unknown  Tortrait  by  T>avid 


And   tlie   one  son  would  have   been  eleven,  the 
other  ten,  when  the  study  in  the  Avignon  Museum 
was  painted  to  express  the  grief  of  a  nation  at 
this  ruthless  sweep  of  the  scythe,  cutting  off  the 
flower  just  as  in  fairest  promise  it  Hfted  its  head 
from  the  earth.  The  second  son,  Frangois-Eugene, 
would  have  been  exactly  fifteen  in  1799 — the  year 
which  preceded  that  to  which  the  Madame  Rccamier 
is  assigned  ;   and  this  is  exactly  the  moment  to 
which,   judging  by  the  peculiar  technique  of  the 
Portrait  of  a  Boy,  I  should  be  inclined  to  assign 
it.      The   Madame   Rc'camicr,   if   pushed   a   stage 
farther,  would  have  been  well-nigh  identical,  as 
regards    execution,    with    my    picture.     Whether 
the  world  would  have  gained  by  such  a  transforma- 
tion of  an  incomparable  cbauche,  complete  in  its 
essentials,  into  a  finished   painting  is  a  question 
which  every  man  may  safely  be  left  to  solve  for 
himself.     It  will  be  seen  that  at  any  rate  there  are 
some  strong  points  in  favour  of  my  conjecture ; 
that  it  is   not  altogether  what  the  Germans   call 
J  caught  out  of  the  air.'     Here  then   I  must  leave 
it  for  the  present,  content  to  have  made  known  the 
existence  of  a  charming  picture  and  genuine  David. 
The  joic  dc  vivrc,  the  peculiar  radiance  of  vitality 
in   the  portraits  of  this    master,  is  akin   to,   and 
yet   essentially  different  from,    that    of    his    pre- 
decessors in  the  eighteenth    century.      It  is    not 
the   exuberant  life-force  that  cries  out  aloud   in 
Hogarth,  and  must  have  its  ebb  and  flow  like  the 
sea ;  it  is  not  the  momentariness,  the  rush  and 
flutter  of  Reynolds,  or  the  febrile  passion,  beneath 
modishness  and   the  desire  to  please,  of   Gains- 
borough.    Again,  it  is  not  the  flashing  brightness 
of  La  Tour,  with  its  subtle  touch  of  cynicism  and 
disillusion  beneath    the   smile ;  nor   the   resolute 
optimism  and  serene  courage  of  Chardin  ;  nor  the 
weaker   brightness  of    Drouais,  that  suggests  no 
life  below  that  which  is  lived  for  the  gallery,  when 


the  lights  are  turned  on  to  the  full.  David's 
joic  dc  vivrc,  the  vital  force  that  emanates  from  his 
finest  creations  in  portraiture,  is  a  steadv,  clear, 
evenly  radiating  light— a  trifle  cold,  perhaps,  in  its 
brightness,  yet,  for  all  that,  of  singular  and 
enduring  power.  What  better  instances  could  I 
desire  in  support  of  this  attempt  of  mine  to  define 
it  than  the  Madame  Pcconl,  the  Marquise  dVri- 
villicrs,  the  Madame  Seriziat  d.nd  Monsieur  Scriziat, 
the  Madauie  Recauner  ;  what  better  or  more  com- 
prehensive instance,  indeed,  than  the  whole  great 
canvas  of  the  Sacre  dc  I'lmperatrice  Josephine,  in 
which  the  modern  master— for  this  once  the 
emulator  in  realistic  truth  lifted  half-way  to  the 
ideal,  in  composure  and  in  grandeur,  of  Ghirlandajo 
himself— has  produced  his  masterpiece  both  as 
portraitist  and  painter  of  national  epics  ? 

In  the  portrait-pieces  where  the  child  appears, 
still  sheltering  in  the  skirts  of  the  mother,  as  in 
the  Madame  Scriziat ;  or  a  little  later  as  the  boy, 
the  youth  to  whom  the  father  gives  his  whole 
being,  as  in  the  wonderfully  pathetic  Michel  Gerard 
et  sa  Fantille  ;  or  again  when  it  appears  alone,  as 
in  the  Joseph  Bara,  or  this  Portrait  of  a  Bo\—'m 
these,  then,  there  is  something  more  than  a 
steady  current  of  vital  force.  There  is  life- 
giving  warmth,  the  pulsation  of  love — as  there 
is  the  pulsation  of  patriotic  passion  in  the  Marat 
and  the  LepeUeticr  de  Saiut-Far^eau.  And  then 
it  is  that  the  austere  republican,  the  supreme 
pontiff  of  the  pseudo-classic,  subdued,  melted  to 
warmth  and  passionate  sympathy  by  the  vivifying 
stream  that  will  not  be  resisted,  is  at  his  greatest 
and  best.  It  is  then  that  he  stands  forth  a  master 
who,  victorious  once  more,  reoccupies  and  will 
maintain  his  commanding  place,  that  no  other  fills 
in  exactly  the  same  way,  at  the  point  of  junction 
of  the  eighteenth  century  with  the  nineteenth— at 
the  meeting  of  the  old  world  with  the  new. 


MR.   HORNE'S  BOOK  ON  BOTTICELLI 
^  BY  ROGER  E.  FRY  ^ 

T  is  hardly  too  much  to  say  that 
since  the  study  of  Renaissance 
art  began   to  assume  systematic 


orm  in  the  early  nineteenth 
century  until  the  present  day, 
nothing  has  been  produced  quite 
comparable  to  Mr.  Home's  new 
work."  It  has  the  monumental 
appearance  and  the  dignity  of  style  of  a  work  of 
the  Renaissance  itself.  It  has  the  breadth  of 
manner,  the  leisurely  exposition,  and,  let  us  admit, 
demands  from  the  reader  the  same  quiet  persistence 
of  attention  as  some  folio  by  Casaubon  or  Diodati. 
Its  author  has  determined  to  combine  with  the 

>  '  Alessandro  ■  Filipepi,  commonly  c.illed  Sandro  Botticelli, 
lainter  of  1-lorence.'  By  Herbert  P,  Home.  London  :  G.  Bell 
and  Sons.     1908.    ^10  los. 


utmost  rigour  of  modern  scientific  methods  in 
research,  a  manner  which  is  no  longer  in  vogue — 
the  manner  and  style  of  the  period  on  which  he 
has  so  long  brooded  and  in  which  he  has 
imaginatively  lived  for  many  years.  Hence  he 
discards  as  modern  toys  all  those  methods  of 
abbreviation  and  co-ordination  of  the  material, 
which  writers  have  gradually  elaborated  for  the 
greater  ease  of  exposition  and  as  aids  to  appre- 
hension. 

All  that  apparatus  for  emphasizing  and  grouping 
information  which  finds  its  fullest  development 
in  the  halfpenny  'yellow'  journal,  but  which 
permeates  to  some  extent  all  our  literature,  is 
here  cast  aside.  Either  a  thing  is  worth  saying  or 
it  is  not.  If  it  is  worth  saying,  it  is  in  the  book  ; 
if  it  is  not,  it  is  excluded — but  there  is  no  inter- 

83 


Air.  Home's  Book  on  Botticelli 


mediate  class,   everything   is  here   on   the   same 
footing.     There  are   no   notes,  no  headings,   no 
chapters,    no   index.     All   the   knowledge   about 
Botticelli  that  Mr.  Home  has  accumulated  in  years 
of  patient  study  is  here  poured  out  in  one  con- 
tinuous and  equable  stream.    That  such  a  method 
conduces  immensely  to  the  beauty  of  the  book  no 
one  who  opens  this  work  can  deny.      Few  books 
of   any   kind,    certainly   no  works  of  art  history, 
have  been  produced  with  such  dignity  and  style. 
There   is   nothing,  let  us  hasten  to  add,  of   the 
cdllion    de  luxe  about   this ;    all    is   reasonable, 
moderate,  well  considered.     It  has  indeed  such  a 
form  as  any  serious  and  elaborate  book  on  any 
subject  might  suitably  display.    Mr.  Home  is  an 
expert  in  all  that  relates  to  the  art  of  printing,  so 
that  the  beauty  and  dignity  of  the  book  are  not 
matter  for  surprise.     It  may  seem,  indeed,  unne- 
cessary to  insist  at  length  on  the  externals  of  Mr, 
Home's  book,  but  it  is  symptomatic  of  his  whole 
attitude.    And  that  is  the  attitude  of  pure  science 
as  regards  the  matter  and  pure  art  as  regards  the 
presentment.     The   art    critic   as   a   rule   adopts 
neither  of  these  attitudes  altogether.     Indeed,  one 
scarcely  recognizes  the  art  critic  in  Mr.   Home. 
He  gives  but  little  hint  of  any  personal  views  on 
aesthetics  in  general ;  his  technical  terms  are  such 
as  Vasari    himself   might  have  used,  or  at  least 
would  have  perfectly  understood  ;  there  is  little, 
indeed,  in  his  appreciation  of  Botticelli  which  is 
not  taken  from  the  criticism  of  Botticelli's  own  con- 
temporaries, most  of  all  from  a  certain  agent  of 
the  duke  of  Milan,  who  mentions  the  characteristic 
of  Botticelli  as  the  aria  virile,  the  virile  air  of  his 
figures.     By  insisting  on  that  simple  phrase  as  a 
counteraction  to  the  modern  idea  of  Botticelli  as 
a  languid  sentimentalist  Mr.  Home  endeavours  to 
get  his  artist  seen  in  true  perspective,  and  is  content 
to  leave   it  there.     That   he  has  a  fine  sense  of 
artistic  quality  is  made  evident  in  a  hundred  ways 
throughout  the  book,  that  he  is  nicely  critical  is 
seen  by  the  relative  values  he  gives  to  different 
works  of  art ;  but  he  is  not  a  critic  in  the  modern 
sense  at  all.     That  is  to  say,  he  is  either  incapable 
or  contemptuous  of  all  that  delicate  analysis  of 
the  spiritual  and  temperamental  components  of  a 
work  of  art,  all  that  subtle  exposition  of  the  artist's 
intention,  that  illustration  of  the  work  of  art  by 
means  of  analogy  and  simile,  which  make  up  so 
large  a  part  of  the  best  modern  critical  literature, 
and  which  the  French  in  particular  have  cultivated 
so   brilliantly.     Mr.    Home   confines    himself   in 
effect  to  an  almost  Vasarian  simplicity  of  state- 
ment.   '  It  is,  indeed,  as  well  done  as  it  is  possible 
to  miagine  '—to  phrases  almost  as  simpleas  this  Mr. 
Home  reduces  all  our  elaborate  modern  apparatus. 
There  is  something  bracing  in  this  austerity,  and 
much  truth  in  the  implied  condemnation  of  a  great 
deal  of  this  criticism  as  too  fine  drawn,  too  theo- 
retical, and  too  liable  to  personal  bias. 

84 


But  if  Mr.  Home  stints  us  in  this  direction,  he 
is  generous  to  lavishness  in  another.  '  What  is  it,' 
he  says  on  p.  52,  '  that  we  really  know  about 
Simonetta  ?  '  '  What  is  it  that  we  really  know  ?  ' 
is  the  question  always  in  Mr.  Home's  mind,  and 
no  efforts  are  spared  either  in  the  task  of  sweeping 
away  superincumbent  guesswork  or  in  finding  out 
through  documents  what,  in  fact,  we  really  know. 
And  in  that  search  no  fact  seems  to  Mr.  Home  too 
minute  to  merit  our  attention,  too  insignificant  to 
help  towards  that  complete  reconstruction  of  the 
past  of  Florence  of  which  he  perpetually  dreams. 
Indeed,  so  comprehensive  and  so  minutely  exact 
is  his  knowledge  of  that  artist's  life  in  fifteenth- 
century  Florence  that  there  is  scarcely  any  fact 
but  arouses  in  his  mind  some  complementary 
detail,  and  so  helps  to  fill  out  the  ouUines  of 
already  accumulated  knowledge. 

It  would  be  idle  to  deny  that  such  antiquarian 
and  scientific  fervour  as  Mr.  Home  displays  leads 
him  at  times  to  dilate  at  length  upon  points  which 
to  one  less  steeped  in  the  local  records  seem 
almost  tedious.  Mr.  Home  never  abbreviates  ;  he 
seems  always  to  have  in  view  the  future  historian, 
whose  gratitude  he  will  earn  by  the  fullness  and 
accuracy  of  his  descriptions,  but  whom  he  will 
assuredly  puzzle  by  the  strange  incompatibility  of 
the  date  on  his  title-page  with  some  of  the  sayings 
in  the  book.  Thus  we  find  him  in  one  passage 
anticipating  Mr.  Berenson's  book  on  Florentine 
drawings,  which  has  been  given  to  the  world  now 
some  years.  In  another  passage  we  find  him 
hoping  that  the  clue  to  Signorelli's  Pan  may 
yet  be  discovered.  This  was  published  in  the 
'Monthly  Review'  for  December,  1901.  Such 
slight  inaccuracies  as  these  are  the  penalties  which 
Mr.  Home  pays  for  the  deliberation  and  leisure 
with  which  he  has  carried  through  his  great  work. 
But  who  will  venture  to  blame  him  for  the  imper- 
turbable serenity,  the  deliberate  ponderation,  which 
have  gone  to  its  composition,  and  which  make 
it  so  remarkable,  so  distinguished  among  the 
cruder  and  more  hasty  efforts  of  contemporary 
criticism  ? 

What,  then,  do  we  really  know  of  Botticelli  ? 
The  answer  is — Mr.  Home's  book,  which  may  be 
regarded  as,  so  far  as  such  a  thing  is  possible, 
definitive.  Of  entirely  new  matter  there  is  not, 
indeed,  very  much  that  is  of  a  startling  or  sensa- 
tional nature,  but  on  an  enormous  number  of 
points  the  new  material  effects  a  readjustment  of 
our  point  of  view  which  is  of  real  importance.  To 
begin  with,  Botticelli's  birth  is  now  fixed  with 
some  show  of  certainty  in  1444  instead  of  1447. 
A  new  complexion  is  given  to  the  already  recog- 
nized influence  of  Antonio  Pollajuolo,  a  new  con- 
ception of  the  influence  on  his  art  of  the  work  of 
Castagno  and  of  its  curious  and  interesting  cause, 
namely,  Botticelli's  finding  himself  obliged  to  rival 
Castagno  in  the  rendering  of  the  iiiipicciati. 


Mr.  Hornets  Book  on   'Botticelli 


About  the  dates  and  history  of  particular  pic- 
tures Mr.  Home  has  accumulated  a  large  mass  of 
material.  Perhaps  the  most  striking  result  of  this 
is  the  position  which  it  gives  to  Lorenzo  di  Pier- 
francesco  de'  Medici.  It  turns  out  that  he  was,  in 
fact,  the  chief  patron  and  encourager  of  Botticelli's 
art.  Indeed,  what  is  of  quite  particular  interest, 
it  was  for  him  that  Botticelli  executed  those  pic- 
tures like  the  Spring  and  the  Birth  of  Vcims,  in 
which  we  find  the  expression  of  what  is  rarest  and 
most  personal  to  Botticelli,  just  that  side  of  his  art 
which  required  the  stimulus  of  some  appreciative 
private  patron,  that  side  which,  had  the  church 
and  the  republic  been  his  only  patrons,  would 
never  have  come  to  light.  It  had  always  been 
assumed  that  these  pictures  and  the  kindred 
Allegory  of  Pan,  by  Signorelli,  breathed  the  very 
spirit  of  Lorenzo  il  Magnifico's  court.  So  that 
when  we  find  them  due  to  the  other  Lorenzo, 
Lorenzo  di  Pierfrancesco,  and  that  they  adorned 
his  villa  at  Cestello,  we  have  materially  to  readjust 
our  opinions  of  the  two  members  of  the  family, 
and  almost  in  proportion  as  the  latter  gains  in 
interest  something  of  the  Magnifico's  unique 
position  as  a  patron  is  lost. 

Of  less  importance  is  the  discovery  of  another 
patron  of  Botticelli's — Giovanni  Lami — for  whom 
he  executed  the  incomparable  altarpiece  with  the 
Adoration  of  the  Magi  which  once  stood  (Mr. 
Home,  with  infinite  pains,  has  found  exactly 
where)  in  Sta.  Maria  Novella.  He  has  stopped 
here,  by  the  way,  to  follow  out  the  whole  history 
of  the  changes  in  the  arrangements  of  this  church 
when  the  trauiezzo  was  removed.  Such  minutely 
precise  work  is  characteristic  of  Mr.  Home's 
method.  He  is  never  satisfied  until  he  has  been 
able  to  visualize  each  painting  as  it  originally 
appeared  amid  the  surroundings  for  which  it  was 
first  designed.  More  than  once  such  care  leads  to 
valuable  suggestions  about  the  picture  itself,  and 
it  always  gives  a  certain  vividness  and  actuality  to 
our  knowledge. 

In  discussing  the  portraits  in  this  picture  of  the 
Adoration  our  author  disposes  of  Dr.  Uhlmann's 
ingenious  discoveries  of  portraits  of  all  the  Medici 
and  Tornabuoni  families.  Of  the  improbability  of 
Lorenzo  Tornabuoni  being  among  the  group 
there  is  no  doubt,  but,  in  view  of'the  fact  that 
Cosinio  Pater  Patriae  and  Piero  il  Gottoso  are 
certainly  represented,  it  seems  likely  that  among 
the  other  portrait-like  heads  we  might  expect  the 
two  chiefs  of  the  younger  generation,  and  it  seems 
to  me  that  Lorenzo's  characteristic  mouth  is 
evident  in  the  young  man  standing  with  folded 
hands  to  the  left,  and  that  Giuliano's  profile  is  no 
less  evident  in  one  of  the  standing  figures  on 
the  right. 

When  we  come  to  Botticelli's  work  in  the  Sistine 
Chapel  we  find  a  mass  of  misconception  and  mis- 
understanding, accumulated  by  Dr.  Uhlmann  and 


others,  swept  away  with  Mr.  Home's  unfailing 
thoroughness  of  method.  What  he  has  done  here 
will  certainly  not  need  doing  again,  and  no  one 
would  venture,  we  imagine,  to  revive  the  myths  of 
Fra  Diamante's  and  Filippino  Lippi's  assistance  in 
the  Sistine  Chapel  frescoes.  We  are  glad  to  see, 
by  the  bye,  that  Mr.  Home  does  not  accept  the 
attribution  of  the  Passage  of  the  Red  Sea  to  Piero 
di  Cosimo,  and  alludes  to  its  essentially  Ghirlan- 
dajesque  character. 

Whether  he  is  equally  right  in  dismissing  as 
unreal  the  historical  allusions  discovered  by  Dr. 
Steinmann  in  Botticelli's  fresco  of  the  Temptation 
I  do  not  feel  so  certain.  Some  explanation 
is  necessary,  surely,  of  the  extremely  unsatis- 
factory composition  of  this  fresco.  There  are, 
no  doubt,  beautiful  passages,  single  groups  of 
figures  with  beautifully  interwoven  linear  design, 
but  as  a  whole  the  composition  is  perfunctory 
and  mechanical  without  any  leading  idea,  with- 
out any  inspiration.  And  this  is  the  only  one 
of  Botticelli's  works  of  which  this  can  be  said.  He 
is  indeed  almost  infallible  alike  in  the  originality 
and  perfection  of  his  general  disposition  of  masses. 
Such  a  complete  failure  as  this,  where  the  nominal 
subject — that  of  the  Temptation — was  one  to 
inspire  Botticelli  with  supremely  noble  and  original 
ideas,  demands  an  explanation,  and  the  dictation  of 
a  patron  like  Sixtus  IV  seems  a  highly  probable 
one. 

We  have  hurried  on  to  this  important  point  of 
the  Sistine  frescoes,  but  must  turn  back  to  note  the 
interesting  discussion  on  La  Bella  Simonetta  and 
the  complete  exposure  of  the  elaborate  legend 
which  has  gradually  accumulated  round  the  sup- 
posed romance  of  her  relations  with  Giuliano.  The 
idea  that  she  is  the  original  of  Botticelli's  '  type ' 
is  finally  disposed  of  thus :  '  At  the  time  of 
Simonetta's  death  none  of  the  pictures  which  are 
said  to  contain  her  portrait  were  painted,  or  even 
invented  ;  and  at  the  time  of  Giuliano's  murder, 
in  1487,  one  only,  the  Spring,  could  possibly  have 
been  begun.'  If  the  critic  is  inclined  to  carp  at  the 
comparatively  small  addition  which  Mr.  Home's 
patient  researches  have  added  to  our  positive 
knowledge  of  Botticelli,  he  should  remember  that 
such  thoroughly  destructive  criticism  as  he  has 
given  us  on  a  large  number  of  points  is  not  only 
as  valuable  as  new  matter  to  the  lover  of  historical 
truth,  but  requires  as  sure  an  historical  sense,  as 
deep  a  knowledge  of  original  sources,  and  as 
calm  a  judgment  as  are  needed  for  the  happiest 
and  most  sensational  discoveries. 

But  let  us  pass  to  another  piece  of  constructive 
criticism  and  research.  Mr.  Home  has  shown 
for  the  first  time  the  importance  in  the  art  of  the 
period  which  attached  to  the  now  destroyed  frescoes 
executed  for  Lorenzo  il  Magnifico  at  the  Spedaletto 
near  Volterra.  With  his  customary  thorough- 
ness,   he  has  examined   the  site   of  these  once- 


Mr.  Hornets  Book  on  Botticelli 

splendid  decorations  executed  by  the  same  artists 
as  had  just  completed  the  Sistine  frescoes,  and 
concludes  that  these  frescoes  'formed  a  series  of 
profane  stories  which,  although  less  monumental 
in  character  than  the  stories  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  approached  them 
in  artistic  interest.' 

Where  everything  bears  the  same  stamp  of 
scholarly  thoroughness  and  patient  research,  it  is 
difficult  to  select  special  examples  for  praise,  but 
Mr.  Home's  discussion  of  the  celebrated  Magnificat 
tondo  is  a  singularly  good  example  of  his  cool, 
clear-sighted,  well-balanced  judgment  and  critical 
acumen.  Nothing  here  is  underlined,  no  new 
points  are  accented  ;  yet  to  the  careful  reader  this 
passage  will  disclose  many  implied  criticisms,  both 
of  other  paintings  and  other  critics  which  in  his 
dry,  austere  manner  Mr.  Home  sets  once  more  in 
their  proper  place.  And  while  we  are  on  this 
point  we  must  call  attention  to  the  wonderful  use 
Mr.  Home  has  made  of  the  now  somewhat 
neglected  practice  of  the  verbal  description  of 
pictures.  Where  the  originals  are  so  well  known 
as  most  of  these,  and  where,  as  here,  they  are 
accompanied  by  admirable  photogravure  illus- 
trations, this  verbal  description  might  almost 
appear  superfluous  ;  and  yet  again  and  again  in 
reading  this  book  some  small  point  is  revealed 
which  one  had  always  overlooked,  some  readjust- 
ment of  the  relative  importance  of  the  parts  has 
been  suggested.  Moreover,  one  can  hardly  praise 
enough  the  admirable  literary  quality,  the  directness 
and  beauty  of  these  descriptions. 

Proceeding  once  more  with  our  consideration 
of  the  new  material  contained  in  the  book,  we  note 
that  the  occasion  of  the  Nasiagio  clegli  Oncsti  panels 
is  found  to  have  been  the  marriage  of  Giannozzo 
Pucci  with    Lucrezia  Bini  in   1483.     The  nature 
and  purpose  of  these  and  other  decorative  panels 
are  for  the  first  time  clearly  elucidated.     Mr.  Home 
has  in  his  studies  become  so  intimately  acquainted 
with  the  appearance  of  Florentine  interiors  of  the 
period   that   he   is  able   to   reconstruct  them   in 
imagination  more  exactly  than  any  one  heretofore. 
Of  actually  new  material,  of  paintings  for  tiie 
first  time  attributed  to  Botticelli,  there  is,  I  think, 
only  one,  the  damaged  fresco  of  the  Anmiticialion 
in  the  suppressed  monastery  of  San  Martino  in 
the  Via  della  Scala  at  Florence.     It  is,  perhaps, 
asking  too  much,  but  we  cannot  repress  the  wish 
that  this  and  other  little-known  works  intimately 
connected  with  Botticelli's  art,  such  as  the  tapestry 
of   Pallas,  the   embroidery  in   the  Poldi  Pezzoli, 
and  some  of  the  less-known  drawings,  had  found 
a  place  among  the  reproductions  beside  the  well- 
known  masterpieces.     However,  while  upon  this 
subject,  let  us  express  our  gratitude  for  having 
the  first  accessible  reproduction  of  the  little-known 
and  curious  picture  of  The  Magdalen  at  the  Foot  of 
the  Cross   from   the  collection  of   M.  Aynard  at 

86 


Lyons.     This   damaged    picture   belongs   to   the 
latest  phase  of  Botticelli's  art,  to  the  time  when 
strained    religious   emotion   and    deep    mystical 
yearnings  occupied  his  once-happy  spirit,  and  in 
the   invention,  at   all  events,   it   is  such  as  only 
Botticelli  could  have  conceived.     The  description 
of  this  strange  Apocalyptic  vision  is  not  altogether 
convincing.      Mr.    Home  says  :    'In    the   sky   a 
number  of    shields  blazoned  with  the  Cross  are 
seen  to   fall  from   heaven,  as   if    rained   by   the 
Almighty  upon  the  earth.      These  shields,  which 
are   of    the   same   form   as   those  borne   by  the 
Dominations,    in     Botticelli's     drawing     of     the 
Angelic  Hierarchy  in  illustration  to  Canto  XXVII 
of  die  "  Paradiso,"  fall  across  the  picture  from  left 
to  right  towards  a  bank  of  angry  clouds,  in  which 
are  a  number  of  devils,  who  hurl  burning  brands 
upon  the  earth.'     He  adds  :  '  The  falling  shields, 
blazoned  with  the    cross,    apparently  symbolical 
of  that  power  of  divine  wrath  which  urges  the  evil 
spirits  to  hurl  the  burning  brands  upon  the  earth, 
recall  the  vision  described  by   Savonarola  in  the 
" Coinpcnilio  delle  Rk'clazioni"  o( the  "Crux  ime  Dei" 
which  he  suddenly  saw  "  trouble  the  heavens  and 
drive  clouds  through  the  air,  and  cast  winds  and 
lightnings    and     thunderbolts,    and    rain    down 
hail,  fires  and  swords,  and  kill  a  great  multitude 
of     people,    so    that    few    remained     upon     the 
earth."  '    Now  it  seems  a  perfectly  natural  expres- 
sion of  such  divine  wrath  to  rain  down  swords — 
but  not  to  rain  down  shields,  which  are  weapons 
of    defence.       It   may  be   that    the    photograph 
reveals    something    which     is     no     longer     dis- 
tinguishable    in     the     much-damaged     picture, 
but  it  seems  to  me  quite  clear  that  behind  these 
shields    there    were    once    angelic  warriors,  sent 
down  from  heaven  to  fight  the  devils.     The  raised 
right  arm  and  sword  of  one  such  are  visible  to  the 
right  of  Christ's  body. 

Meanwhile  we  have  passed  over  the  whole  story 
of  Botticelli's  relations  with  Savonarola  on  the  one 
hand  and  his  old  patron  Lorenzo  di  Pierfrancesco 
de'  Medici,  here  for  the  first  time  stated  with  all  the 
knowledge  which  is  at  our  disposal  and  without 
any  of  those  vague  speculations  with  which 
previous  writers,  from  Vasari  downwards,  have 
filled  in  the  meagre  outlines.  Mr.  Home,  here  as 
elsewhere,  shows  himself  as  a  model  of  clear  un- 
biased historical  judgment.  As  an  example  of 
his  method  I  may  call  attention  to  his  explanation 
of  Botticelli's  share  in  the  mosaics  of  the  chapel 
of  S.  Zenobio,  in  the  cathedral  at  Florence. 
Nothing  whatever  is  left  of  these  mosaics,  but  that 
does  not  deter  Mr.  Home  from  an  inquiry,  which 
must  have  needed  almost  as  must  patience  as  skill, 
into  what  was  exactly  Botticelli's  share  in  this  work. 
Here,  as  in  so  many  places,  Mr.  Home's  experience 
as  an  architect  stands  him  in  good  stead,  and  he 
is  able  to  unravel  the  complicated  documentary 
evidence,   and    present    a    clear    and    intelligible 


Mr.  Home's  Booh^  on  Botticelli 


narrative  of  the  whole  sequence  of  events.  The 
inquiry  has  its  reward  for  the  hght  it  throws  on 
the  relative  position  of  the  artists  and  artificers 
employed  on  the  mosaics,  and  especially  for  the 
new  prominence  it  gives  to  the  figure  of  Ghcrardo, 
the  miniaturist. 

And  this  leads  us  to  the  question  of  the  promised 
second  volume,  wherein  many  new  and  interesting 
lines  of  inquiry,  here  seen  only  '  glimpse-wise,' 
will  be  treated  at  full  length.  If  the  promises  here 
held  out  are  fulfilled,  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  second  volume  will  contain  enough  new 
material  to  satisfy  the  most  eager  curiosity  of  the 
student  of  art  history, 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention  one  other  discovery 
which  we  owe  to  Mr.  Home.  That  Scpoltiiario,  or 
hook  of  sepultures,  in  manuscript  byRoselli,  which 
has  been  Mr.  Home's  trusty  guide  throughout  his 


patient  investigation,  has  done  him  a  final  service 
here,  and  one  which  engages  alike  our  sentiment  and 
curiosity,  by  revealing  the  exact  spot  in  Ognissanti 
where  once  stood  the  gravestone  of  Sandro  di 
Mariano. 

I  am  conscipus  that  I  have  given  an  all  too 
imperfect  idea  of  a  great  and  monumental  work. 
It  is  one  which  exemplifies  that  union  of  the  man 
of  science  and  the  artist  which  was  so  familiar  to 
Botticelli's  day  and  which  seems  so  improbable  to 
our  own  ideas  of  their  respective  functions.  It  is 
unlikely  indeed  that  very  much  more  will  ever 
be  known  about  Botticelli  than  is  here  set  down  ; 
for  many  years  to  come  those  who  inquire  what  it 
is  we  know  about  this  painter  of  Florence  will 
have  to  refer  to  this  book,  which  alike  in  the 
thoroughness  of  its  scholarship  and  the  gravity  of 
its  style  has  the  air  of  a  classic. 


A  DEFECT  OF  MODERN  ART  TEACHING 


^  BY  C.  J. 

S  might  be  expected  from  its 
author,  this  gossiping  record' 
of  Sir  Hubert  von  Herkomer's 
experiences  as  a  teacher  at 
Bushey  is  an  entertaining 
volume.  It  traces  the  origin 
and  rise  of  his  school,  the 
principles  on  which  the  teach- 
ing was  conducted,  and  ends  with  an  account 
of  the  dramatic  performances  held  there,  with 
special  reference  to  the  musical  accompaniments 
and  the  novelties  in  stage  management  introduced. 
It  is  profusely  illustrated  both  with  the  author's 
sketches  and  with  reproductions  of  works  by  his 
most  talented  pupils,  which  make  a  goodly  show. 
It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  book  offers  a  variety 
of  attractions  ;  and  the  notes  on  stage  management 
by  one  of  the  pioneers  of  reform  are  particularly 
apposite  at  a  time  when  so  many  efforts  are  on 
foot  to  improve  theatrical  presentation. 

With  this  interesting  subject  we  cannot  deal 
here  ;  we  must  restrict  ourselves  to  considering  the 
general  principles  underlying  the  teaching  at 
Bushey.  The  notes  on  the  theory  and  practice  of 
the  arts  have  special  interest  as  coming  from  a 
skilful  professional  painter  whose  experiments 
have  embraced  an  even  wider  area  than  that  covered 
in  a  different  field  by  the  generous  and  versatile 
talent  of  Lord  Leighton.  No  one  in  these  days 
would  question  the  author's  judgment  in  breaking 
away  from  the  cast-iron  regulations  of  academic 
teaching  by  encouraging  his  students  to  develop 
their  own  individuality  upon  a  sound  basis  of 
technical  practice.  The  illustrations  alone  are 
enough  to  indicate  that  the  method  produced  a 

"My  School  and  my  Gospel.'  By  Proressor  Sir  Hubert  von 
Herkomer,  C.V.O.,  K.A,  D.C.L.,  .etc.  London:  Constable. 
2IS.  net. 


HOLMES  cik? 

number  of  well-trained  professional  artists  of  very 
varied  tastes  and  styles.  Yet  in  only  one  case,  and 
there  but  faintly,  do  we  discern  any  hint  of  a  desire 
to  be  more  than  that.  Many  of  the  Bushey  pupils 
have  possessed  skill  ;  hardly  one  seems  to  have  had 
any  loftier  ideal.  The  author's  remarkable  pro- 
nouncement on  imaginative  landscape  painting, 
and  his  criticism  of  Chill  October,  both  of  which 
we  hold  to  be  eminently  wise  and  just,  indicate 
that  he  himself  recognizes  mere  representation  to 
be  a  means,  not  an  end.  Yet  his  pupils  seem  to 
have  been  unable  to  follow  him  even  thus  far. 

One  possible  explanation  will  occur  to  the 
reader.  The  author  mentions  that,  while  teaching 
his  students  the  elements  of  technical  practice,  he 
refrained  from  confusing  their  minds  with  theories 
of  art.  Theories  were  reserved  for  a  later  stage. 
He  also  states  that  study  in  galleries  cannot  be  of 
much  use  to  young  students. 

Here,  if  anywhere,  the  chief  defect  in  his  system 
would  seem  to  lie.  Few  of  us  can  keep  so  fresh 
in  spirit  as  not  to  regret  in  middle  age  that  we 
have  lost  the  enthusiasms  of  youth,  and  that  while 
we  possessed  those  enthusiasms  we  did  not  put 
them  to  better  use.  We  have  perhaps  gained  expe- 
rience, but  in  the  process  we  have  lost  the  flush  of 
emotional  vigour  that  might  inspire  experience 
to  high  purpose.  A  steady  routine  of  technical 
practice,  while  it  makes  the  young  artist  clever 
with  his  fingers,  undoubtedly  checks  his  imagina- 
tion. Working  constantly  from  a  model,  he 
forgets  to  use  his  wits  for  any  other  purpose  than 
accurate  representation  of  what  he  sees,  and  by 
the  time  he  has  learned  to  work  with  certainty  and 
accuracy  he  has  probably  forgotten  that  any  larger 
ideals  than  these  are  required  of  him  in  the  future. 

The  regulation  academic  training  accentuated 
this  narrowness.    The  Bushey  school  gave  more 

87 


A  T)efect  of  Modern  Art  Teaching 


scope  to  the  individual,  but  it  seems  to  have  been 
scope  in  the  matter  of  methodand  treatment  rather 
than  in  the  matter  of  ideals.  Now,  the  ideals  of 
the  young  are  tender  plants,  and  it  may  be  ques- 
tioned how  far  any  method  of  teaching  which 
tends  in  the  least  to  their  suppression  can  produce 
satisfactory  results.  A  close  acquaintance  with 
the  masterpieces  that  are  found  in  a  great  gallery 
may  have  an  influence  that  for  the  time  bemg  is 
not  wholly  good,  and  may  lead  from  time  to  tune 
to  foolish  and  mannered  experiments  in  imitation. 
Yet  these  experiments  will  not  generally  do  much 
harm.  Indeed,  in  the  end  they  will  usually  produce 
their  own  anti-toxin,  and  the  student  in  after  years 
will  laugh  at  these  childish  endeavours  which  at 
the  time  were  elaborated  with  so  much  thought 
and  effort.  Whatever  their  immediate  effect  upon 
his  work,  they  will  at  least  have  kept  his  enthusiasm 
alive,  and  saved  him  from  being  absorbed  by 
the  routine  of  his  school  till  he  becomes  oblivious 
of  the  fact  that  any  art  can  possibly  exist  outside 
the  system  of  study  he  is  following  there. 

To  arouse  an  interest  in  the  general  theory  of 
art  is  no  less  important.  It  is  a  second  safeguard 
against  the  narrowness  that  comes  of  concentration 
upon  technical  practice.  It  puts  professional  skill 
in  its  proper  place— as  a  necessary  means  to  success 
in  realizing  artistic  ideals,  but  not  as  an  ideal  in  it- 
self. It  shows  the  student  that  there  are  countless 
roads  to  pictorial  expression,  and  that  the  one  road 
along  which  he  is  travelling  in  his  schooldays 
stretches  merely  to  the  point  where  his  schooldays 
end  and  then  comes  to  an  end  also.  Afterwards 
he  must  choose  a  way  for  himself :  the  way  that 
best  fits  his  talents,  his  aspirations.  Even  as  a 
student  his  ambition  will  be  fired  by  the  thought 
of  the  time  when  he  will  be  a  student  no  longer ; 
and  the  labour  of  his  daily  round  of  practice  will  be 
cheered  by  visions  of  future  freedom,  and,  perhaps, 
now  and  then  by  experiments  with  new  methods, 
new  subjects  and  new  materials— in  anticipation 
of  the  great  pictures  he  hopes  to  produce  in  a  few 
years'  time. 

If  such  dreams,  such  experiments,  interrupt  the 
training  process  a  little,  no   great   harm  will    be 


done  in  the  end,  provided  the  master  is  a  man  of 
sense,  and  prevents  speculation  from  becoming 
idleness.  If  they  lead  to  confusion  the  fault  surely 
lies  with  the  pupil,  not  with  the  method.  As 
Professor  von  Herkomer  forcibly  points  out,  art  is 
often  considered  a  suitable  profession  for  those 
whose  wits  are  not  strong  enough  to  stand  the 
strain  of  more  mechanical  forms  of  work.  No 
fallacy  could  be  more  deplorable,  both  for  the 
unfortunates  who  are  trained  for  the  profession 
and  for  the  profession  itself.  The  profession  is 
overwhelmed  with  crowds  of  mediocre  painters, 
and  these  painters  themselves  in  ninety-nine  cases 
out  of  a  hundred  fail  to  get  even  a  bare  pittance 
from  it  by  the  sale  of  their  pictures. 

Were  the  process  of  training  made  more  severe, 
were  intelligence  in  the  theory  of  art  made  as 
integral  a  part  of  it  as  skill  in  its  manual  practice, 
were  teaching  to  impose  a  strain  on  the  wits  as  well 
asonthe  fingersanalogoustothe  knowledge  required 
to  gain  a  good  degree  in  surgery,  the  incompetent 
would  soon  recognize  their  incompetence  and  take 
the  place  they  deserved,  while  the  competent  would 
have  a  clear  field  for  their  energies.  We  might 
then  gradually  free  ourselves  from  the  obsession  of 
the  vast  horde  of  tolerably  clever  painters  who 
have  acquired  a  certain  technical  dexterity  but 
have  used  up  in  the  process  such  little  character 
and  originality  as  they  ever  possessed.  This  is  the 
crying  evil  of  the  present  day.  The  artist  of  real 
talent  is  overwhelmed  by  crowds  of  painters  with 
imitation  talent,  and  until  that  crowd  is  relegated 
to  its  proper  place  we  shall  never  be  free  from 
confusion  and  injustice.  The  Bushey  school  was 
an  improvement  on  the  academic  method  of 
teaching,  but  its  record  shows  that  the  improve- 
ment might  with  advantage  be  carried  further. 

The  statement  made  on  p.  99  about  the  frescoes 
on  the  Sistine  ceiling  has  not,  we  think,  found 
its  way  into  biographies  of  Michelangelo — but  it 
raises  a  point  of  some  interest.  If  nearly  half  the 
cracks  in  the  ceiling  are  really  cracks  painted  by 
Michelangelo  himself,  as  Professor  von  Herkomer's 
friend  records,  it  is  curious  that  the  fact  should 
have  escaped  notice. 


THE  ARTS  AND  CRAFTS  OF  OLDER  SPAIN 

^  BY  A.  VAN  DE  PUT  h^p 


1  'The  Arts  and  Crafts  of  Older  Spain 
Three  vols.    London  :  Foulis,     15s, 

88 


O  write  the  history  of  the 
principal  Spanish  artistic 
crafts  is  no  light  task.  The 
thirteen  essays  comprising  the 
bulk  of  Mr.  Williams's 
volume^  cover  in  scope  the 
whole  ground  of  art  industry 
in  Spain  from  the  earliest 
By  Leonard  Williams. 


down  to  present  times.  Such  a  history  was  a 
desideratum.  The  book  before  us  supervenes, 
after  a  very  considerable  lapse,  upon  the 
only  general  history  of  the  kind  we  possess  in 
English,  the  long-out-of-print  South  Kensington 
handbook  by  Riano  (1879) ;  and  it  has  the  crown- 
ing advantage  of  photography  as  a  basis  for  illus- 
tration, which;  of  course,  neither  that  nor  Davillier's 
*  Les  Arts  d(5coratifs  en  Espagne,'  published  in  the 
same    year,    possessed.      Mr.   Williams's    text   is 


The  Arts  and  Crafts  of  Older  Spain 


crowded  with  facts,  and  with  a  mass  of  encyclo- 
paedic information  it  needed  great  industry  to  put 
together.  It  has,  on  the  other  hand,  the  defects  of 
its  merits.  Considerations  of  space  (even  in  i,ooo 
pp.  octavo)  require  it  to  be  largely  synthetical ;  in 
so  large  a  programme  there  is  no  room  for  the 
minute  disquisitions  which  art  historians  and 
antiquaries  find  necessary  to  establish  soundly 
the  lines  of  artistic  evolution,  the  descent  of 
technique,  and  in  order  to  ensure  adequate  treat- 
ment from  the  standpoints  of  ecclesiology,  heraldry, 
etc.  Yet  synthesis  is  only  trustworthy  where  previous 
exploration  can  claim  to  have  been  in  some  measure 
thorough  and  complete.  Of  such  effective,  co- 
ordinate description  the  history  of  the  Spanish 
crafts  is  sorely  in  need  ;  much  of  the  literature  of 
the  subject  is  valuable,  but  much  requires  revision. 
The  difficulty  of  achieving  a  really  adequate  per- 
formance in  each  section  of  a  general  work  of  this 
kind  is,  therefore,  great  :  it  requires  wide  and 
intimate  knowledge  and  a  good  deal  of  skill  to 
compress,  for  instance,  an  account  of  the  working 
of  precious  metals  in  Spain  into  loopp.,  when,  for 
the  most  part,  actual  constructive  art-history  is 
required  of  the  writer. 

Owing  to  this,  we  imagine  that  '  The  Arts  and 
Crafts  of  Older  Spain  '  will  satisfy  general  readers 
rather  than  special  students ;  many  of  the  essays 
are  rather  too  dependent  upon  previous  authorities 
— the  corners  that  were  dark  to  them  are  yet  often 
unilluminated  ;  subdivision  of  material  might  have 
been  carried  further,  for  clearness'  sake ;  and  greater 
attention  might  have  been  given  to  the  nomencla- 
ture of  common  art  objects  :  thuribles,  not  '  incen- 
sories '  (i,  50);  patens,  not '  patines '  (i,  37, 84);  cope, 
not  '  priest's  robe '  (iii,  pi.  x,  xi) ;  croziers,  not 
'  baculi '  (ii,  105, 106)  ;  and  the  one  word  misericord 
would  have  done  all  the  work  of  a  nine  line 
description  (at  Vol.  ii,  p.  72).  Use  of  Spanish,  for 
English  terms,  is  carried  to  excess,  e.g.,  custodia  for 
'  monstrance '  (the  former  is  actually  the  only  word 
of  the  two  indexed  !)  ;  and,  what  will  the  average 
reader  make  of  the  typical  statement  that,  in  a 
range  of  monastic  cho'ir  stalls,  '  the  higher  stalls 
are  for  the  profesos,  and  the  lower  for  the  novices 
and  legos '  (ii,  72)  ? 

The  treatment  of  the  ecclesiastical  side  of  Spanish 
art  is  unsympathetic  throughout,  and  reveals  a  want 
of  appreciation  of  the  logical  objective  of  Christian 
art,  or,  apparently,  of  art  dedicated  to  religious 
uses  at  all.  Magnificence  of  this  kind  is  censured 
in  no  uncertain  terms  (i,  74,  75)  ;  elsewhere  we 
read  of  '  gold  and  silver  objects  that  were  merely 
destined  to  stagnate  within  her  [i.e.,  Spain's] 
churches  and  cathedrals '  (i,  88),  though  the  author 
is  not  slow  to  express  disapprobation  when  objects 
are  missing  from  ecclesiastical  treasuries  (i,  57, 
etc.). 

To  review  the  different  sections  seriatim  in 
these  columns  would  be  out  of  the  question.  Vol.  i 


contains  :  gold,  silver  and  jewel  work  ;  iron 
work  ;  bronzes  ;  arms  ;  with  62  plates.  The  arts 
are  studied  each  in  its  chronological  progression 
more  or  less  ;  generally  as  a  whole,  occasionally 
the  line  of  development  of  a  class  of  object  being 
described.  Synthesis,  or  general  principles,  have 
as  a  rule  to  make  way  for  descriptions,  or  for 
enumerations  of  objects  by  name  without  descrip- 
tions, such  as  the  collections  of  chalices  exhibited 
at  Madrid  in  1892  and  at  Lugo  in  1896,  not  one  of 
which  is  adequately  described  (i,  40,  41).  The 
famous  chalice  at  Valencia  is  still  vaguely  summed 
up,  as  regards  date,  d'apres  Riaiio,  '  of  the  Roman 
imperial  epoch,  and  the  mounts  are  of  a  later  date.' 
Another  chalice,  we  are  told,  'which  is  greatly 
interesting  because  of  the  date  inscribed  on  it  [italics 
ours],  is  one  which  was  presented  to  Lugo 
Cathedral  by  a  bishop  of  that  diocese,  Don  Garcia 
Martinez  de  Bahamonde  (1441-1470).  The  work- 
manship, though  prior  to  the  sixteenth  century, 
is  partly  Gothic'  In  the  catalogue  of  the  Madrid 
exhibition  this  object  is  attributed  to  the  fifteenth 
century,  and  its  inscription,  as  there  given,  contains 
no  date  ;  the  latter  is  to  be  inferred  from  the 
duration  of  Bahamonde's  episcopate. 

Such  an  important  point  as  that  whether  enam- 
elling was  known  to  the  Visigoths  obtains  no 
decisive  answer  here.  The  reader  would  not, 
perhaps,  demur  at  being  left  between  Lasteyrie's 
verdict  that  certain  spaces  on  Swinthila's  crown  are 
filled  with  glass  or  paste,  and  that  of  Amador  delos 
Rios  '  who  after  protracted  chemical  experiments 
declared  it  to  be  layers  of  cornelian  '  (i,  23),  had 
he  not  already  been  informed  (p.  22)  that  the  sub- 
stance 'looks  like  red  enamel.'  A  closer  study  of 
jewellery  would  have  decided  that  such  Visigothic 
work  belongs  to  the  inlay  method  of  the  so-called 
Barbaric  jewellery,  and  this  should  preclude  any 
reference  to  enamel  proper.  While  Limoges 
champleve  work  is  noticed,  no  mention  is  made  of 
the  interesting  early  mounts  of  probably  native 
champleve  enamel  upon  ivory  caskets  (one  of  which 
is,  however,  illustrated,  V^ol.  ii,  pl.xxxix).  Similarly 
the  bare  statement,  '  Martin  Minguez  says  that 
enamelling  was  done  at  Gerona  in  the  fourteenth 
century'  (i,  52),  is  practically  to  ignore  one  of  the 
principal  Catalan  mediaeval  crafts.  Plate  viii,  an 
early  xv.  century  statuette  of  French  work,  repre- 
senting St.  James  the  Greater,  and  belonging  to  San- 
tiago cathedral,  appears  to  be  nowhere  mentioned 
in  tlie  text. 

The  sections  devoted  to  iron-work,  bronzes  and 
arms  are  more  genially  conceived  than  the  fore- 
going, and  give  a  clearer  idea  of  what  Spain  pro- 
duced in  these  fields  ;  though,  as  these  and  other 
essays  start  with  the  Iberians,  it  would  have  been 
well  if  Professor  Paris's  researches,  in  his  '  Essaie 
sur  I'Art  et  I'lndustrie  de  I'Espagne  primitive' 
(1903-4)  had  been  utilised  for  bronzes,  jewellery, 
arms  and  ceramics.     The  armour  section  is  mainly 

H  89 


The  Arts  and  Crafts  of  Older  Spain 


a  commentary  upon  the  Ro3'al  Armoury  at  Madrid, 
which  is  becoming  well  known,  but  it  contains  also 
a  suggestive  sketch  of  the  evolution  of  military 
equipment  in  Spain  from  early  times. 

The  second  volume  opens  with  an  informing 
essay  upon  furniture  (86  pp.,  with  36  plates).  It 
embraces  the  most  heterogeneous  elements  :  fur- 
niture proper,  decorative  leather-work,  inlaid  doors 
and  ceilings,  choir  stalls  and  carved  altar-pieces. 
Literary  sources  are  drawn  upon  for  pen-pictures 
of  interiors,  so  that  an  adequate  idea  of  rooms  and 
their  fittings  at  most  periods  is  obtained.  But  the 
treatment  of  Gothic  furniture — chests,  perhaps, 
excepted — is  meagre,  and  as  regards  date,  the  most 
that  can  be  expected,  apparently,  is  the  century  ; 
the  '  mediaeval '  chair  (pi.  i),  bearing  the  arms  of 
the  Enriquez,  admirals  of  Castile,  not  of  '  Castile 
and  Leon,'  is  as  much  laie  '  fifteenth  century '  as  is 
pi.  ii.  The  section  upon  ivories  could  have  been 
spared  for  a  lengthier  treatment  of  leather  (here 
8  pp.),  which  surely  deserved  a  more  copious  and 
representative  illustration  than  three  chair-backs 
(pi.  vii).  The  essay  upon  pottery  (ii,  pp.  11 1-220) 
is  chiefly  remarkable  for  an  inadequate  treatment 
of  the  products  of  Valencia,  whether  of  the 
splendid  blue  and  white  tiles  produced  during 
the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries,  or  of  Instred 
pottery.  As  regards  attributions,  the  difficulty 
of  assigning  dates  and  places  of  fabrication 
must  strike  any  close  student  of  the  pottery  as 
unduly  insisted  upon  (pp.  167,  183).  But  this 
is  not  surprising  when  the  distinction  between 
the  decorative  motives  of  fifteenth-century 
Valencia  and  the  pure  Mussulman  arabesque  of 


ceramics  associated  with  Granada  or  Malaga,  as 
characteristics  of  separate  groups,  is  unappre- 
hended. As  regards  date,  few  ceramic  products 
carry  the  information  so  plainly  upon  them  as  do 
those  of  Valencia.  Cock's  recipe  (pp.  175-6),  it 
must  be  remarked,  is  in  places  already  sufficiently 
ambiguous  for  it  to  be  undesirable  to  translate  with- 
out comment  the  inadvertence  with  which  he 
closes  the  account  of  the  application  of  the  enamel 
bath  and  second  firing  of  a  piece  of  the  ware, 
'and  after  being  rebaked  they  keep  their  lustre' 
(p.  176)  ('y  entonces  con  este  calor  conservan  su 
lustra').  'The  painting  with  lustre  pigment  is  in 
fact  the  next  operation.  The  volume  closes  with 
an  essay  upon  glass,  including  the  stained  and 
painted  window  glazing  of  the  fifteenth  and  six- 
teenth centuries. 

Vol.  iii.  is  devoted  to  the  textile  arts  :  it  comprises 
essays  upon  Spanish  silk,  cloths  and  woollens,  em- 
broidery, tapestry,  and  lace,  with  an  interesting 
introduction  in  which  the  principal  historical  tissues 
and  garments  find  their  place.  Rather  more  is  now 
known  concerning  the  early  history  of  tapestry 
and  Flemish  intercourse  with  Aragon  than  is  stated 
at  pp.  139,  149  ;  and  eleven  pages  is  not  a  great  deal 
to  devote  to  embroidery,  even  though  the  essay 
starts  toiip.  Ferdinand  and  Isabella.  Many  of  these 
pages  upon  the  mere  technique  of  silk  and  woollen 
manufacture  could  have  been  spared  for  a  more 
copious  treatment  of  early  needlework  and  weaving. 
The  remainder  of  the  volume  is  taken  up  with  ap- 
pendices (we  have  but  space  to  mention  the  lengthy 
one  upon  Spanish  trade-guilds)  and  the  biblio- 
graphy, which  is  by  no  means  as  full  as  it  should  be. 


ON  CONTORNIATES 
cA^  BY  KATHARINE  ESDAILE  r*^ 


presence  of  zeal. 


HE  collector  of  the  Renais- 
sance worked  in  many  fields. 
Nothing, artistically  speaking, 
was  too  large  for  his  attention, 
nothing  too  small,  and  in 
matters  of  ancient  art  espe- 
cially the  absence  of  know- 
ledge was  atoned  for  by  the 


Of  nothing  is  this  truer  than  of  contorniates. 
The  very  name,  a  description  of  the  circular  de- 
pression (coiitoruo)  round  the  outer  edge  of  most 
specimens,  is  a  confession  of  ignorance,  and  the 
light-hearted  derivation  from  Crotona  had  to  be 
given  up  even  by  the  more  serious  antiquaries  of 
the  Renaissance.  The  intrinsic  interest  of  some  of 
the  types  has  made  them  familiar  to  many  who 
never  heard  the  name  ;  but  the  subject  as  a  whole 
has  been  curiously  neglected  of  late  years,  and 
the  invaluable  'Corpus'  of   types   published   by 


Sabatier  in  i860  is  almost  unknown  to  the  general 
archaeologist.  The  most  recent  discussion  of  the 
question  may  be  found  in  a  paper  by  the  present 
writer  in  the  '  Numismatic  Chronicle '  for  1906; 
here  it  must  suffice  to  state  the  conclusion  there 
reached  that  contorniates  were  not  amulets,  tickets 
for  reserved  seats  at  the  games,  official  indications 
of  the  success  of  individual  athletes,  or  lots  to 
determine  the  place  of  competitors — to  name  only 
a  few  of  the  theories  that  have  been  held — but 
'  men '  used  in  draughts  and  similar  games,  the 
incised  circle  and  raised  rim  protecting  the  design 
from  injury  as  the  pieces  were  moved  on  the 
board.  Coins  are  known  to  have  been  so  used — 
the  rich  vulgarian  Trimalchio  in  Petronius  has  a 
set  of  gold  and  silver  denarii  as  draughtsmen — 
and  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  contorniates, 
always  analogous  to  and  often  copied  from  coins, 
were  commonly  used  as  pieces  on  tabulae  lusoriae, 
just  as  in  England  Edward  VI  shillings  were  used 


90 


On  Qontorniates 


in  the  games  of  shovel-board  and  shove-groat  : — 
'  Falstaff.  Pistol,  did  you  pick  Master  Slender's 

purse  ? 
'Slender.  Ay,  by  these  gloves,  did  he — or  I  would 
I  might  never  come  in  mine  own 
great  chamber  again  else — of  seven 
groats   in    mill   sixpences   and   two 
Edward  shovel-boards  that  cost  me 
two  shillings  and  twopence  a  piece 
of  Yead  Miller,  by  these  gloves.' 
('  Merry  Wives,'  Act  I,  Sc.  i.     Cf.  '  King   Henry 
IV,' Part  II,  Act  II  :  'Quoit  him  down,  Bardolph, 
like  a  shove-groat  shilling.') 

Alany  of  the  symbols  found  on  contorniates, 
palms  (figs.  3  and  4),  the  disputed  monogram  |, 
etc.,  occur  on  Roman  draught-boards  ;  some  even 
have  incised  circles  indicating  a  position  in  the 
game  and  varying  in  size  as  the  contorniate  varies. 
The  connexion  between  them  is,  therefore,  certain. 
The  favourite  game,  to  judge  from  the  very 
numerous  examples  that  have  come  down  to  us, 
was  played  on  a  board  divided  into  two  equal 
parts  by  a  central  line,  on  either  side  of  which, 
making  a  sentence  of  social,  historical  or  moral 
import,  are  three  words,  each  composed  of  six 
letters,  the  spelling  of  which  is  apt  to  suffer  from 
the  necessary  uniformity.  The  game  was,  one 
may  suggest,  played  with  contorniates  bearing 
corresponding  types — e.g.,  on  the  only  board  in 
the  British  Museum,  which  bears  the  inscription  : 
CIRCVS  PLENVS 

CLAMOR  INGENS 

I  A  N  V  A  E  T  E[C  T  A  E  ?] 

— i.e.,  '  full  house,  loud  applause,  doors  [shut  ?] ' 
— the  pieces  would  be  decorated  with  racing 
scenes.  Again,  the  following  inscription,  found 
on  a  board  which  belonged  to  a  company  of 
venatores,  or  gladiators,  whose  profession  it  was 
to  fight  with  beasts  in  the  arena  : — 

ABEMVS  INCENA* 

PVLLVM  PAONEMi 

P  E  R  N  A  M  P  I  S  C  E  M 

— i.e.,  '  let  us  go  to  supper,  chicken,  peacock,  ham 
and  fish ' — is  presumably  connected  with  the  type 
of  contorniate  representing  fish,  a  trussed  bird  and 
a  ham. 

Some  contorniates,  very  poor  in  design  and 
execution,  may  have  belonged  to  the  lower  classes, 
those  of  more  careful  workmanship,  which  are 
sometimes  inlaid  with  gold  or  silver  (e.g.,  ORATI VS, 
SALVSTIVS,  figs.  2  and  3)  to  the  wealthy.  The 
inscriptionsare  often  blundered,  and  the  occasional 
mixture  of  Greek  and  Latin  (e.g.  fig.  15)  affords 
curious  evidence  of  the  mongrel  state  of  the  popu- 
lation of  Rome  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries 
A.D.,  but,  as  a  whole,  contorniates  contrast  favour- 
ably with  contemporary  coins  and  preserve  a  purer 
classical  tradition.     Their  date  has  been  a  matter 

'  The  variations  in  spelling  are  highly   significant  of  the 
change  that  was  taking  place  in  the  colloquial  language. 


of  dispute,  but  there  is  really  no  doubt  that  they 
belong  entirely  to  the  Western  Empire.-  Early,  in 
the  sense  of  Augustan,  they  are  not,  but  neither  are 
all  so  late  as  is  commonly  supposed.  It  is  impos- 
sible, for  instance,  to  assign  to  a  period  later  than 
Constantine  such  a  portrait  as  that  of  Alexander  in 
fig.  I.  The  type,  like  its  near  analogy,  a  small  Mace- 
donian bronze  coin  of  200-220  a.d.,  is  related  to, 
though  not  immediately  derived  from,  the  early 
portraits,  the  lettering  resembles  that  of  coins  of 
the  third  century  A.D.,  and  the  workmanship 
is  of  high  excellence.  It  is  not  unreasonable  to  take 
it  as  a  icniiiniis  post  qtiem  for  contorniates  in  gen- 
eral, taking  as  the  tenitiiuis  ante  quein  a  unique 
specimen  of  debased  style  on  which  Valentinian  III 
(425-455)  and  his  favourite,  the  consul  Petronius 
Maximus,  appear  together.  As  the  emperor  was 
assassinated  by  Petronius  in  revenge  for  a  gross 
insult  in  455,  the  piece  must  be  anterior  to  that  date, 
and  it  has  thus  the  further  interest  of  being 
the  only  contorniate  to  allude  to  contemporary 
history. 

Contorniates — like  their  prototypes,  coins — 
almost  always  bear  a  head  on  the  obverse,  a  deco- 
rative design  on  the  reverse.  The  heads,  not 
as  a  rule  of  great  interest,  may  be  classified  as 
follows  : 

(^7)  Portraits  of  Alexander,  of  which  the  finest 
by  far  is  that  with  the  diadem  represented  in  fig.  i, 
already  mentioned  as  the  high-water  mark  of 
contorniate  art.  The  reverse,  also  illustrated, 
represents  Alexander  slaying  a  Persian  warrior,  in- 
scribed 'ALEXANDER  MAGNVS  MACEDON,' 
possibly — for  there  are  several  instances  of  the 
reproduction  on  contorniates  of  well-known  works 
of  art — part  of  the  great  group  by  Lysippus  repre- 
senting the  battle  of  the  Granicus  which  had  been 
carried  off  to  Rome  by  Metellus  and  set  up  in  the 
Portico  of  Octavia. 

{b)  Portraits  of  imperial  personages  from  Caesar 
to  Valentinian,  of  no  merit,  being  either  careful 
copies  of  coin  types — in  which  case  they  have  no 
original  value — or  else  perversions  in  a  debased 
manner  in  which  all  likeness  to  the  original  has 
been  lost. 

(c)  Victorious  grooms  or  charioteers,  interesting 
only  for  the  dress,  and  occasionally  the  names,  of 
those  represented. 

{d)  Heads  of  divinities — Sarapis,  Helios,  Apollo, 
Roma,  etc. — of  small  artistic  merit. 

{e)  Portraits  of  literary  characters,  familiar   to 

many   otherwise    ignorant  of   the  very  name   of 

contorniate  from  their  reproduction,  time  out  of 

mind,   as   authentic   portraits.     They   have    now 

dropped  out  of  books  of  any  serious  archaeological 

'■^  This  conclusion  is  based  (a)  on  the  character  of  the  designs 
and  the  analogies  they  offer  to  mosaics  and  other  dated  works  ; 
(b)  on  the  places  where  they  have  been  found  in  the  rare  cases 
where  a  record  of  the  discovery  has  been  kept  ;  (<)  on  the  fact, 
alluded  to  later,  that  no  emperor  later  than  470  a.d.  is  repre- 
sented, 


91 


On   Qontorniates 


pretension,  but  may  still  be  seen    in  text-books 
issued  by  publishers  who  should  know  better. 

The  list  of  those  thus  popularly  represented 
throws  some  light  on  the  literary  tastes  of  the 
Roman  public,  the  more  curious  that,  while  some 
of  the  names  are  just  what  would  be  expected, 
others  are  far  from  obvious.  Homer,  Solon, 
Pythagoras,'  Euripides,  Demosthenes,  Terence, 
Accius,'  Horace,  Sallust,  Apollonius  of  Tyana  and 
Apuleius  make  up  a  singular  company  ;  but  it  need 
hardly  be  said  that  their  value  as  portraits  is  ;;//. 
Horace,  for  instance— ORATIVS  (fig.  2) — wears 
the  consular  robes  of  the  fourth  century,  and  has 
lost  his  H  ;  Sallust— SALVSTIVS  AVTOR  (fig.  3) 
— appears  with  and  without  a  beard,  and  with  hair 
worn  as  no  one  wore  it  before  the  days  of  Con- 
stantine ;  while  the  head  of  Solon  is  taken  from 
the  famous  gem  commonly  called  a  portrait  of 
Maecenas,  signed  by  the  gem-cutter  Solon,  whose 
signature  the  artist  of  the  contorniate  has  taken  as 
a  description  of  the  portrait  ! 

The  head  of  Apuleius  (fig.  4)  looks  as  if  the  artist 
had  been  at  some  pains  to  get  up  his  subject, 
though  the  result  is  not  convincing.  Apuleius  in 
his  '  Apology '  has  left  an  account  of  his  own 
appearance  ;  he  was  something  of  a  dandy,  grace- 
ful in  person  and  conspicuous  for  his  golden  hair, 
which  he  wore  long  in  its  natural  curls.  The 
youthful  appearance  and  long  hair  are  duly  repre- 
sented ;  but  one  may  be  permitted  to  doubt  if  the 
elderly  widow,  Aemilia  Pudentilla,  would  have 
fallen  in  love  with  such  a  doll  as  the  artist  has 
here  made  him.  The  ivy  wreath  in  his  hair  may, 
it  has  been  suggested,  indicate  the  rank  of  Apuleius 
as  an  epopt,  or  one  fully  initiated  into  the 
Eleusinian  mysteries. 

So  much  for  the  principal  obverse  types.  Those 
on  the  reverse  are  of  much  greater  variety  and 
interest,  and  it  is  impossible  to  do  more  than  select 
a  few  specimens  of  the  more  important  classes  in 
which  they  may  be  arranged.  The  largest  and  in 
many  ways  the  least  interesting  class  shall  be  dealt 
with  first. 

This  consists  of  types  connected  with  the  circus 
and  amphitheatre.  Chief  among  these  come 
representations  of  victorious  chariots  or  single 
horses,  adorned  with  the  palms  they  have  won, 
and  attended  by  their  grooms  or  charioteers. 
Sometimes  the  names  of  these  are  given — Geron- 
tius,  Polystefanos,  Monimus  (=Monimos,  or 
steadfast).  Records  of  the  fierce  factions  of  which 
Gibbon  gives  so  vivid  an  account  in  their  later 
development  at  Constantinople  appear  in  the  in- 
scriptions IN  PRASINO,  IN  VENETO;  the  in- 
scriptions OLINPICVS  [sic)  or  OLVMPI  NIKA 
hint  at  still  greater  victories  ;  while  the  circus 
itself  is  shown  on  types  such  as  fig.  5,  in  which 
four  contending  chariots  race  round  the  course, 

^  Reverse  types,  but  treated,  for  convenience,  among  the  other 
portraits. 

92 


which  is  divided  by  the  low  wall  or  spina  adorned 
with  obelisk,  shrines  and  statues  (Cybele  on  her 
lion  may  be  seen  towards  the  left),  and  ending  in 
the  goals  with  their  three  conical  pillars.  Other 
contorniates  represent  gladiatorial  combats  or  (as 
in  that  representing  the  Colosseum)  tights  of  beast 
with  beast.  A  scene  in  a  box  at  the  amphitheatre 
will  be  described  among  the  scenes  from  daily 
life.  Hunting  scenes  are  a  favourite  subject,  and 
other  competitions  are  suggested  in  types  repre- 
senting victorious  organists  with  hand  or  hydraulic 
organs  (fig.  3,  rev.  with  the  inscription  PETRONI 
PLACEAS),*  and  figures  of  actresses  in  graceful 
poses  occur  more  than  once  ;  one  only  bears  a 
name,  MARGARITA.  But  as  a  whole  this  class 
is  uninteresting.  The  subjects  can  be  illustrated 
from  other  sources  ;  the  types  are  usually  common. 
It  is,  therefore,  better  to  pass  to  the  comparatively 
little  known,  only  remarking  that  it  is  no  insigni- 
ficant indication  of  popular  taste  that  circus  and 
similar  types  should  outnumber  the  whole  of  the 
other  subjects  represented. 

Representations  of  daily  life  are  far  from  com- 
mon, but  the  three  specimens  here  given  illustrate 
the  principal  features  of  Roman  life — business, 
pleasure,  and  religion. 

Fig.  6  represents  a  scene  at  a  banker's.  Within 
the  building,  which  is  indicated  by  two  columns 
spanned  by  a  decorated  arch,  a  man  stands  behind 
a  counter  heaped  with  coin  ;  on  either  side  a 
customer  (on  a  smaller  scale)  wrapped  in  a  toga 
stretches  out  his  hand  towards  the  money.  The 
banker  appears  to  be  deprecating  their  haste  or 
the  security  they  offer. 

Fig.  7  is  the  scene  at  the  amphitheatre  already 
alluded  to.  The  field  is  divided  into  two  parts ; 
in  the  upper,  five  spectators  are  leaning  on  the 
cushioned  ledge  of  their  box,  while  below  in  the 
arena  a  gladiator  is  fighting  with  a  wild  boar, 
holding  a  spear  in  one  hand  and  in  the  other  a 
movable  turnstile  with  which  to  protect  himself. 
In  the  background  is  another  gladiator.  Only  a 
total  ignorance  of  the  subject  of  contorniates  can 
have  kept  in  the  decent  obscurity  of  a  learned 
science  a  subject  so  adapted  to  the  popular 
moralist. 

Fig.  8,  the  religious  subject,  is  more  complex. 
In  the  middle  stands  a  laureated  figure  in  tunic 
and  long  cloak  holding  a  cock  and  turning  his 
head  to  look  at  a  small  bird  with  flapping  wings 
and  a  long  bill  which  is  perched  on  his  outstretched 
hand  ;  on  either  side  an  attendant  bends  down  to 
feed  a  long-necked  bird.  The  dress  and  attributes 
of    the    principal    personage    proclaim     him     a 

*  The  popularity  of  the  organ  for  its  own  sake  greatly  increased 
during  the  fourth  century,  though  its  earlier  and  baser  use  as 
an  accompaniment  to  gladiatorial  shows  still  continued.  The 
musicians  represented  in  fig.  3  with  hand  organ  and  flute 
suggest  such  a  concert  as  is  described  by  Martianus  Capella^ 
tibuirinn  iiitia  et  hyclnuilaniin  hannoiiica  //f;//7/((fi)— at  the 
wedding  of  Mercury  and  Philology. 


On   Qontorniates 


commander  about  to  take  the  auspices  before  a 
battle  from  the  flight  of  the  one  bird  (probably  a 
woodpecker)  and  the  feeding  of  the  other,  one  of 
the  sacred  cliickens,  that  convenient  portable 
oracle  which  accompanied  a  Roman  army  on  the 
march.  The  classical  instance  is,  of  course,  an 
incident  in  the  first  Punic  war,  when  P.  Claudius 
Pulcher,  hearing  that  the  sacred  chickens  would 
not  feed,  ordered  them  to  be  drowned,  and  in 
defiance  of  the  omen  proceeded  to  give  battle. 
Defeat  was,  of  course,  inevitable,  and  Cape  Drepana 
proved  a  naval  Cannae.  The  birds  fed  by  the 
attendants  on  the  contorniate  are  unmistakably 
geese,  therefore  the  sacred  geese  of  the  Capitol. 
Their  presence  does  not  suit  the  action  of  the 
central  figure,  but,  as  I  wrote  elsewhere,  'the  scene 
seems  to  be  rather  an  assemlily  of  sacred  birds, 
their  interpreters  and  attendants,  than  a  represen- 
tation of  any  single  act.'  Incidents  more  typical 
of  Roman  religion,  more  suggestive  of  familiar 
passages  of  Roman  history,  could  scarcely  have 
been  chosen. 

The  class  of  mythological  subjects  is  much 
more  numerous,  Homeric  subjects  being  particu- 
larly common.  Fig.  9  represents  Hephaestus  and 
the  armour  of  Achilles.  The  god,  clad  in  short 
chiton  and  workman's  cap,  sits  on  an  elaborately 
decorated  seat,  resting  his  lame  foot  upon  a  stool 
and  looking  at  the  completed  shield  which  rests 
on  a  tripod  before  him.  In  place  of  the  whole 
elaborate  design,  '  the  earth,  and  the  heavens,  and 
the  sea,  and  the  unwearying  sun,  and  the  moon 
waxing  to  the  full,  and  the  signs  every  one  where- 
with the  heavens  are  crowned,  Pleiads  and  Hyads 
and  Orion's  night,  and  the  Bear  that  men  call  the 
Wain,  her  that  turneth  in  her  place  and  watcheth 
Orion,  and  alone  hath  no  part  in  the  baths  of 
Ocean,'  °  the  heads  of  the  sun  and  moon  occupy 
the  centre  of  the  shield,  while  around,  in  place  of 
the  constellations,  are  the  twelve  signs  of  the 
zodiac.  Behind  Hephaestus  is  the  sword  of 
Achilles,  and  above,  in  the  background,  perhaps  as 
his  patron  goddess,  is  a  figure  of  Athena  leaning 
on  her  spear. 

Fig.  10 — Achilles  supporting  the  dying  Penthe- 
silea.  The  Amazon  has  fallen  from  her  horse,  and 
her  lifeless  body  is  supported  by  Achilles's  arm. 
She  wears  a  Phrygian  cap  and  long  chiton,  and 
her  crescent-shaped  shield  is  slipping  from  her 
arm. 

Fig.  II — Odysseus  escaping  from  the  cav'e  of 
Polyphemus.  The  hero,  holding  fast  by  the  thick 
fleece,  clings  to  the  belly  of  the  long-tailed  ram, 
who,  with  the  perversity  of  his  kind,  pauses  to 
drink  at  a  runlet  of  water  flowing  (from  an  in- 
visible source)  into  a  trough,  whose  base  is 
decorated  with  a  figure  of  Hercules  wielding  his 
club.  In  the  background  is  a  tree.  The  name 
OLEXIVS  inscribed  round  the  design  is  a 
'  I.    Trans.  E.  Myers. 


blundered  and  apparently  phonetic  rendering  of 
ULIXES.« 

Fig.  12 — Odysseus  and  Circe.  Odysseus  stands 
in  a  threatening  attitude  over  the  enchantress, 
who,  crowned  and  richly  dressed,  kneels  at  his 
feet  imploring  mercy.  Behind  her  is  a  sty,  built 
of  great  stones  and  iron  bars,  between  which 
appear  three  beast-headed  creatures  turning  their 
heads  entreatingly  towards  their  leader.  It  is  not 
very  long  since  this  type  was  described  as  follows: 
'  Une  femrae  a  genoux,  dont  la  tete  est  ornce  d'une 
couronne,  implore  la  pilie  d'un  gladiateur  ou  d'un 
employe  de  I'amphitheatre,  debout  et  tourne  ;i 
droite.  Sur  le  second  plan,  a  droite  et  au  haut 
d'un  mur,  on  voit  trois  animaux  feroces  debout 
dans  les  loges  separees  par  des  compartiments. 
L'artiste  a  voulu  peut-etre  representer  une  chre- 
tienne  condamnee  aux  betes  et  portant  deja  la 
couronne  du  martyre.'  This  is  no  unusual  example 
of  the  way  in  which  the  picturesque  interpretation 
commended  itself  to  the  most  learned  when  the 
'amphitheatre  ticket'  theory  of  contorniates  was 
in  vogue. 

On  a  unique  but  badly-preserved  contorniate 
in  Vienna  the  Sirens,  a  rare  subject  in  ancient 
art,  are  represented,  one  seated  on  a  rock  playing 
the  double  flute,  another  standing  and  holding  a 
lyre  ;  the  outline  of  the  third  is  almost  obliterated, 
and  the  whole  is  very  indistinct. 

There  are  several  varieties  of  fig.  13,  Scylla  and 
Charybdis,  and,  though  the  main  features  are 
constant,  the  details  vary  considerably.  In  the 
first  place,  as  usual  in  ancient  art,  Scylla  has 
ceased  to  be  the  six-headed  monster  who  could 
devour  six  men,  the  hardiest  of  their  bands  and 
the  chief  in  might,  as  a  fisher  lets  down  his  baits 
for  a  snare  to  the  little  fishes  below  and  as  he 
catches  each  flings  it  writhing  ashore,  and  has 
become  Virgil's 

pulchro  pectore  virgo 

Pube  tenus,  postrema  immani  corpore  pistrix 

Delphinum  caudas  utero  commissa  luporum. 

In  this  form,  her  long  tails  curling  out  of  the 
water  to  left  and  right,  she  seizes  one  of  Odysseus's 
comrades  by  the  hair,  while  a  second  prepares  to 
attack  her  from  the  deck.  In  her  left  hand  she 
holds  a  rudder.  Other  Greeks  are  struggling  in 
the  troubled  waters,  whom  the  wolves  round  her 
waist  are  striving  to  seize  and  devour.  Above, 
and  looking  not  unlike  another  tail,  is  the  typical 
contorniate  tree,  here  the  fig  tree  that  grew  on 
the  rocks  above  Charybdis.  The  tossing  waters 
below,  with  their  sudden  swirl  to  the  right,  doubt- 
less represent  the  whirlpool  itself  'which  thrice  a 
day  sucked  in  black  waters  and  thrice  belched 
them  forth.' 

Before  passing  on    it  is   worth   remarking  tiiat 
the   predominance   of   subjects   taken    from    the 
'  The  circular  marks  at  top  and  bottom  arc  due  to  piercing. 


93 


On  Qontorniates 


Odyssey  is  a  marked  feature  of  other  works  of  art 
representing  Homeric  legends.  Contorniates  as 
objects  essentially  popular  in  character  afford  a 
decisive  test  of  the  relative  popularity  of  Iliad  and 
Odyssey,  and  it  is  thoroughly  in  keeping  that  the 
two  subjects  derived  from  the  former  should  refer 
to  the  legend  of  Achilles. 

Several  other  types  may  be  intended  to  illustrate 
famous  literary  descriptions— t'.rf.,  a  Laocoon  type 
which  differs  completely  from  the  celebrated 
group,  and  can,  perhaps,  be  regarded  as  an 
independent  illustration  to  Virgil,  just  as  a  figure 
of  Philoctetes  nursing  his  wounded  foot  on  the 
barren  rock  of  Lemnos  (an  interpretation  of  the 
present  writer)  may  be  an  attempt  to  realize  the 
wounded  hero  of  Sophocles  ;  but  the  only  subject 
which  can  be  said  with  certainty  to  illustrate  a 
literary  episode  other  than  Homeric  is  fig.  14,  a 
unique  contorniate  in  the  British  Museum,  which 
has  given  rise  to  much  misinterpretation.  In  the 
centre  stands  a  bearded  figure  with  tall  head-dress 
and  high-girt  robe,  stretching  out  his  right  hand 
aimlessly  :  his  left  rests  on  the  head  of  a  child  at  his 
side.  One  remarkable  feature  of  the  design — the 
props  on  which  the  figures  stand — appears  to  have 
escaped  notice,  though  in  them  the  writer  was  for- 
tunate enough  to  recognize  the  clue  to  the  meaning 
of  the  whole.  They  are  cotJniriii,  and  the  high 
head-dress  and  flowing  robe  with  deep  bands  of 
embroidery  are  the  familiar  properties  of  the  tragic 
stage.  The  importance  of  gesture  in  ancient 
tragedy  is  well  known  ;  the  acting  of  the  principal 
figure — the  groping  hand  and  the  support  given 
by  the  child — can  only  indicate  blindness.  The 
situation  of  a  blind  father  leaning  on  his  child  is 
found  in  two  famous  plays,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
'  Oedipus  Coloneus,'  where  the  king  addresses  his 
daughter  as 

Antigone,  child  of  a  blind  old  man, 
and  in  the  '  Phoenissae,' '  where  Teiresias  appears 
leaning  on  his  daughter  Manto  and  saying,  in  the 
words  of  George  Gascoigne's  translation,  or  rather 
version,  '  locasta' — the  second  blank  verse  play  in 
English,  by  the  way,  and  the  first  Greek  play  to 
be  produced  on  the  English  stage  : — 

Thou  trustie  guide  of  my  so  trustlesse  steppes, 
Deer  daughter  mine,  go  we,  lead  thou  the  way, 
That  since  the  day  I  first  did  leeve  this  light, 
Thou  only  art  the  light  of  these  mine  eyes  ; 
And  for  thou  knowst  I  am  both  old  and  weake 
And  ever  longing  after  lovely  rest, 
Derect  my  steppes  amyd  the  playnest  pathes. 
That  so  my  febled  feete  may  feele  less  paine. 
Between  these  two  there  can  be  no  hesitation. 
Representations    of     tragic    drama    other     than 
Euripidean  are  of   extreme  rarity ;  the  plays  of 

'  The  '  Phoenissae  '  of  Seneca  is  out  of  the  question,  as,  apart 
{rom  the  extreme  rarity  of  representations  of  scenes  from  his 
plays,  Manto  is  in  his  version  not  a  child  but  a  woman,  her 
father's  counsellor  as  well  as  support. 

94 


Sophocles  in  particular  were  almost  unknown  in 
Roman  times,  and  it  is  therefore  most  improbable 
that  on  objects  so  essentially  popular  in  character 
as  contorniates  a  scene  from  an  obsolete  dramatist 
should  be  represented.  The  '  Phoenissae,'  on  the 
other  hand,  was  one  of  the  most  popular  tragedies 
of  the  always  popular  Euripides.  There  is,  then, 
no  reason  to  doubt  that  in  fig.  14  we  have  an 
actual  scene  from  a  Euripidean  play  as  represented 
on  the  later  Roman  stage. 

There  is  also  a  great  variety  of  other  mytho- 
logical types,  including  many  of  the  most  familiar 
legends  :  Hero  and  Leander,  Bellerophon  and  the 
Chimaera,  Diana  and  Endymion,  the  exploits  of 
Theseus  and  Heracles,  and  single  figures  of  gods 
and  heroes ;  in  fact,  popular  taste  in  legend 
appears  to  have  altered  little  in  the  last  eighteen 
hundred  years. 

Fig.  15,  a  unique  contorniate  in  the  British 
Museum,  represents  Heracles  in  the  dress  of 
Omphale,  holding  a  distaff  from  which  he  draws 
the  thread  ;  at  his  feet  stands  a  little  Cupid- 
allegory  was  dear  to  the  Roman  heart — and  around 
is  an  inscription  of  the  mongrel  sort  already 
referred  to,  VRANI  NICA  MVNIO— z.c,  Uranius» 
may  you  win  the  prize.* 

Fig.  16,  a  vigorous  and  well-composed  group, 
represents  Jason,  his  short  cloak  fluttering  from 
his  shoulders,  taming  the  brazen  bulls  of  Aeetes  to 
plough  the  Colchian  field  and  sow  the  dragon's 
teeth.  In  the  exergue,  seen  in  profile,  is  the  very 
primitive  plough.' 

Fig.  17  represents  Heracles  struggling  with  the 
Cretan  bull.  The  paws  of  his  lion-skin  float 
behind,  its  mask  lies  on  his  shoulders.  This 
group,  like  the  last,  is  admirably  designed  for  its 
circular  field. 

Fig.  18  is  a  legend  familiar  to  all  who  have 
visited  the  Museum  at  Naples,  under  the  name  of 
the  Farnese  Bull  or  the  Punishment  of  Dirce,  a 
queen  who  was  bound  by  her  stepsons,  Zethus 
and  Amphion,  to  a  wild  bull,  to  revenge  her 
cruelty  towards  their  mother,  Antiope.  Several 
frescoes  of  the  subject  exist  at  Pompeii,  but  the 
composition  of  the  contorniate,  though  omitting 
the  accessories,  is  nearer  the  '  Farnese  Bull '  in  the 
action  of  the  principal  figures  than  any  other 
representation,  and  there  can  be  little  doubt  that 
it  is  immediately  derived  from  the  group,  which 
was  famous  enough  to  be  rhetorically  described 
by  Pliny." 

Yet  other  mythological  groups  represent  Cybele 
and  Attis,  Bacchic  processions,  figures  of  Apollo, 
Hecate,  Roma ;  and  several  interesting  subjects 
still  await  explanation.  Purely  Roman  legends, 
on  the  other  hand,  are  surprisingly  few  :  Hercules 

'  The  interpretations  of  tigs.  15  and  16  are  those  of  the  present 
writer. 

•It  should  be  said  that  a  second  contorniate  type  exists  which 
is  much  less  close  to  the  original  group. 


1.  1.   2    2. 


3    3.  4.  5. 


6.  7    8    9. 


10,  12.  11.  13. 


4. 15. 16   17 


t 


18.  19. 


^ 


contok.m.vtkj 


^1 


DOXXA  CEAX   BERMUDEZ,    BY   GOYA.      IN"    THE 
POSSESSION      OF       HEUN       MIETHKK,      VIEXXA 


PICTURES   BY   GOY'A   AT  THE   MIETHKE 
GALLERY,      VIENXA.  PLATE    I 


On    Contorniates 


and  his  wife  Roma,  daughter  of  Evander,  the 
Wolf  and  Twins,  the  Rape  of  the  Sabines,  the 
inevitable  Aeneas  escaping  from  Troy  (fig.  19), 
which  might,  but  for  its  occurrence  "on  earh'er 
coins,  be  regarded  as  an  illustration  to  Mirg'A—ct 
praderca  nihil.  The  Aeneas  group,  however,  has 
some  real  humour  in  the  gesture  of  Ascanius,  the 
fingers  of  his  right  hand  open,  as  he  is  dragged  along. 
After  those  centuries  of  undue  reputation  for  the 
valueless  portrait  types  and  inexplicable  neglect  for 
the  rest,  the  scientific  study  of  contorniates  is  at 
last  beginning.  Something  has  already  been  done 
to  elucidate  the  more  interesting  subjects,  but 
much  is  still  obscure.  Moreover,  so  many  of  the 
rarer  types  are  represented  by  a  single  specimen 


that  others  may  well  exist,  hidden  away  perhaps 
since  the  palmy  days  of  contorniate-collecting  in 
forgotten  cabinets.  The  national  collection  is 
chiefly  derived  from  the  cabinet  of  an  eighteenth- 
century  Earl  of  Exeter  ;  if  other  collectors  would 
follow  his  example,  or  would  communicate  any 
unpublished  types  in  their  possession,  our  know- 
ledge might  be  substantially  increased.  It  is  with 
the  hope  of  eliciting  such  aid  that  the  present 
paper  has  been  written." 

'°  I  wish  to  acknowledge  the  kindness  of  Mr.  H.  A.  Grueber 
Keeper  of  Coins  and  Medals  at  the  British  Museum,  for  per- 
mission to  reproduce  the  contorniates  illustrated  in  this 
paper,  with  the  exception  of  fig. ;  12,  taken  from  a  cast  of  the 
unique  specimen  in  the  Bibliolheque  Nationale  kindly  furnished 
by  M.  Ernest  Babelon. 


^  NOTES  ON  VARIOUS  WORKS  OF   ART  nk, 


PICTURES   BY  GOYA  AT  THE   GALERIE 
MIETHKE,  VIENNA 

The  exhibition  of  pictures  by  Goya  now  on  view 
at  the  Miethke  Gallery,  Vienna,  is  probably  one 
of  the  finest  ever  seen. 

Among  the  early  pictures  there  is  the  portrait 
of  the  torero  P.  Romero,  a  replica  of  which,  now 
in  the  Huntington   collection',  has  already  been 
discussed  in  The  Burlington  Magazine'.    The 
picture,  dating    about    1780,  is   rather  hard  and 
stolid  in   the  painting  of  the  flesh  tints,  but  the 
dress  is  exquisitely  resolved  info  simple,  flat  tones 
painted  with  a  remarkable  eye  for  values      The 
portrait   of  the  wife   of   the   art-historian,    Cean 
Bermudez,  must  be  ranked  among  the  very  finest 
work  Goya  ever  produced.     It  was  formerly  in 
he  collection  of  the  Marquis  Casa  Torrez,  once 
the  biggest  Goya  collector  in  Spain.     This  mag- 
nihcent   life-size  portrait  of   the   lady,  seated,   is 
painted  piquantly  and  with  a  remarkable  lightness 
of  touch.    It  IS  as  if  the  brush  had  simply  fluttered 
over  the  canvas,  and,  in  spite  of  the  smallness  of 
tlie  eftort,  we  gain  an  impression  of  the  supreme 
htness  of  everything  that  has  been  done.     Then 
there  is  a  magnificent  late  portrait  of  an  officer  in 
mihtai-y  uniform,  one  of  the  few  works  signed  by 
Goya  in    full.      The   signature  reads,  '  Fluctibus 
Reipubhcae  expulsis  Pintado  p'  Goya  181  c  '    It  is 
what  one  would  have  called  'asphalty '  a  decade 
or  two  ago  ;  but  the  blacks  are  wonderfully  lumi- 
nous, and  It  IS  probably  one  of  the  earliest  instances 
ot  the  art  of  converting  black  into  a  colour,  so  to 
speak.      In   its  magnificent  deep  coloration  and 
the  triad  of  black,  red  and  gold  it  is  prophetic  of 
Daumier  and    Delacroix.     A  very  late   paintin^t 
representing  the  arrest  of  a  Maml'a  in  the  street  Ts 
curious  as  being  one  of  Goya's  rare  large-sized 
'  A  comparison  of  large  scale  photographs  seems  to  indicate 

of  ;^hiroKit^.LEr  ""^'°"'^  ^'^ ''""  ■■=  '^«  "^"-  -^^^ 

^  Vol.  xii,  pp.  232.233,  January,  1908. 


genre  subjects— it  measures  about  4  ft.  by  7  ft. 

but  it  is  not  altogether  pleasing.     Of  the  figures 
seen  to  the  knees,  the  woman  is  quite  to  the  right, 
with    the    sergeant   behind    her,    while   his   two 
attendants    to     the    left   seem     to    be    ready   to 
manacle  the  lady,  and  one  of  them  turns  a  dark- 
lantern  on  her.    The  painting  evidently  was  meant 
to  be  Rembrandtesque,  but  is  not  quite  successful  ; 
the  technique  is  rather  in  the  nature  of  a  rough- 
and-ready  sketch,  except    for    the   lace   mantilla 
which  the  woman  holds  up  to  hide  her  face— this 
IS  admirably  painted.      Among  further  important 
canvases,  I  note  a  full-length    life-size  portrait  of 
General  Don  Tadeo  Bravo  de  Rivero,  signed  'Don 
Tadeo  Bravo  de  Rivero  por  su  am.  Goya,   1806  '  ; 
a  three-quarter  length  of   the   Marquesa  de  San 
Andres,  formerly  in  the  R.  Garcia  collection  at 
Madrid,  painted  about  1780;  one  of  Goya's  many 
portraits  of  Queen  Maria  Louisa  ;    two  small  Don 
Quixote  scenes  ;  and  two  gruesome  subjects,  one 
representing  a  man  hanged  by  the  neck,  the  other 
an  execution  by  fusilade. 

Don  Aureliano  de  Beruete,  the  well-known 
Velazquez  specialist,  has  lent  to  the  show  thirty- 
eight  splendid  original  drawings  by  Goya.  Most 
of  these  are  to  be  published  in  a  new  volume 
on  Goya.  Two  Viennese  collectors,  Dr.  Julius 
Hofmann— the  author  of  the  capital  catalogue  of 
the  mivre  of  Goya— and  Mr.  G.  Eissler,  contri- 
buted first  editions  of  all  the  four  etched  series  ; 
from  them  and  from  other  sources  various  further 
rare  Goya  prints  were  secured,  including  several 
unedited  plates  for  the  Dcsastrcs  and  the  Provcrbios 
and  some  of  the  lithographs  of  the  Toros  de  Bordeos 
set. 

The  mere  enumeration  of  the  works  which  form 
this  exhibition— the  list  I  havegiven  is  by  no  means 
complete— suffices  to  prove  that  it  is  the  most 
important  show  for  Goya  students  ever  arrant^ed 
outside  Spain.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  it  will^be 
made  accessible  to  people  elsewhere  besides  Vienna. 

Hans  W.  Singer, 


99 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 

THE  PLATE  OF  THE  FORMER  ENGLISH 

CHURCH  AT  THE  HAGUE 
About  the  year  1820  the  English  church  in  The 
Hague,  situated  in  the  Nordeiside,  and  formerly 
the'Chapel  of  the  Oude  Mannehuis— an  ancient 
establishment  for  giving  pensions  and  lodging  to 
old  men — was  abolished  in  a  somewhat  arbitrary 
manner  by  royal  decree  of  the  king  of  Holland, 
after  having  been  used  as  an  English  church  since 
tlie  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  when  it  was  given 
for  the  use  of  Leicester's  troops  on  their  landing 
in  Holland. 

A  volume  of  the  Register,  of  which  the  remain- 
ing volumes  have  long  been  in  the  possession  of 
the  British  Legation,  the  church  books  and  Sacra- 
mental Vessels'  were  handed  over  at  this  time  to 
the  care  of  the  Dutch  Church  authorities,  with 
the  proviso  that,  should  they  at  any  time  be 
required  by  the  chaplain  of  the  English  Legation 
in  The  Hague,  the  authorities  in  question  would 
be  allowed  to  deliver  them  up.  These  Vessels 
were  kept  in  a  strong  iron  box  in  the  Board  room 
of  an  orphanage  connected  with  the  Groote  (St. 
Jacob's)  Kerk,  when  about  the  year  1904  I  drew 
attention  to  them,  being  at  that  time  Secretary  of 
Legation  in  The  Hague.  The  church  authorities 
were  at  first  unwilling  to  give  up  these  Vessels  and 
Books  on  the  ground  that  the  Anglican  church  of 
1904  did  not  represent  the  church  abolished  in 
1820,  which  they  maintained  (whether  correctly 
or  not  is  a  matter  of  doubt)  to  have  been  a 
Presbyterian  church. 

Sir  Henry  Howard,  British  Minister  in  The 
Hague,  made  a  representation  on  the  subject  to 
the  Dutch  Foreign  Office,  with  the  result  that  a 
royal  decree  was  eventually  passed  handing  over 
the  Register,  Books  and  Plate,  not  to  the  English 

'  Described  and  illustrated  in  the  article  by  Mr.  Alfred  E, 
Jones  :  Burlington  Magazine,  Vol.  xiii,  pp.  28,  29,  33, 
April  190S. 


cA.  LETTERS  TO 

THE  PORTRAIT  OF  JACQUELINE  DE 
BOURGOGNE,  BY  MABUSE 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Burlington  Magazine. 

Dear  Sir, — Yesterday  I  received  the  last  ninriber 
of  The  Burlington  Magazine,  from  which  I 
learnt  that  the  charming  portrait  of  a  little  girl  by 
Mabuse  has  entered  the  National  Gallery,  which 
must  be  highly  congratulated  on  the  purchase. 
The  following  historical  notes  will  show  that  this 
portrait  is  even  more  valuable  than  was  suspected 
hitherto.  If  I  did  not  attract  attention  to  them  at 
tlie  time  of  the  Bruges  exhibition,  it  was  because 
I  then  lioped  the  picture  might  yet  be  acquired  at 
the  sale  by  a  Belgian  museum. 

Mr.  Heseltine's  remark  about  the  child's  mouth 
is  quite  right,  but  not  his  conclusion  in  favour  of 
Isabeau,  sister  of  Charles  V  and  afterwards  queen 
of  Denmark,  who  liad  an  altogether  different 
appearance. 


Church,  but  to  the  British  Legation,  where  it  is 
now  in  safe  keeping. 

I  also  discovered  the  whereabouts  of  these  cups 

during  the  time  I  was  at  the  Legation  in  the  Hague, 

knowing    of    their    existence   through    Stevens's 

'  History  of  the  Scotch  Church,  Rotterdam,'  1832. 

Arthur  F.  G.  Leveson  Gower. 

THE   REPORTED    PICTURE    FORGERIES 

AT  MUNICH 
In  connexion  with  the  recent  action  at  Munich 
concerning  the  sale  of  forged  pictures,  the  Press, 
both  in  Germany  and  abroad,  have  for  some  time 
been  spreading  reports  which  represent  the  scope 
of  these  operations  as  very  important.  Further, 
it  has  been  stated  that  '  most  of  the  forgeries ' 
have  been  sold  to  England  and  America,  and 
also  that  amongst  the  suspects  are  several  '  highly 
esteemed  and  famous  Munich  art  dealers,'  as  well 
as  Munich  artists.  In  the  interest  of  the  reputa- 
tion of  Munich,  we,  the  undersigned,  have  taken 
the  trouble  to  procure  official  information  and 
are  able  to  make  the  following  statements  : — 

1.  As  to  forging  pictures — one  person  only  is 
suspected,  and  he  has  nothing  at  all  to  do  profes- 
sionally with  the  fine  arts. 

2.  As  to  the  sale  of  forged  pictures — with  the 
exception  of  two  arrested  dealers  and  a  third, 
whose  whereabouts  are  still  unknown,  no  person 
is  suspected,  who  has  any  professional  connexion 
with  the  fine  arts. 

3.  Evidence  that  forged  pictures  have  been  sold 
to  England  or  America  is  up  till  now  entirely 
wanting  ;  still  less  is  there  any  evidence  that  the 
figures  published  as  to  these  forgeries  and  their 
prices  are  correct. 

Prof.  Hans  v.  Petersen,  D.  Heinemann, 

Hugo  Freiherr  v.  Habermann,    A.  Riegner, 
Prof.  Fritz  Baer,  Wimmer  &  Co., 

E.  A.  Fleischmanns. 


THE  EDITOR  d^ 

The  so-called  Habsburg  type  is  composed  of 
two  elements  :  the  projecting  jaw,  which  comes 
from  the  Habsburgs  and  belonged,  for  instance, 
to  Maximilian  ;  and  the  peculiar  form  of  the  lips 
(without  prognathism)  which  was  inherited  from 
the  Burgundian  side — viz.,  from  Mary  of  Burgundy, 
Maximilian's  wife. 

This  later  peculiarity  is  alone  to  be  found  in 
the  child's  face,  as  is  often  the  case  among  the 
members  of  the  collateral  illegitimate  branches  of 
the  Burgundy  family. 

Jacqueline  de  Bourgogne  was  the  youngest 
daughter  of  Adolfe  de  Bourgogne,  lord  of  Beveren 
and  Veere,  and  Anne  de  Bergnes.  Adolfe  himself 
was  the  son  of  Philippe,  lord  of  Beveren,  by  Anne 
de  Borssele,  and  grandson  of  Antoine,  called  '  le 
Grand  Batard  de  Bourgogne,'  by  Jeanne  de  la 
Vidall.  This  celebrated  warrior  was  one  of  the 
eldest  natural  sons  of  Philippe  le  Bon.     In  conse- 


100 


THI-.    AKl;l'Sl    o|.     A    MAMiLA.    I;Y    i.uYA.         I\ 
THE  I'OSSESSiUN  CIF  IlliKK  MIETHKK,  VIKXNA 


PICTl'KES  BY   GOYA    AT   THE   MIETIIKE 
GALI-EKY,      VIENNA.  I'l.ATK      II 


,o 


"b 


Letters  to  the  Editor 


quence,  Adolfe  of  Burgundy,  the  child's  father, 
was  a  second-cousin  of  Charles  V. 

Now  the  interesting  fact  is  that  this  Adolfe,  lord 
of  Veere,  was  a  well-known  patron  of  Mabuse 
(see  Carel  van  Mander),  who  is  known  to  have 
painted  the  Virgin  and  Child  after  the  lady  of  Veere 
and  her  young  son.  At  present  I  have  not  made 
the  necessary  researches,  but  by  the  apparent  age 
of  the  child  it  will  be  easy  to  assign  a  more  exact 
date  to  the  picture.  It  cannot  be  far  from  1520, 
judging  by  the  dress. 

The  charming  portrait,  now  in  the  National 
Gallery,  when  I  first  discovered  it  at  Paris,  imme- 
diately reminded  me  of  another  well-known 
portrait,  that  of  a  lady  composed  exactly  in  the 
same  way  on  a  clear  coloured  background,  with  a 
painted  false-frame,  formerly  attributed  to  Scorel, 
but  evidently  by  Mabuse,  which  Justi  also  erro- 
neously believed  to  represent  Isabeau  of  Austria. 

This  portrait  now  belongs  to  Mrs.  Gardner  at 
Boston.  I  am  told  another  copy  belongs  to  Lord 
Brownlow.'  If  this  be  the  case,  it  would  be  inte- 
resting to  compare  them  and  ascertain  which  is 
the  original. 

The  lady  is  dressed  in  the  French  fashion,  which 
at  first  misled  me,  but  lately  I  discovered  her 
identity.  She  is  Anne  de  Bergnes,  wife  of  Adolfe 
of  Burgundy,  and  mother  of  the  little  girl,  as  is 
proved  by  the  copy  made  by  the  presumed  Jacques 
Le  Bourg  in  the  Recueil  de  portraits  of  the  Arras 
library.  These  two  portraits,  manifestly  painted 
at  the  same  time,  afford  an  important  contribution 
to  the  history  of  Mabuse's  art. 

Georges  H.  de  Loo. 

HERRI  MET  DE  BLES 
To  the  Editor  of  The  Burlington  Magazine. 
Sir, — By  the  light  of  the  two  illustrations  of 
the  Flemish  panels  in  the  Hutchinson  and 
Pourtales  collections,  given  in  the  March 
Burlington  Magazine,  we  can,  I  think,  make 
out  something  in  that  obscure  region  of  art 
known  as  Herri  Met  de  Bles.  Not,  indeed,  of  a 
nature  to  lighten  materially  the  obscurity,  but  still 
a  fairly  definite  fact.  An  Adoration  of  the  Kings, 
labelled  '  Herri  Met  de  Bles,'  was  lent  by  Messrs. 
Duveen  to  the  Winter  Exhibition  at  Burlington 
House.  It  is,  in  my  opinion,  clearly  by  the 
painter  of  the  Hutchinson  panels,  concerning 
whose  relation  to  the  Pourtales  couple  Messrs. 
Hulin  and  Kenyon  Cox  completely  differ.  Their 
difference  is  interesting,  but  if  the  evidence  here 
propounded  be  admissible,  as  to  the  identity  of 
authorship  in  Messrs.  Duveen's  and  Mr.  Hutchin- 
son's examples,  the  acceptance  of  M.  Hulin's  view 
will  come  more  easily.  For  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  this  Adoration  of  the  Kings  is  inferior  in  spirit 
and  in  craft  to  the  simpler  Pourtales  work,  and  of 

'  By  the  courtesy  of  Earl  Hrownlow  we  are  enabled  to  state 
that  the  size  and  composition  of  his  portrait  agree  with  those 
of  Mrs.  Gardner's  version. — Ed. 


a  later  date.  Reference  to  the  costumes  and 
architectural  detail  abundantly  shows,  in  the 
former,  the  weaknesses  of  ornament  elaborated  for 
the  sake  of  elaboration.  The  painter  has  solely 
been  concerned  with  devising  an  oriental  splendour 
that  he  had  not  studied  and  did  not  understand. 
His  sense  of  linear  form  in  the  Hutchinson  and 
the  Duveen  exarnples  is,  in  the  actual  features, 
more  correct  than  is  that  of  the  Pourtales  panels. 
But  in  the  latter  the  broader  and  more  solid 
modelling  is  apparent.  The  drawing  of  the  figure 
and  of  hands  and  feet  in  the  two  former  is  quite 
poor,  especially  in  the  Adoration.  The  perfunc- 
torily careless  handling  of  the  less  important  people 
is  marked. 

The  points  of  practically  identical  workmanship 
and  idea  in  the  Hutchinson  (Chicago)  panels  and 
this  Adoration  triptych  are  briefly  as  follows  : — 
The  mannerism  of  drapery  painting  seen  in  the 
Queen  of  Sheba's  dress  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
African  king's  and  the  king's  in  the  dexter  shutter 
of  the  triptych.  In  these  the  treatment  is  broader 
than  in  the  Queen  of  Sheba  of  the  Pourtales 
(Paris)  work.  In  the  background  of  the  sinister 
shutter  of  the  triptych  a  bronze  armoured  figure, 
as  in  the  Chicago  example,  adorns  a  pillar's 
capital,  which  in  both  instances  is  supported 
by  an  ornament  of  a  cupid's  head.  Both 
examples  have  an  identical  acanthus  moulding 
above  the  pillars.  The  triptych  displays  its 
painter's  liking  for  an  ornament  of  a  ram's 
head.  He  uses  it  in  his  architecture,  on  a 
warrior's  breastplate,  on  a  large  shield  in  the  centre 
panel,  and  as  a  design  in  the  costly  goblet  the 
dexter  king  is  bringing.  This  ram's  head  is 
employed  in  the  Chicago  piece  as  the  decoration 
of  a  capital.  A  conspicuous  presence  in  the 
Duveen  Adoration  is  the  investiture  of  the  kings 
with  almost  mayoral  chains  ;  it  is  present,  too,  in 
the  Hutchinson  example.  None  of  these  instances 
of  ornateness  occurs  in  the  Paris  panels.  In  them 
the  base  of  the  pillar  stands  solidly  and  structurally 
on  the  pavement.  Round  the  foot  a  simple  fluted 
pattern  runs.  The  painter  of  the  triptych — and 
this,  I  think,  is  eloquent  of  his  degeneracy — splays 
out  the  base  of  his  arch-supporting  pillar,  fashioning 
it  like  the  foot  of  a  chalice,  and  decorates  it  with 
a  fluting  which  would  only  be  in  keeping  with 
some  such  piece  of  thin  metal  work.  In  the 
Chicago  panel  of  David  receiving  the  Water  from 
Bethlehem  the  pillar  that  should  maintain  his 
throne  is  thus  splaj'ed  and  fluted.  In  the 
Pourtal6s  illustration  it  stands  cylindrically,  of 
equal  diameter  with  the  shaft. 

Lastly,  it  is,  I  think,  indisputable  that  the  tassels 
and  the  slashed  sleeves  and  ornate  greaves  which 
are  so  conspicuous  in  the  Hutchinson  shutters 
and  the  Duveen  triptych  are  calculated  additions 
to  the  simpler  dress  of  the  Pourtal(§s  specimen.  In 
that  we  see  the  ermined  robe,  unhung  with  tassels. 


105 


Letters  to  the  Editor 

In  the  Hutchinson  work  we  see  this  robe  tasseled, 
and  in  the  triptych  the  kneehng  king  is  Hberally 
hung  and  ermined. 

The  comparison  of  these  things,  and  others  such 
as  the  habit  of  the  sleeves  and  the  rather  boorish 
character,  in  the  triptych  and  the  Hutchinson 
shutters,  of  some  of  the  heads,  seems  to  justify  M. 
Huhn's  contention  that  the  Paris  panels  inspired 
those  now  in  Chicago.  In  the  triptych  the 
inclusion  of  an  enormous  straw  hat,  recalling 
Pisanello  to  our  mind,  is  noteworthy.  On  the 
hem  of  a  robe  appearing  from  beneath  a  fold  the 
characters  MASO  present  a  speculation. 

C.  H.  Collins  Baker. 

SILVER  PLATE  MADE  AT  KING'S  LYNN 
To  the  Editor  of  The  BURLINGTON  Magazine. 
Sir,— While  reading  in  your  issue  of  last 
December '  an  article  by  Mr.  E.  Alfred  Jones  upon 
the  Old  English  Plate  at  the  Church  Congress  held 
at  Great  Yarmouth  last  autumn,  I  made  a  note 
upon  one  passage  which  I  intended  to  send  to  you. 
As  fate  would  have  it  I  laid  the  note  aside  with  a 
mass  of  other  papers,  and  then  forgot  all  about  it. 
Having  now  come  upon  it  again  I  send  it  to  you, 
albeit  belated,  believing  that  it  will  interest  all 
those  who  are  interested  in  the  subject  of  Mr.  Jones's 
article,  and  they  must  be  many. 

Mr.  Jones  mentions  among  the  exhibits  in  the 
Great  Yarmouth  collection  a  communion  cup 
belonging  to  Middleton  Church,  near  King's  Lynn, 
which  is  inscribed  with  the  date  1632,  and  which 
is  marked  with  the  town-mark  of  King's  Lynn. 
Following  hitherto  published  statistics,  Mr.  Jones 

» See  The  Burlington  Magazine,  Vol.  xii,  No.  57,  p.  135. 
December,  1907. 


proceeds  to  say  :  '  This  interesting  example  brings 
the  total  number  of  known  pieces  with  the  King's 
Lynn  mark  to  three,  the  others  being  the  two 
church  vessels  enumerated  by  Mr.  Jackson' 
('  English  Goldsmiths  and  their  Marks'). 

The  three  examples  thus  referred  to  do  not 
constitute  the  total  number  of  known  examples  of 
plate  bearing  the  King's  Lynn  mark.  I  know  other 
examples  among  the  church  plate  in  Norfolk,  and 
I  dare  say  more  still  will  come  to  light  when  all 
the  deaneries  of  that  county  have  been  thoroughly 
explored.  I  suppose  it  is  no  secret  that  the  Rev. 
E.  C.  Hopper,  whose  name  is  so  well  known  in 
connexion  with  the  cataloguing  of  the  church  plate 
of  Suffolk,  is  now  engaged  upon  similar  work  in 
Norfolk. 

The  maker's  mark — an  H  with  a  W  below — 
upon  the  Middleton  cup  can  scarcely  be  other 
than  the  mark  of  William  Howlett,  silversmith  of 
King's  Lynn,  who  was  working  there  at  the  period 
indicated  by  the  engraved  date  on  the  cup — viz., 
1632.  This  William  was  very  possibly  a  brother 
of  John  Howlett,  a  contemporary  silversmith  in 
Norwich,  who  was  working  there  up  to  1635  or 
perhaps  later. 

Upon  one  King's  Lynn  communion  cup  and  its 
paten,  belonging  to  a  Norfolk  parish  and  dated  1633, 
I  found  a  maker's  mark  identically  similar  to  the  well- 
known  mark  of  Timothy  Scottowe  (or  Skottowe), 
silversmith  of  Norwich  and  working  there  at  that 
period — viz.,  TS  in  monogram.  1  do  not  know  of 
any  King's  Lynn  silversmith  whose  name  these 
initials  will  fit,  but  Kinjg's  Lynn  is  not  a  very  far 
cry  from  Norwich,  and  it  is  quite  within  the  bounds 
of  probability  that  Scottowe  may  have  had  a  trade 
branch  or  partnership  interests  at  King's  Lynn. 

H.  D,  Ellis. 


cA.  ART  BOOKS  OF 

SCULPTURE    AND  METALWORK. 

Die  Plastik  Sienas  im  Quattrocento.  Von 
Paul  Schubring.  143  illustrations.  Pp.  256. 
Berlin  :  Grote.  1907.  6  marks  paper  ;  10  marks 
bound. 
In  order  to  be  properly  appreciated,  this  book 
should  be  read  at  Siena.  Sienese  art  is  essentially 
local.  The  only  sculptor  of  absolutely  first  rank 
that  the  city  produced,  Querela,  was  raised  by  his 
genius  far  above  the  limitations  of  his  fellow- 
sculptors,  who,  remaining  true  to  their  traditions, 
were  never  able  to  profit  by  his  example.  They 
assimilated  little  but  his  mannerisms,  which  they 
speedily  developed  into  caricature.  Querela,  for 
instance,  in  spite  of  his  tendency  to  worry  his 
drapery,  never  forgot  that  it  should  reveal  the 
figure  beneath.  His  successors  at  Siena,  like  the 
Germans  of  the  sixteenth  century,  amused  them- 
selves with  the  folds  of  their  drapery,  oblivious  of 

106 


THE  MONTH  r*^ 

the  human  form  it  concealed,  and  usually  also 
careless  of  its  texture.  Federighi's  saints  at  the 
Loggia  di  S.  Paolo  are  good  instances  in  point ; 
these  creatures  have  no  bodies  at  all,  but  are  mere 
masses  of  drapery.  Yet,  in  Siena,  undisturbed  by 
thoughts  of  Greek  or  Florentine  sculpture,  one 
feels  the  fascination  of  the  intensely  characteristic 
local  spirit,  and  is  grateful  to  a  school  which  was 
reluctant  to  throw  off  the  gothic  tradition,  and 
which,  though  it  seldom,  if  ever,  rose  to  the  grand 
style,  shows,  like  the  local  school  of  painting, 
peculiar  elements  of  religious  feeling  and  delicate 
sentiment.  Occasionally,  too,  as  in  Federighi's 
Moses,  it  could  produce  a  masterpiece  of  dramatic 
expression . 

Dr.  Schubring's  initial  chaper  on  Querela  is 
made  very  brief  because  of  the  existence  of  a 
satisfactory  monograph  by  Cornelius.  It  can 
hardly  be  denied  that  if  more  space  had  been  given 
to  the  great  master  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the 


book  would  have  been  shifted,  and  his  successors 
revealed  in  their  true  proportions.  Short  as  the 
chapter  is,  it  contains  some  excellent  criticism. 
In  the  succeeding  chapters  the  author  deals  with 
Giovanni  Turini,  Federighi,  Vecchietta,  Neroccio, 
Giovanni  di  Stefano,  the  '  Piccolomini  Master,' 
Francesco  di  Giorgio,  Giacomo  Cozzarelli,  Marrina, 
and  of  course  incidentally  with  minor  artists.  A 
great  mass  of  material  is  brought  together,  and  it 
may  therefore  seem  ungrateful  to  complain  of  the 
way  in  which  it  has  been  assigned  ;  but  the  book 
would  have  been  none  the  less  valuable  for  a  little 
more  restraint  of  the  tendency  to  mark  down 
everything  with  a  definite  attribution .  The  group 
of  the  Annunciation  in  the  Santuccio  di  S.  Galgano 
is  given  to  Giov.  Turini,  with  whose  harshness  of 
form  and  expression  its  prettiness  is  in  strong 
contrast.  Of  the  remarkable  wooden  figure  of  a 
seated  woman,  recently  placed  in  the  Bargello  at 
Florence,  the  author  says  that  the  treatment  of 
form  points  to  about  1430,  but  that  he  knows  of  no 
Sienese  sculpture  related  to  it.  Whatever  the 
'  Formensprache '  of  this  clever  figure  may  indicate, 
in  motive  it  seems  to  belong  rather  to  the  time  of 
Giacomo  Cozzarelli,  and  still  greater  reserve  in 
dealing  with  it  would  surely  not  have  been  out  of 
place.  The  artist  Giovanni  di  Stefano  receives 
what  most  readers  will  regard  as  excessive  praise. 
His  Tabernacle  in  S.  Domenico,  which  offends  in 
all  its  proportions  and  balancing  of  elements,  his 
smugly  complacent  S.  Ansano,  his  angels  by  the 
ciborium  of  the  Duomo,  with  their  drapery  teased 
almost  out  of  all  recognition,  are  magnified  beyond 
their  due  importance,  and  the  climax  is  reached 
with  the  attribution  to  him  of  thesevereand  noble 
bust  of  St.  Catherine  in  the  Palazzo  Palmieri-Nuti  ! 
It  is  quite  in  keeping  that  the  famous  Virgilian 
lines  inscribed  beside  Giovanni's  Cumaean  Sibyl  are 
attributed  to  Lactantius,  and  the  branch  (apparently 
of  laurel)  which  she  holds  is  called  a  palm. 
Evidently  the  passion  for  re-attribution  is  dom- 
inant even  here.  Francesco  di  Giorgio  is  the 
author's  favourite.  His  restlessness,  his  lack  of 
reserve  and  harmony,  his  tendency  to  sensation- 
alism, are  ignored.  To  him  is  given  the  beautiful 
relief  of  the  Madonna  and  Child  now  at 
Berlin  (No.  154),  which,  in  the  massive  dignity  of 
its  forms,  is  wholly  alien  to  Francesco's  art.  He  is 
also  credited  with  the  fine  Pieta  in  the  Osser\-anza, 
apparently  because  the  author,  by  a  somewhat  naive 
petitio  principii,  considers  it  to  be  far  superior  to 
anything  created  by  Cozzarelli,  to  whom  it  is 
traditionally  assigned.  Of  course,  all  the  author's 
attributions  are  not  so  arbitrary.  One  can,  for 
instance,  heartily  accept  his  restoration  to  the 
Sienese  school  of  the  Berlin  Annunciation  assigned 
by  Dr.  Bode  to  the  school  of  Ghibcrti.  Attractive, 
too,  is  the  attribution  to  Federighi  of  the  Elci 
Bacchns,  which  in  its  ill-rendered  classicizing 
forms  (note  the  exaggerated  iliac  line  !)  recalls  the 


Sculpture  and  Metalwork 

slaves  on  the  holy-water  basin  in  the  Duomo. 
The  most  important  and  convincing  of  the  attribu- 
tions in  the  book  restores  to  Francesco  di  Giorgio 
from  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (to  whom  Dr.  Bode  had 
given  them)  a  group  of  reliefs,  including  a  pax  with 
the  Deposition  at  Venice,  the  Discoidia  at  S.  Ken- 
sington, and  the  Sconrging  of  Christ  at  Perugia.  It 
is  clear  from  what  has  been  said  that  Dr.  Schubring's 
book,  though  it  contains  much  that  is  disputable, 
and  represents  in  some  ways  not  the  most  favour- 
able aspects  of  recent  German  criticism,  is  of  very 
considerable  importance  as  bringing  together  a 
great  amount  of  valuable  material,  as  well  as  some 
less  valuable,  though  highly  suggestive,  speculation. 
It  also  possesses  the  merits  of  being  well  printed, 
well  illustrated,  and  eminently  readable.    G.  F.  H. 

DONATELLO.  Des  Meisters  Werke  in  277  Abbil- 
dungen.  Herausgegeben  von  Paul  Schubring. 
Deutsche  Verlags  Anstalt.  Stuttgart  and 
Leipzig.  M.  8. 
The  latest  volume  of  the  excellent  '  Klassiker  der 
Kunst'  series  is  devoted  to  a  master  who  is  gradu- 
ally taking  rank  among  the  very  greatest.  Born  in 
an  age  when  Italian  art  was  still  in  its  infancy, 
he  carries  it  at  once  to  maturity,  and  then,  as 
Dr.  Schubring  justly  points  out,  passes  on  to  the 
verge  of  the  rococo.  Michelangelo  is  his  direct 
descendant,  through  Bertoldo,  and  was  the  imme- 
diate influence  which  led  Italian  sculpture  to 
over-ripeness ;  but  it  may  be  doubted  whether 
even  Michelangelo,  with  all  the  advantage  of 
nearly  a  century  of  intense  intellectual  activity  to 
help  him,  carried  the  art  of  sculpture  quite  to  the 
point  which  Donalello  reaches  in  such  statues  as 
the  Madonna  at  Padua.  Donatello's  width  of 
range  is  the  more  wonderful  when  we  remembei 
that  in  the  art  of  sculpture  development  as  a  rule 
comes  slowly  ;  each  artist  adds  but  his  little  quota 
to  the  experience  of  his  predecessors,  and  progress 
from  the  archaic  to  the  over-ripe  is  a  matter  of 
two  or  more  centuries.  Donatello  is  the  single 
sculptor  who  has  succeeded  in  passing  from 
extreme  simplicity  to  extreme  complexity  within 
the  short  span  of  human  life. 

For  the  study  of  this  wonderful  and  powerful 
master  the  series  of  carefully  annotated  plates  in 
Dr.  Schubring's  book  will  prove  most  useful. 
Only  now  and  then,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Annun- 
ciation in  Santa  Croce,  do  the  engravings  seem 
to  be  unsatisfactory  or  retouched  ;  the  majority 
are  excellent.  The  selection,  too,  is  good,  but  the 
arrangement  is  somewhat  puzzling.  A  section  is 
devoted  to  doubtful  and  school  works  ;  yet  among 
the  genuine  pieces  we  find  example  after  example 
(notably  in  the  case  of  the  detached  reliefs)  which 
cannot  by  any  possibility  be  from  the  master's 
hand.  Their  inclusion  among  the  authentic  things 
can  only  be  a  source  of  confusion  to  the  learner, 
and  is  the  more  surprising  since  in  a  number  of 

107 


Sculpture  and  Metalwork 

these  cases  Dr.  Schubring  admits  in  his  notes  that 
they  can  hardly  be  from  Donatello's  hand.  It  is 
never  pleasant  to  have  to  throw  doubt  on  a  work 
of  art,  but  in  a  book  designed  on  scientific  lines 
there  should  be  no  hesitation.  So  long,  however, 
as  Dr.  Schubring's  notes  are  studied  in  connexion 
with  the  pictures  the  reader  need  not  often  go  far 
astray. 

Franz  Laurana.  By  Wilhelm  Rolfs.  Vol.  I  : 
pp.  xvi.  and  455.  Vol.  II:  82  Bilder-Tafeln. 
Berlin:  R.  Bong.  1907.  Paper,  M.  36; 
bound,  M.  40. 
Of  Francesco  Laurana  as  a  man  nothing  is  known  ; 
it  is  therefore  the  greater  merit  in  the  author  of 
this  monograph  to  have  disentangled  from  the 
records  and  monuments,  without  undue  exercise 
of  his  imagination,  a  distinctly  engaging  artistic 
individuality.  No  one  is  more  conscious  than  the 
author  that  his  hero  is  not  a  great  artist.  Laurana 
always  anxiously  shuns  any  excessive  manifesta- 
tion of  force  ;  he  is  reserved,  cautious,  discreet  if 
ever  any  one  was  discreet,  without  creative  power. 
Even  his  sculpture  in  the  round  shows  an  almost 
morbid  anxiety  not  to  pierce  below  the  surface, 
and  even  in  such  work  he  sees  man  with  the  eye 
of  a  carver  in  low  relief.  His  forms  are  observed 
from  the  outside  ;  he  does  not,  like  the  great 
Florentines,  know  nature  from  withm.  He  reduces 
all  his  forms  to  the  simplest  planes  and  lines,  re- 
produces them  straightforwardly  and  truly,  works 
them  out  with  much  pains  and  diligence.  When 
he  is  one,  even  the  head,  of  a  large  company  of 
artists  engaged  on  a  great  monument,  he  seems  to 
lose  all  his  power  ;  but  in  smaller  tasks,  when  he 
is  working  by  himself,  the  fineness  of  his  taste 
finds  quiet  and  unobtrusive  expression.  He  may 
know  nature  only  on  the  surface,  yet  he  is  familiar 
with  the  loveliness  of  woman  in  every  detail.  Such, 
as  expressed  in  various  places,  is  the  author's  ver- 
dict on  Laurana,  and  it  is  eminently  just.  The 
centre  of  gravity  of  the  book,  and  of  Laurana's 
own  work,  lies  in  the  connexion  between  the 
Sicilian  Madonnas  and  the  busts  of  the  type  of 
Beatrice  of  Aragon  (of  which  the  '  unknown  lady ' 
of  the  Louvre  is  an  example  familiar  to  everyone). 
If  anything  can  be  proved  by  '  Stil-Kritik,'  it  is 
certain  that  these  two  groups  belong  to  the  same 
originator,  although  it  is  quite  improbable  that  all 
the  Madonnas  described  by  tlie  author,  or  all  the 
Beatrice-busts,  are  from  Laurana's  own  hand. 
The  medals  signed  by  him  are  also  part  of  his 
undoubted  work.  In  all  these  he  is  working 
alone,  or  under  conditions  which  make  his  influ- 
ence paramount.  But  in  monuments  like  the 
Arch  at  Naples  or  the  Avignon  Altar,  when  Laurana 
is  in  command  of  a  number  of  workmen,  we  almost 
entirely  lose  sight  of  his  individuality  ;  he  was  quite 
unable  to  impress  his  style  on  any  of  the  minor 
artists    in    his  employ.     It   is  difficult   to  find  a 

108 


figure  here  and  there  betraying  his  hand.  Even 
his  architectural  backgrounds  are  of  the  sort  that  a 
clever  pupil  could  execute  to  perfection.  In  all  this 
the  contradiction  is  only  on  the  surface.  A  little 
consideration  shows  that  the  very  charm  of  the 
Sicilian  Madonnas  and  the  Beatrice-busts  could 
only  belong  to  a  nature  incapable  of  harmonizing 
the  conflicting  tendencies  of  various  schools,  such 
as  were  represented  at  Naples,  or  controlling  the 
vulgarity  of  the  Franco-Flemish  artists  whom  he 
had  to  employ  at  Avignon.  There  is,  however, 
another  curious  paradox,  less  easily  explained. 
The  author  rightly  insists  that  Laurana  envisages 
forms  as  a  relief-sculptor,  not  as  a  sculptor  in  the 
round.  Why,  then,  are  his  best  and  most  charac- 
teristic works  sculptures  in  the  round,  like  the 
Sicilian  Madormas  and  the  Beatrice-busts  ?  What- 
ever may  be  the  answer  to  this  problem,  of  the 
busts  in  question  only  one  (in  the  Dreyfus  collec- 
tion) is  identified  by  its  inscription.  The  contour 
of  the  face  of  Beatrice  is  here  comparatively  rect- 
angular ;  the  build  of  some  of  the  other  heads  (as 
that  in  the  Louvre,  and  still  more  that  at  Berlin) 
is  different,  the  contour  being  a  beautiful  oval. 
The  distressing  black  background  of  the  illustra- 
tions in  the  book  makes  this  undoubted  fact 
difficult  to  realize.  Rather  than  accept  all  the 
busts  as  portraits  of  Beatrice,  we  should  regard 
several  of  them  as  slight  modifications  of  a  distinct 
type  founded  by  Laurana.  It  was  founded  on  a 
Tuscan  basis,  just  as  his  medallic  style,  like  that  of 
Pietro  da  Milano,  was  inspired  by  the  art  of 
Pisanello.  The  work  of  both  Francesco  and 
Pietro  shows  that  they  did  not  understand  casting  ; 
had  they  done  so,  more  good  specimens  would 
surely  have  come  down  to  us.  (The  illustration  of 
the  medal  in  the  Bargello  throws  doubt  on  the 
author's  statement  that  it  is  a  fine  cast.)  In  all 
probability  both  these  artists  handed  their  models 
over  to  some  one  else  to  cast,  and  the  similarity  of 
fabric  suggests  that  the  same  caster  worked  for 
them  both.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  author  has 
reduced  the  medals  in  his  plates  to  a  uniform  size  ; 
this  is  more  fatal  to  their  effect  than  the  method, 
which  he  condemns,  of  reproducing  from  plaster- 
casts.  It  may  be  noted  in  passing  that  (as  any 
one  familiar  with  the  art  would  have  guessed  from 
its  appearance  in  the  photograph)  the  medal  of 
Frederick  of  Vaudemont  is  of  lead  ;  that  the  medal 
of  Margaret  of  Anjou  has  long  since  passed  from 
the  Pichon  to  the  Salting  collection  ;  and  that 
Alberti's  design  for  S.  Francesco  occurs  on  Pasti's 
medal  of  Sigismondo  Malatesta,  not  of  Albert! 
himself.  Pietro  da  Milano,  whose  claim  to  more 
than  a  minor  share  in  the  Arch  of  Naples  is  re- 
futed, is  throughout  the  book  called  '  Peter  Martin 
von  Mailand.'  He  was  really  '  Peter  son  of 
Martin.'  This  misleading  use  of  names  is  partly 
due  to  the  author's  desire — amounting  to  an 
eccentricity — to  Germanize  Italian  words.    Thus 


he  writes  '  Pickolomini,'  'Schacka'  (for  Sciacca) 
and  '  Jotto.'  Since  the  German  reader  (whose 
intelligence  he  seems  to  rate  very  low)  would 
naturally  pronounce  the  last  word  '  Yotto,'  it  is 
hard  to  see  what  purpose  is  served  by  the  per- 
version. But  we  do  not  wish  to  end  our  account 
of  this  book,  for  which  we  are  deeply  grateful  to 
the  author,  on  a  note  of  discontent.  The  immense 
labour  and  time  expended  on  the  subject,  the 
judicious  conduct  of  the  argument,  make  the 
monograph  one  of  the  most  notable  of  recent 
contributions  to  the  history  of  Italian  sculpture. 
It  may  not  deal  with  any  of  the  greatest  monuments 
of  that  art,  but  it  is  a  mine  of  information  on 
its  development  in  Genoa,  Sicily,  Naples  and 
Southern  France.  A  parallel  to  the  author's 
elaborate  survey  of  the  Arch  at  Naples  can  hardly 
be  found  outside  the  literature  of  classical  archae- 
ology. G.  F.  H. 

GESCHICHTE       DER       GOLDSCHMIEDEKUNST     AUF 
TECHNISCHER       GRUNDLAGE  ;       AbTEILUNG  : 

Niello.     By  Hofrath  Dr.  Marc  Rosenberg. 

Darmstadt.     1907. 
This   publication   is   really  a   chapter   issued   in 
advance  from  a  book  on  the  technical  history  of 
the  goldsmith's  craft  by  the  author  of  that  useful 
work  '  Der  Goldschmiede  Merkzeichen.' 

Dr.  Rosenberg  follows  the  history  of  niello  from 
its  earliest  appearance  to  modern  times,  and  repro- 
duces in  some  forty  illustrations  typical  examples 
of  nielloed  works  of  art.  He  accepts  as  niello  on 
the  authority  of  Von  Bissing  the  inlay  in  the  gold 
hawk's  head  in  the  Cairo  jMuseum,  found  in  the 
tomb  of  Queen  Ah-hetep,  the  composition  being 
evidently  metallic,  though  with  an  unusually  high 
proportion  of  copper.  We  thus  obtain  a  far 
earlier  date  for  the  introduction  of  niello  than  was 
formerly  admitted  ;  but  some  obscurity  still  pre- 
vails with  regard  to  its  use  between  the  time  of 
the  eighteenth  Egyptian  dynasty  and  the  Graeco- 
Roman  period.  As  we  approach  the  Christian 
era  we  are  on  firmer  ground.  With  the  Romans, 
as  is  well  known,  niello  was  very  popular,  especially 
for  the  decoration  of  silver  plate.  From  Roman 
examples  the  author  passes  to  those  of  Byzantine 
origin,  and  from  these  to  the  niello  of  the  middle 
ages  in  the  west,  so  well  represented  by  the  work 
of  the  twelfth  century.  Dr.  Rosenberg  discredits 
the  theory  first  propounded  by  Ilg  that  the  Rog- 
kerus  of  Helmershausen  who  made  the  Paderborn 
portable  altar  was  the  same  person  as  the  Theo- 
philus  of  the  '  Schedula  diversarum  artium  ' ;  and 
it  certainly  appears  that  the  evidence  is  incon- 
clusive. The  Paderborn  altar,  the  St.  Trudpert 
cross  and  the  Xanten  casket  are  all  well  repro- 
duced, the  illustrations  of  the  altar  usefully  supple- 
menting those  given  by  Von  Falke  in  his  monu- 
mental work  '  Deutsche  Schmelzarbeiten  des 
Mittelalters.'     An  interesting  point  is  raised  with 


Sculpture  and  Metalwork 

regard  to  the  connexion  of  Italy  with  niello  in  the 
middle  ages  by  a  criticism  of  a  familiar  passage  in 
Theophilus.  Tiiscia  is  there  mentioned  as  a  place 
in  which  niello-work  was  a  favourite  mode  of 
ornament.  But  while  there  is  no  Tuscan  niello 
which  can  be  assigned  to  the  eleventh  or  twelfth 
century,  there  does  exist  Russian  work  for  which 
this  antiquity  is  claimed.  Dr.  Rosenberg  therefore 
suggests  the  emendation  Riiscia  for  Tuscia,  and 
submits  it  in  its  turn  to  criticism. 

Passing  rapidly  over  the  Italian  examples  of  the 
fourteenth  century,  the  author  discusses  at  some 
length  the  relation  between  the  nielli  of  the  Re- 
naissance and  the  metal  plates  specially  engraved 
for  the  multiplication  of  prints.  He  adopts  the 
conclusion  that  there  is  no  real  connexion  at  all, 
and  that  existing  impressions  from  nielli  were 
probably  made  in  the  seventeenth  century — not 
directly  from  the  metal,  but  from  sulphur  moulds 
which  had  been  preserved.  Illustrations  are  given 
of  the  pax  in  the  Bargello  and  the  impression  in 
the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  at  Paris,  as  well  as  of 
the  paxes  at  Bologna,  and  of  the  German  standing- 
cup  at  Nuremberg.  The  chapter  concludes  with 
a  mention  of  the  modern  Tula  work  of  Russia. 

Although  here  and  there  we  could  have  wished 
for  a  rather  fuller  treatment — the  niello  of  the 
Anglo-Saxons  is,  for  instance,  ignored — this 
chapter  in  the  history  of  a  great  industrial  art 
should  be  widely  welcomed,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped 
that  the  book  of  which  it  is  destined  to  form  an 
integral  Dart  will  before  long  find  a  publisher. 
^      '  D. 

The  Church  Pl.^te  of  the  City  of  Chester. 

By  T.  S.  Ball.    1907.    London  :  Sherratt  and 

Hughes.  I  OS.  6d.  net. 
This  book  is  mainly  a  reprint  of  some  articles 
which  appeared  in  a  local  newspaper  a  few  years 
ago.  The  earliest  plate  in  the  Chester  churches  is 
Elizabethan— three  cups,  a  paten  and  a  paten 
cover.  They  have  only  one  mark,  'a  sheep's 
head,'  which  the  writer  ascribes  to  a  Chester  silver- 
smith, William  Mutton.  Unhappily,  no  illustration 
of  this  mark  is  given.  These  are  followed  in  date 
by  a  plain  cup  on  baluster  stem,  with  London 
mark  for  1633,  of  which  there  is  another  example 
of  1 641  at  one  other  Chester  church.  A  tall  cup, 
of  1635,  at  St.  Michael's,  presented  in  1680, 
probably  had  a  steeple-cover.  We  notice  Mr. 
Ball's  abandonment  of  his  somewhat  heatedly 
expressed  contention  in  the  newspaper  that  the 
'Sterling'  mark  on  the  paten  of  about  1683  at 
S.  John  the  Baptist's  was  a  Cork  mark.  He  has 
now  deemed  it  prudent  to  follow  Mr.  C.  J.  Jackson's 
advice  and  describe  the  mark  '  Chester,'  with  the 
name  of  the  maker,  Ralph  Walley,  though  without 
acknowledgment  of  the  source  of  information. 
Except  this  paten  and  the  plate  wrought  by  the 
well-known  Richardson  family,  who  flourished  at 

109 


Sculpture  and  Metalwork 

Chester  from  the  last  quarter  of  the  seventeenth 
century  to  about  1812,  the  only  examples  of  local 
silversmiths'  work  in  these  churches  is  a  paten  of 
1683  by  Nathaniel  Bullen,  at  St.  Mary-without- 
the- Walls,  and  a  flagon  stand  of  1711  by  Thomas 
Robinson,  in  the  same  church.  The  writer  gives 
the  name  of  four  of  the  Richardsons,  but  omits 
the  fifth,  William.  A  double  error  occurs  on 
page  108,  where  a  cup  is  assigned  to  the  year  1785, 
with  a  note  adding  that  it  may  possibly  be  1762. 
In  the  first  place,  the  letter  '  m '  on  the  cup  would 
not  be  1785-6,  but  1787-8  ;  and  secondly,  if  it  were 
this  date,  as  the  writer  appears  to  contend,  it  would 
also  have  the  king's  head  mark.  The  cathedral 
vessels,  which  chiefly  date  from  the  Restoration, 
are  of  conventional  forms,  and  call  for  no  special 
notice.  We  do,  however,  consider  that  the 
omission  of  illustrations  of  the  cathedral  maces 
(1662),  the  altar  candlesticks  (1662),  and  an  old 
Augsburg  cup — the  latter  a  recent  gift — from  a 
small  book  such  as  this  is  unfortunate.  One  or 
two  other  rare  pieces — for  instance,  the  oval  dish 
(1638)  at  St.  Mary-without-the-Walls,  which  the 
writer  describes  as 'most  unusual' — might  well 
have  been  illustrated.  Among  several  misprints 
is  one  on  page  115,  where  the  Sheffield  date-letter 
should  be  1839,  not  1739. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

The  Architecture  of  Greece  and  Rome.  By 
William  J.  Anderson  and  R.  Phene  Spiers. 
Second  edition.  London  :  Batsford.  1907. 
The  fact  that  this  book  has  reached  a  second 
edition  is  evidence  not  only  of  its  merits  but  of 
the  existence  of  a  demand  which  it  has  succeeded 
in  satisfying.  We  may  assume  that  it  is  intended 
for  the  use  and  information  of  architects.  When 
we  consider  how  large  a  place  the  study  of  ancient 
buildings  took  in  the  education  of  architects,  and 
especially  the  greatest  of  them,  from  the  rise  of  the 
Renaissance  to  the  days  of  the  Gothic  revival, 
the  importance  of  a  clear  exposition  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  Greek  and  Roman  construction  and 
design,  joined  to  scientific  descriptions  of  existing 
remains,  becomes  obvious.  This  book  is  based  on 
lectures  given  by  the  late  Mr.  Anderson — a  form 
which  scarcely  lends  itself  to  any  profundity  of 
treatment — and  its  strength  lies  in  its  descriptive 
side.  Plans  and  illustrations  are  numerous  and 
generally  excellent,  and  constant  reference  is  made 
to  the  fragments,  especially  of  Greek  buildings,  in 
which  the  British  Museum  is  so  rich.  It  would  be 
possible  to  point  to  a  number  of  statements  to  which 
exception  might  be  taken  on  archaeological  grounds; 
but  we  think  that  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  criticize 
too  closely  from  that  point  of  view  a  book  with  aims 
like  those  of  the  one  before  us.  One  of  the  features 
of  the  new  edition  is  an  account  of  the  so-called 
Aegean  art  which  has  been  revealed  by  modern 
research,  and  more  particularly  of  the  results  of  Dr. 

I  ID 


Arthur  Evans's  excavations  in  Crete.  The  account 
as  a  whole  is  a  good  one,  taking  into  consideration 
the  purpose  of  the  volume  ;  and  it  appears  to  be 
unnecessary  to  draw  attention  to  objections  which 
might  be  made  to  parts  of  it,  not  only  because  these 
archaic  remains  have  merely  a  subsidiary  import- 
ance in  the  history  of  developed  Greek  architecture, 
but  also  because  the  stage  of  practical  unanimity 
among  professed  archaeologists  upon  these  subjects 
has  been  by  no  means  yet  reached.  The  part  of  the 
work  relating  to  Greece  takes  the  form  of  a  sketch 
of  the  evolution  of  the  Hellenic  style,  which 
practically  means  the  history  and  description  of  the 
great  temples.  The  remaining  types  of  buildings  : 
theatres,  market  places,  palaces  and  houses, 
etc.,  are  dealt  with  in  a  supplementary  chapter. 
The  Roman  part,  which  appears  to  be  the  most 
satisfactory,  as  it  is  certainly  the  most  important  for 
a  modern  architect,  mainly  follows  the  lines  of  a 
description  of  the  buildings  classified  under  head- 
ings, such  as  Forums,  Basilicas,  Amphitheatres, 
Baths,  Triumphal  Arches,  etc.  Considering  the 
abundance  of  the  material  and  the  limited  space 
allowed  in  a  volume  of  this  kind,  very  little  of 
importance  has  been  omitted.  The  accounts  too  are 
generally  written  with  sufficient  information  as  to 
the  more  recent  discoveries  and  points  of  view.  It 
is  therefore  difficult  to  see  why  an  antiquated  and 
in  any  case  largely  conjectural  plan  of  the  Roman 
Forum  should  have  been  given,  when  the  facts  as 
to  the  buildings  which  surrounded  it  have  been 
almost  exhaustively  settled  by  the  latest  excavations. 
The  outlines,  for  instance,  of  the  important  Basilica 
Aemilia  have  been  visible  for  the  last  few  years,  and 
are  recorded  in  published  plans,  though  the  very 
cursory  mention  of  it  in  the  text  suggests  that  the 
excavation  is  only  taking  place  at  the  present  time. 
Again,  Deglane's  elaborate  plan  of  the  Palace  of  the 
Caesars,  though  based  to  a  considerable  extent  upon 
facts,  will  alniost  certainly  have  to  be  modified  in 
its  conjectural  parts  now  that  the  Villa  Mills  has 
been  acquired  by  the  Italian  Government,  and  that 
there  is  a  prospect  of  the  whole  site  being  excavated 
in  the  course  of  the  next  few  years.  However, 
we  would  not  lay  too  much  stress  on  these 
and  other  minor  blemishes  in  a  generally  sound 
and  useful  work.  We  may  add  that  the  volume 
closes  with  maps  showing  the  position  of  the  chief 
architectural  sites  of  Greece  and  Italy  (an  excellent 
idea  which  might  well  have  been  made  more  exten- 
sive), a  glossary  of  architectural  terms,  and  a  list  of 
the  most  important  books  relating  to  the  subject. 

G.  McN.  R. 

Windsor.        Painted     by    George    M.    Henton. 

Described  by  Sir  Richard  R.  Holmes,  K.C.V.O. 

London  :  Black,     ys.  6d.  net. 
Sir    Richard     Holmes's    long     and    intimate 
acquaintance  with  Windsor  Castle  gives  a  value  to 
his  sketch  of  its  history  that  is  considerably  in 


Architecture 


excess  of  its  length.  Indeed,  it  contains  so  much 
interesting  evidence  of  minute  observation  of  facts 
connected  with  the  building  as  to  deserve  a 
different  and  a  more  scientific  apparatus  of 
illustration  than  that  provided  by  l\Ir.  Henton's 
drawings.  Reproductions  of  old  plans  and  old 
prints  would  have  been  a  great  help  to  those  who 
do  not  know  the  building  well ;  and  if  something 
of  the  kind  could  be  added  to  the  ne.\t  edition  the 
practical  usefulness  of  the  volume  would  be  greatly 
increased.  Sir  Richard  Holmes  confines  his  studies 
to  the  castle  itself.  Mr.  Henton  in  his  pictures 
includes  the  town  and  neighbourhood.  His 
drawings  are  of  very  unequal  merit.  Wherever  he 
has  to  deal  with  a  distance  or  a  wide  expanse  of 
country  he  gets  into  difficulties  with  tone  and 
composition  ;  his  street  scenes,  on  the  other  hand, 
are  almost  always  successful. 

Storia  dell'  Arte.  Vol.  11°.  Parte  I.  Arte 
Cristiana,  neo-orientale  ed  Europea  d'oltri  Alpi. 
Dott.  Giulio  Carotti.  Milano  :  Hoepli.  L.6.50. 
This  instalment  of  the  latest  of  Messrs.  Hoepli's 
manuals  covers  a  very  wide  field — so  wide,  indeed, 
that  Professor  Carotti,  with  360  illustrations  and 
about  the  same  number  of  pages  of  letterpress  at 
his  disposal,  could  not  be  expected  to  give  more 
than  a  very  general  sketch  of  the  subjects  discussed. 
The  first  section  deals  with  the  period  of  the  Cata- 
combs, the  next  with  the  art  and  architecture  which 
had  their  origin  in  Byzantium.  We  then  pass  to 
Arab  art  in  Asia,  Africa  and  Spain,  and  from 
thence  to  India.  The  second  section  begins  with 
Romanesque  work,  and  traces  the  rise  of  the 
gothic  spirit  on  the  Continent  and  in  England. 
Each  section  is  supplemented  by  a  bibliography, 
and  there  is  an  elaborate  index.  Altogether  Pro- 
fessor Carotti  has  managed  his  compilation  well. 
Here  and  there  misprints  in  names  will  be  noticed, 
and  there  are  naturally  many  points  on  which  the 
author's  conclusions  could  be  challenged  ;  but  on 
the  whole  the  little  manual  can  be  recommended 
to  those  who  need  a  summary  of  the  chief 
examples  of  mediaeval  art,  though  they  should 
be  made  aware  that  it  deals  only  with  architecture, 
painting  and  sculpture.  Since  the  above  note  was 
written  we  see  that  the  book  is  shortly  to  be  pre- 
sented in  an  English  dress,  in  which  it  should 
attract  a  considerable  audience. 

The  Practical  Exemplar  of  Architecture. 
Edited  by  Merv7n  E.  Macartney.  London  : 
Technical  Journals  (1902),  Ltd.  12s.  6d.  net. 
This  portfolio  of  plates,  in  a  large  measure 
reprinted  from  'The  Architectural  Review,' 
embodies  an  excellent  idea — namely,  to  provide  art 
students,  at  a  small  cost,  with  measured  drawings 
and  photographs  of  good  examples  of  architectural 
work  and  details.  The  usefulness  of  the  scheme 
depends  entirely  upon  the  examples  chosen,  and 
in  the  case  of  this,  the  first  portfolio,  the  choice  is 


both  varied  and  excellent.  The  hundred  and 
twenty  plates  deal  almost  exclusively  with 
FJenaissance  work,  and  include  not  only  cupolas, 
chimneys,  doors  and  windows  but  an  excellent 
series  of  gates  and  wall  piers  and  some  fine  speci- 
mens of  interior  woodwork,  among  which  is 
included  the  famous  panelling  in  Lincoln  College 
Chapel.  The  only  suggestion  we  can  make  is  that 
the  name  of  the  architect,  where  it  is  known,  should 
be  added  to  the  lettering  at  the  foot  of  each  plate. 
Notes  such  as  that  given  on  the  gate  piers  at 
Hampstead  Marshall  would  perhaps  be  better  still 
in  the  case  of  buildings  that  are  little  known. 

MISCELL.^NEOUS 

Petr.\rch  and  the  Ancient  World.  By 
Pierre  de  Xolhac.  Boston:  D.  B.Updike.  §6. 
Serious  students  of  Petrarch  will  naturally  turn 
to  M.  de  Nolhac's  '  Petrarque  et  I'Humanisme,' 
but  there  is  a  wider  public  to  whom  these  three 
charming  essays  should  be  acceptable.  They 
deal  with  Petrarch  as  an  initiator  of  the  Renaissance, 
with  his  library,  and  with  his  attitude  towards  his 
best-beloved  authors,  Virgil  and  Cicero.  They  are 
couched  in  almost  impeccable  English,  the  name 
of  the  author  is  a  sufficient  guarantee  for  their 
quality,  and  they  are  presented  in  a  dress  worthy 
of  their  subject,  for  the  type,  the  paper  and  the 
printing  in  red  and  black  could  not  fail  to  delight 
as  fastidious  a  lover  of  books  as  Petrarch  himself. 

The  Rhine  :  Its  Valley  and  its  History. 
By  H.  J.  Mackinder,  with  illustrations  in 
colour  by  Mrs.  James  Jardine.  London  : 
Chatto  and  Windus.  1908.  20s.  net. 
Mr.  Mackinder's  learned  yet  vivacious  and 
eminently  readable  text  is  far  more  than  padding 
to  eke  out  a  set  of  pretty  pictures,  as  the  '  book ' 
portion  of  some  '  colour  books '  has  been  before 
now.  He  writes  with  thorough  knowledge  and 
keen  interest  of  the  physical  surroundings  of  the 
Rhine  and  its  tributaries,  the  causes  that  determined 
the  course  of  the  mighty  river,  and  its  influence 
upon  the  history  of  the  peoples  that  live  or  have 
lived  upon  its  banks  from  Switzerland  to  the  North 
Sea.  For  the  intelligent  arm-chair  traveller,  who 
will  think  and  use  maps,  the  admirable  maps  sup- 
plied in  the  volume  itself,  '  The  Rhine '  will  provide 
a  tour  unrivalled  in  Europe.  The  illustrations  are 
pretty,  but  somewhat  irrelevant  to  the  text ;  the 
reader  is  left,  for  instance,  helplessly  wondering 
why  there  should  be  a  statue  of  Sir  Francis  Drake, 
of  all  people,  at  Offenburg.  It  is  not  Mr.  Mackinder, 
but  Baedeker,  that  informs  us  that  the  statue 
commemorates  '  the  introducer  of  the  potato  into 
Europe,  1586.'  Is  Offenburg  specially  addicted 
to  the  grateful  consumption  of  Kartoffehalat  ? 
Mrs.  Jardine  has  a  ladylike  tenderness  for  the  Rhine 
of  romantic  legend,  and  paints  the  Lorelei  with  a 
rowing-boat  drifting  past  oblivious  of  steamer  or 


I  1 1 


Miscellaneous   Books 


rail,  while  Mr.  Mackinder  ruthlessly  calls  it  part 
of  the  Rhenish  Schist.  Her  picture  of  Bregenz  is 
ludicrously  misleading,  when  one  thinks  of  the 
actual  lake  front  of  that  sadly  disfigured  town, 
and  she  shrinks  too  frequently  from  facing  the 
realities  of  our  prosaic  and  commercial  century. 

C.  D. 

Byways    of    Collecting.    By    Ethel    Deane. 

Cassell  and  Co.  7s.  6d.  net. 
In  a  small  volume  of  some  two  hundred  pages 
printed  in  large  type,  the  author  proceeds  to  tell 
us  all  about  porcelain,  from  the  earliest  oriental  to 
modern  Staffordshire  crockery.  Engravings  from 
Diirer  and  the  Little  Masters  to  what  she  is  pleased 
to  call  '  the  Art  of  Dots,'  furniture  from  early  oak 
to  Sheraton,  old  silver,  Sheffield  plate  and  cut- 
glass  also  find  a  place.  The  author  accepts  the 
Chinese  tradition  that  porcelain  was  made  in 
prehistoric  days,  and  boldly  states  '  that  it  is  known 
that  the  Chinese  made  it  centuries  before  Christ,' 
whereas  that  well-known  authority  Dr.  Bushell,  in 
his  able  work  on  the  subject,  is  more  cautious,  and 
while  admitting  the  possibility  of  its  first  having 
been  produced  during  the  T'ang  dynasty,  which 
commenced  A.D.  618,  informs  us  that  no  examples 
seem  to  have  survived  of  earlier  date  than  the 
Sung  period,  A.D.  960-1279.  The  subjects  of 
engravings,  silver,  glass,  etc.,  are  treated  in  the 
same  manner,  so  that  the  serious  collector,  who 
in  common  with  the  invalid  of  to-day  usually 
prefers  to  consult  a  specialist  on  the  subject  of 
the  greatest  interest  to  himself,  will  hardly  consider 
'  Byways  of  Collecting'  a  necessary  addition  to  his 
library.  The  illustrations,  which  for  their  size  are 
good,  do  not  show  any  example  of  particular 
interest.  C.  L. 

Sir  William  Temple  upon  the  Gardens  of 
Epicurus,  with  other  seventeenth-century 
garden  essays.  Introduction  by  Albert  Forbes 
Sieveking,  F.S.A.  The  King's  Classics.  Chatto 
and  Windus.  is.  6d.  net. 
The  new  volume  of  the  '  King's  Classics '  contains, 
besides  Evelyn's  essay,  Abraham  Cowley's  poem, 
'  The  Garden ' ;  parts  of  Sir  Thomas  Browne's  'The 
Garden  of  Cyrus,'  and  his  '  Observations  upon 
Several  Plants  mentioned  in  Scripture,'  his  letter 
to  Evelyn  on  garlands,  and  his  '  Observations  on 
Grafting ' ;  Marvell's  poems,  '  The  Garden  '  and 
'  The  Mower  against  Gardens '  ;  and  Evelyn's 
garden  letters  and  garden  cuttings  from  his  diary. 
The  whole  makes  a  treasury,  not  only  of  garden 
lore,  redolent  of  '  fine  garden  smells,'  but  of  seven- 
teenth-century prose  ;  and  the  editor's  learned  and 
vivacious  introduction  and  the  appendices  and 
notes  are  full  of  quaint  information  on  gardening. 
On  the  literary  side  the  introduction  is,  perhaps, 
less  satisfactory.  Mr.  Sieveking  has  not  the 
seventeenth-century  spirit ;  he  is  a  little  inclined 


to  patronize  our  betters  in  the  art  of  prose,  and  he 
rather  misses  the  '  Sir  Thomas  Browne-ness '  (to 
use  Coleridge's  phrase)  of  Sir  Thomas  Browne. 
His  good  work,  however,  adds  immensely  to  the 
attractions  of  the  volume,  which  is  one  of  the 
pleasantest  and  most  scholarly  in  its  always 
pleasant  and  scholarly  series. 

The  Mask.  A  monthly  journal  of  the  art  of  the 
theatre.  Vol.  I,  No.  i.  March,  1908.  is.  net 
monthly.  London  agent  :  D.  J.  Rider,  36  St. 
Martin's  Court,  Charing  Cross  Road,  W.C. 
All  who  are  seriously  interested  in  the  art  of  the 
theatre  have  long  desired  to  see  a  journal  devoted 
to  the  subject.  We  may,  therefore,  give  'The 
Mask '  a  warm  welcome,  more  particularly  as  its 
first  number  shows  very  clearly  that  the  art  of  the 
theatre  with  which  it  intends  to  concern  itself  is 
not  the  art  of  the  theatre  as  usually  practised  in 
London.  It  contains  several  articles  of  interest, 
which  serve  to  bring  into  prominence  essential 
features  of  the  art  of  the  theatre  which  are  too 
often  overlooked.  Mr.  Edward  Hutton  describes 
the  posture-dancing  of  Spain — a  language  which 
London  is  always  loth  to  listen  to,  save  in  the  case 
of  one  or  two  sophisticated  and  cosmopolitan 
representatives.  Mr.  John  Balance  has  a  paper  on 
masks,  which  includes  a  wise  word  of  praise  for 
puppet-shows,  while  Mr.  Gordon  Craig  himself 
addresses  an  inspiriting  piece  of  counsel  to  young 
actors  and  stage-managers.  Yet  at  the  end  of  our 
perusal — in  spite  of  the  real  if  manicre  beauty  of 
type,  paper  and  cuts — we  are  left  rather  doubtful 
of  the  efficacy  of  '  The  Mask '  in  its  present  form. 
Is  it  not  a  little  archaistic  ?  Mr.  Balance  may 
claim  that  the  mask  is  of  the  future  as  much  as  of 
the  past ;  but  can  we  believe  him  ?  Mr.  Hutton 
deals  with  what  he  admits  to  be  a  dying  art,  and  a 
phase  of  it  which  has  been  left  far  behind  by 
the  posture-dancers  from  the  east,  who,  having 
absorbed,  perhaps,  something  of  the  art  of  the 
Roman  paiitoinirinis,  offer  one  or  two  specimens 
of  the  same  art  in  a  much  higher  and  more  artistic 
form  ;  and  Serlio's  book,  excerpts  from  which  are 
given,  some  in  English,  some  in  Italian,  is  surely 
as  unsuited  to  the  needs  of  the  moment  as  the 
archaisms  of  Mr.  William  Poel.  We  would  implore 
the  guiding  spirits  of '  The  Mask '  to  remember  that 
the  present  state  of  things  is  in  urgent  need  of 
reform,  and  that  reforms  are  not  carried  out  save 
by  methods  a  little  less  remote  and  a  little  more 
brutal  than  those  adopted  in  their  beautiful  but 
rather  precious  magazine.  The  art  of  the  theatre 
is  a  popular  one.  It  is  the  many,  not  the  few, 
who  must  be  convinced  before  the  art  of  the 
theatre  is  to  be  raised  from  its  present  condition  ; 
and  'The  Mask'  is  not  for  the  many.  It  is  true 
that  the  magazine  expressly  disclaims  any  intention 
of   reforming    the   modern    stage.     That   is   the 


I  12 


Miscellaneous  Books 


ground  of  our  complaint  ;  and  we  do  not  agree 
that  it  is  now  too  hte  for  reform. 

The  Winchester  Charts  of  Florentine  and 
Venetian  Painters  of  the  Renaissance. 
Compiled  by  M.  J.  Kendall.  London  : 
Mansell.     Each  2s.  6d.  net. 

These  two  charts  present  in  a  tabular  form  the 
artistic  descent  of  the  chief  painters  of  the 
Renaissance,  the  Florentine  chart  including  the 
schools  of  Umbria,  Siena  and  Milan,  while  the 
Venetian  one  includes  all  the  painters  of  North 
Italy.  The  charts  are  completed  with  chronological 
tables  and  notes  on  historical  points,  are  mounted 
on  linen  to  fold  like  maps,  and  are  put  up  in 
handsome  covers.  Only  on  one  or  two  points 
can  we  suggest  improvements.  Michelangelo's 
descent  from  Donatello  is  traced  far  more  directly, 
and  rightly,  through  Bertoldo  than  by  the  round- 
about route  of  Domenico  Veneziano,  Alesso 
Baldovinetti  and  Ghirlandajo  ;  the  influences  of 
the  Pollaiuoli  on  Botticelli  and  of  Castagno  on 
his  Florentine  successors  deserved  notice — and 
other  questions  will  suggest  themselves  to  the 
critical  mind.  But  on  the  whole  the  arrangement 
is  so  clear  and  so  sensible  that  the  charts  should 
be  most  useful  to  those  who  wish  to  get  a  general 
view  of  the  development  of  Renaissance  painting. 

A  Guide  to  the  Paintings  in  the  Churches 
AND  Minor  Museums  of  Florence.  By 
Maud  Cruttwell.    London:  Dent.   3s.6d.net. 

This  companion  volume  to  Miss  Cruttwell's 
guide  to  the  paintings  in  the  Florentine  galleries 
is  a  most  useful  addition  to  the  traveller's  library. 
So  far  as  we  have  checked  it,  it  is  up  to  date  in 
point  of  scholarship,  and  includes  a  good  many 
things  that  are  not  commonly  known  ;  the  author's 
notes  are  commendably  brief,  and  are  accompanied 
or  replaced  where  possible  by  extracts  from  Vasari 
referring  to  the  pictures.  The  book  is  arranged 
on  a  simple  alphabetical  plan  and  is  diversified  here 
and  there  by  little  engravings,  while  asterisks, 
single  or  double,  mark  the  works  to  which  Miss 
Cruttwell  specially  directs  attention.  Were  the 
double  asterisks  replaced  throughout  by  single  ones 
the  estimates  as  a  whole  would  be  more  just,  yet, 
as  sensible  people  decide  these  things  for  them- 
selves, the  point  is  unimportant  compared  with  the 
general  usefulness  of  the  book. 

Blatter  fur  Gemaldekunde.  Von  Dr.  Theodor 
v.  Frimmel.  Band  IIL  Wicn  :  Ceroid  and 
Co. 
The  third  volume  of  Dr.  Von  Friramel's  well- 
printed  publication  includes  the  ten  numbers 
issued  between  May  1906  and  the  summer  of 
1907.  As  usual,  the  contents  are  varied  and  inte- 
resting.    Special  attention  is  devoted  to  works  by 


the  Dutch  masters  of  the  seventeenth  century,  on 
whom  there  are  many  valuable  illustrated  notes, 
made  still  more  useful  by  the  provision  of  a  good 
index. 

Die  Holzmobel  der  Sammlung  Figdor.  Von 
Dr.  Hans  Stegmann.  Wien  :  Artaria  and  Co. 
This  handsomely  illustrated  account  of  the  furni- 
ture in  the  possession  of  the  well-known  Viennese 
collector  Dr.  Figdor  is  a  reprint  of  matter  that 
has  appeared  in  '  Kunst  und  Kunsthandwerk.'  It 
well  deserves  the  honour  of  separate  publication, 
both  from  the  intrinsic  importance,  variety  and 
beauty  of  the  collection  and  from  the  fact  that 
it  is  the  work  of  the  director  of  the  German 
National  Museum  at  Nuremberg.  The  collection 
is  mainly  domestic  in  character,  but  the  examples 
of  chests,  coffers,  presses,  fald-stools,  chairs,  tables 
and  frames  which  it  includes  represent  the  crafts 
of  Italy  and  Northern  Europe  during  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries  with  some  approach  to 
completeness.  It  will  thus  appeal  specially  to 
collectors  who  are  interested  in  the  furniture  made 
before  the  style  of  Italy  was  superseded  by  that 
of  France. 

Art  and    Design    in    the    Decoration    of 

Bookbindings.  Bumpus.  1907. 
A  remarkable  scheme  is  embodied  in  this 
sumptuous  catalogue.  Messrs.  Bumpus  have 
conceived  the  idea  of  reproducing  in  facsimile  a 
series  of  the  most  notable  bindings  executed 
between  the  twelfth  and  eighteenth  centuries,  and 
the  set  of  nearly  120  plates  with  which  this  cata- 
logue is  embellished  illustrates  the  result  of  their 
labours.  As  the  preface  not  unjustly  claims,  the 
collection  is  an  object-lesson  in  bookbinding,  for 
the  progress  of  design  and  decoration  from  the 
past  to  the  present  can  be  seen  at  a  glance,  almost 
every  school  of  bookbinding  being  represented. 
Beginning  with  a  Byzantine  cover  of  the  twelfth 
century  in  carved  ivory,  the  series,  after  including 
one  or  two  examples  of  oriental  work,  passes  to 
the  stamped  calf  bindings  of  Pynson  and  others 
of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  Then,  after  a  number 
of  fine  Elizabethan  examples,  we  come  to  the 
Stuart  epoch,  which,  taken  as  a  whole,  perhaps 
represents  the  climax  of  the  binder's  art  in  Great 
Britain.  It  would  be  invidious  to  pick  and  choose 
among  the  admirable  examples  of  the  work  of  this 
time,  but  a  word  of  special  praise  must  be  given  to 
the  unique  binding  by  Samuel  Mearne,  illustrated 
in  the  plate  facing  page  44.  After  some  tine  speci- 
mens of  the  work  of  Roger  Payne  and  of  the 
Scotch  bookbinders  of  the  eighteenth  century,  we 
come  to  F^rench,  Italian,  Spanish,  German  and 
Dutch  bindings,  all  of  them  excellent  and  repre- 
sentative, the  examples  of  Le  Gascon  being 
specially  notable.  It  would  be  difficult,  in  fact,  to 
compile  a  more  complete  and  instructive  series. 


K. 


I  I 


3 


Miscellaneous  Books 


The  Washbourne  Family.  By  James  Daveiiport, 
M.A.,  vicar  of  Wichenford.  With  fifteen 
illustrations.  Methuen  and  Co.  21s.  net. 
The  Washbournes,  a  Worcestershire  family  origin- 
ally of  knightly  rank,  held  the  lands  of  Washbourne 
for  some  five  centuries,  although  their  chief  seat 
during  the  greater  part  of  that  period  was  elsewhere. 
They  have  left  their  tombs  and  monuments  in 
Worcestershire  churches ;  they  married  with 
gentle  houses ;  their  younger  branches  spread 
abroad,  one  line  having  been  in  New  England  since 
Charles  the  First's  days.  Although  no  great  man 
came  of  them  they  found  sheriffs  for  their  county 
— sheriff,  we  may  tell  our  author,  is  the  English  for 
the  '  vicecomes '  of  his  records — a  cavalier  to  fight 
for  the  king  and  a  minor  poet  to  write  some  long- 
forgotten  verse. 

But  it  cannot  be  said  that  Mr.  Davenport  has, 
to  use  his  own  phrase,  '  occupied  the  leisure  hours 
of  some  fifteen  years '  to  any  good  purpose.  An 
opening  paragraph  giving  as  the  'earliest  named 
member  of  the  family '  a  Domesday  tenant  named 
Sampson  rests  solely  on  a  remark  of  honest 
Habingdon  that  he  knew  not  whether  there  was 
any  kinship  between  this  man  and  later  tenants  of 
Washbourne.  Following  this  we  have  a  precious 
'  Book  of  Family  Crests  '  cited  for  its  opinion  that 
'Washbourneisaname  of  ancient  Norman  descent.' 
How  or  in  what  sense  the  English  name  of  an  Eng- 
lish village  may  be  said  to  be  of '  Norman  descent' 
is  a  difficulty  which  we  leave  Mr.  Davenport  to 
settle  with  the  '  Book  of  Family  Crests.'  For  the 
rest,  Mr.  Davenport  has  spent  upon  canvassing 
items  from  printed  books  of  little  value  the  space 
which  should  have  been  given  to  records.  Even 
Domesday  Book  is  cited  at  third  hand,  and  when 
original  records  are  quoted  in  Latin  the  many 
abbreviated  words  puzzle  Mr.  Davenport. 

But  accuracy  can  hardly  be  looked  for  in  an 
author  whose  full-page  portrait  of  a  Washbourne 
ancestor  is  described  as  '  Thomas  Washbourne, 
D.D.  and  Poet.'  This  for  the  reason  that  the 
figure  holds  a  book  in  its  right  hand,  and 
in  spite  of  the  fact   that  a  large  shield  of  arms 


in  the  corner  proclaims  it  the  portrait  of  the  poet's 
father. 

The  copy  of  a  mother's  note  on  a  seven-year- 
old  child,  dead  in  1712,  is  the  curious  scrap  we 
shall  carry  from  this  unsatisfactory  book.  He  was 
a  child  'worthy  of  remembrance,  for  God  Almighty 
favoured  his  sickness  with  a  signal  honour  of 
heavenly  music  to  sound  from  him  ...  it  was 
only  heard  at  night.'  O.  B. 

SMALL  BOOKS,    PAMPHLETS,  &c. 

Messrs.  Seeley  have  just  issued  in  their  series  of 
Miniature  Portfolio  Monographs  {2s.)  a  reprint  of 
Dr.  Anderson's  book  on  '  Japanese  Wood  Engrav- 
ings,' which  will  always  have  an  interest  as  a 
pioneer  among  popular  treatises  on  this  fascinating 
subject.  The  second  number  of  '  The  Neolith ' 
(T.  Kell  and  Sons)  is  well  up  to  the  standard  of 
it  predecessors,  the  illustrations  to  Mr.  Lang's 
article  and  the  script  in  which  the  magazine  is 
written  deserving  special  praise,  although  the 
standard  of  art  and  literature  throughout  is  much 
above  the  average.  Messrs.  Jack  have  added  to 
their  little  series  of  '  Masterpieces  in  Colour ' 
(is.  6d.)  volumes  on  Titian  by  Mr.  L.  S.  Bensusan, 
and  on  Holman  Hunt  by  the  late  Miss  Coleridge. 
Titian  fares  ill  in  the  colour-printer's  hands.  Mr. 
Holman  Hunt's  more  positive  hues  stand  the 
ordeal  better.  Five  Greek  mirrors,  a  Muranese 
tabernacle  and  a  bronze  bust  of  Innocent  X  by 
Alessandro  Algardi,  in  which  the  pontiff  wears  a 
much  less  formidable  aspect  than  in  the  famous 
portrait  by  Velazquez,  are  the  chief  acquisitions 
illustrated  in  the  April  Bulletin  of  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  New  York. 

As  we  go  to  press  we  have  received  the  fine  illus- 
trated catalogue  of  the  collection  of  the  late  M.  O. 
Homberg,  which  is  shortly  (^L-ly  11-16)  to  be  sold 
in  Paris  at  the  Georges  Petit  Gallery.  Lack  of  time 
and  space  forbid  us  to  dwell  upon  this  splendid  and 
varied  assemblage  of  things  Oriental  and  European, 
including  faience,  metalwork,  ivories,  manuscripts 
and  sculpture.  We  can  only  recommend  it  to  the 
attention  of  all  collectors  and  students. 


^  ART  IN  GERMANY,  AUSTRIA  AND  SWITZERLAND  c^ 


HE  complaint  of  the  dealers 
in  old  prints — namely,  that 
available  material  for  sales  is 
becoming  ominously  scarce 
— certainly  is  not  without 
foundation.  Comparing  the 
catalogues  of  the  three  prin- 
cipal auction  firms  nowadays 
with  those  that  were  issued  about  fifteen  years 
ago,  it  is  easy  to  note  a  marked  difference.  To-day 
we  find  specimens  by  masters  of  secondary  im- 
portance catalogued  singly  which  were  formerly 
relegated  to  'job  lots '  at  the  end  of  the  sale.   Even 

114 


such  things  as  the  portraits  by  the  Louis  XIV 
engravers  were  only  furtively  introduced  in  a 
catalogue  of  first-rate  standing,  and  names  like 
Carmona,  Collaert,  Fruytiers,  Mouzyn,  Peeters, 
Pitau  never  figured  as  distinct  features  in  the  good 
old  times,  when  work  by  the  famous  engravers 
and  the  'little  masters'  was  plentiful,  and  the 
collector  scarcely  deigned  to  consider  men  like 
those  I  have  just  named.  In  order  to  fill  up  a  sale 
catalogue,  the  dealer  to-day  has  to  resort  to  the 
minor  work,  and  is  also  compelled  to  connive  at 
conditions  of  impression  or  preservation  which 
would  formerly  have  disqualified  the  print. 


Art  in  Germany 


This  year  there  are  only  two  important  print 
sales  on  ;  both  Mr.  Gutekunst,  of  Stuttgart,  and 
Mr.  Boerner,  of  Leipzig,  have  been  fortunate  in 
so  far  as  they  are  able  to  offer  fine  old  collections 
for  sale,  and  are  not  limited  to  the  dispersal  of 
such  stray  material  as  they  have  been  able  to 
collect  in  the  course  of  the  year. 

Mr.  Boerner  sells  at  auction  on  May  5th  and 
6th  a  part  of  the  collection  of  original  drawings 
by  the  late  Ed.  Cichorius,  who  had  homes  both  ui 
Dresden  and  Leipzig.  Mr.  Cichorius  collected 
Dutch  and  Flemish  drawings  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  drawings  by  German  artists  of  the  former 
half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  and  drawings  by 
Adrian  Ludwig  Richter.  The  seventeenth-century 
drawings  are  reserved  for  a  later  occasion.  The 
majority  of  Cichorius's  German  nineteenth-century 
drawings  have  passed  into  the  possession  of  the 
Dresden  Royal  Print  Room.  Boerner's  catalogue, 
however,  enumerates  some  two  hundred  specimens 
of  excellent  quality  by  such  artists  as  Chodowiecki, 
Erhard,  Genelli,  Klein,  J.  A.  Koch,  G.  Mind  (the 
painter  of  cats),  F.  v.  Olivier,  Overbeck,  Preller, 
Rethel,  Rottmann,  Schnorr,  Schwind,  Steinle,  and 
a  number  of  others  who  have  risen  out  of  an 
imdeserved  obscurity  in  consequence  of  the 
attention  which  the  Berlin  centenary  exhibition 
has  called  to  their  work.  The  Ludwig  Richter 
collection  is  remarkable  and  truly  unique.  The 
Dresden  Print  Room  has  secured  only  a  minor 
part  of  this,  and  what  was  left  over  for  the  Boerner 
sale  consequently  covers  all  the  phases  of  Richter's 
art,  and  includes  a  large  percentage  of  his  best 
life  work.  Cichorius  was  an  enthusiast  and  one 
of  Richter's  most  intimate  personal  friends. 
Under  these  circumstances  his  collection  of 
Richter  drawings  naturally  grew  to  be  excep- 
tional. 

Mr.  Boerner  follows  up  this  sale  with  one  of  old 
prints,  which  is  not  very  large,  yet  contains  some 
fine  rarities — for  example,  Lutlicr  as  'Junker  J  org' 
by  Cranach  (Sch.  179),  a  woodcut  that  has  not 
figured  in  any  sale  for  years,  a  fine  copper-plate 
Passion,  St.  Jerome  in  his  Cell,  Melencolia,  Dream, 
and  Naiivity  by  Diirer,  a  very  good  'petite  toinbe  ' 
by  Rembrandt,  the  scarce  Baldung  Madonna 
(Pass.  65),  some  good  Hirschvogel,  Ostade,  Rai- 
mondi,  etc. 

Mr.  Gutekunst  sells,  besides  prints  taken  from 
his  own  stock,  the  Marsden  J.  Perry  and  the  Fritz 
Rumpf  collections  on  the  i8th-23rd  of  May. 
The  two  pieces  de  resistance  are  a  '  Meister  des 
Hausbuchs,T2t'c>  Wrestling  Peasants  (Lehrs  63),  and 
a  Master  E.S.,  a  Gothic  monstrance  (undescribed). 
This  last  was  unearthed  only  a  few  months  ago  at 
Munich  ;  it  is  unique.  Although  a  specialist  of  the 
order  of  Professor  Lehrs  has  been  hunting  up  and 
cataloguing  the  work  of  E.  S.  for  twenty-five  years, 
it  has  never  been  met  with  heretofore.  I  he  Prisoner 
by  an  anonymous  Italian  of  the  fifteenth  century 


(Pass,  v,  page  78,  No.  25),  once  in  Ottley's  collec- 
tion, is  likewise  the  only  copy  known  of  this  print. 
Some  further  great  rarities  are  Eve  and  Cain  by 
Dirk  Vellert  (B.  i),  Tlie  Daughter  of  Herod  (Geis- 
berg  300),  The  Organ  Player  (G.  409)  and  The 
Knight  (G.  405)  by  Israhel  van  Meckenem,  The 
Dance  of  Putti  by  Marcantonio  Raimondi,  The 
Doge's  Procession  (Andresen  65)  by  Ammann  and 
Christ  upon  the  Cross  (Lehrs  29)  by  Wenzel  von 
(^hniitz.  The  catalogue  further  comprises  excep- 
tional collections  of  Durer  and  Rembrandt  prints 
and  very  fine  ones  of  the  work  of  Daulle,  the 
Drevets,  Van  Dyck  (a  first  state  of  the  Jan  de 
IVael),  Edelinck,  Goya  (the  line  etchings  after 
Velazquez),  J.  Grateloup,  I^Lisson,  Nanteutl,  G.  F. 
Schmidt,  C.  Visscher,  VViUe  and  Woollett.  There 
are  also  some  Japanese  colour-prints  and  a  num- 
ber of  etchings  by  Klinger. 

Klinger  etchings  were  the  principal  attraction 
in  Messrs.  Amsler  and  Ruthardt's  spring  sale 
which  is  already  past.  It  followed  only  a  few 
months  after  the  Mohrmann  sale,  but  prices  have 
risen  again  since  then.  Work  by  Klinger,  which 
the  artist  sold — according  to  my  notes — fifteen 
years  ago  for  about  ;^400,  fetched  no  less  than 
Ji3>-5°  (including  the  auctioneer's  5  per  cent, 
supercharges)  at  this  sale.  Occasionally  people, 
cautious  rather  than  sagacious,  raise  their  voice 
against  the  purchase  of  the  work  of  living  men. 
Here  is  a  signal  proof  of  the  fallacy  of  their 
reasoning.  The  Dresden  Print  Room'bought  its 
magnificent  Klinger  collection  many  years  ago  for 
a  trifle  :  it  was  sheer  prudence. 

William  Blumhardt,  lately  a  citizen  of  Mann- 
heim, bequeathed  £s,ooo  to  this  town  for  the 
juu-chase  of  works  of  art.  A  once-famous  statue  of 
Sappho  by  Dannecker  has  come  into  the  possession 
of  the  gallery  at  Stuttgart.  The  museum  at  Basle 
has  purchased  two  important  canvases  by  Albert 
von  Keller,  several  of  whose  works  were  recently 
acquired  by  the  Bavarian  Government  for  its 
museums.  Among  the  recent  acquisitions  of  the 
Kaiser-Friedrich  Museum  at  Berlin  there  figure 
a  Female  Portrait,  by  Roger  van  der  Weyden,  a 
Mater  Dolorosa,  by  Paolo  Caliari,  a  Latona,  by  Paul 
Bril,  and  a  carved  panel  of  the  Bavarian  school, 
sixteenth  century,  representing  the  Fountain  of 
Love.  The  museum  at  Magdeburg  has  bought 
the  marble  Head  of  Si.  John  'the  Baptist  by  Rodin. 
;/,"5ooo  has  been  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
municipality  of  Winterthur  by  a  citizen  of  that 
town  for  the  erection  of  a  new  museum. 

Berlin's  stock  of  genuine  Rembrandts  has  just 
been  increased  by  the  hitherto  unknown  Portrait 
of  a  Young  Man,  which  has  come  into  the  collec- 
tion of  Mr.  Koppel.  It  was  bought  by  i\Ir.  Hum- 
phry Ward  at  a  London  sale  some  time  ago,  and 
was  then  altogether  unrecognizable  because  it  had 
been  quite  repainted.  The  new  coating  of  paint 
which  had  aimed  at  '  prettifying '  the  original  was 


I  I 


Art  in   Germany 


carefully  removed  by  the  famous  Munich  picture 
restorer  Hauser,  and  as  it  disappeared  a  fine 
portrait  of  a  young  man  with  blonde  hair,  turning 
his  face  back  to  the  spectator,  came  to  view.  The 
young  man  wears  a  black  hat ;    his  right  hand  is 


concealed  by  his  cloak.     Finely  painted  as  they 
are,  his   features  and   expression  are  in   no   wise 
charming,    and    this    probably    accounts    for    the 
picture  having  been  repainted,  in  order   to  give- 
better  looks  to  the  model.  H.  W.  S. 


cA^  ART  IN  AMERICA  cA? 


ROSSETTf  :  AN  OBSERVATION 
One  of  the  favourite  literary  amusements  of  the 
last  century  was  the  depreciation  of  its  great  men  ; 
remorse  followed  in  the  form  of  sycophantic 
adulation,  which  generally  preceded  contemptuous 
neglect.  In  our  new  century,  with  all  its  bright 
and  uncertain  prospects,  its  unexplored  perspec- 
tives, we  have  changed  all  that ;  we  reverse  the 
process.  Then,  after  all,  we  are  only  children 
eight  years  old,  and  the  toys  of  the  intellectual 
grown-ups  seem  a  little  dusty  and  not  a  little 
damaged.  We  have  licked  off  all  the  paint  that 
was  going  to  do  us  any  harm  ;  there  is  a  general 
feeling  in  the  nursery  that  the  things  can  fje  sent 
to  some  charitable  institution  sucTi  as  the  Tate 
Gallery.  Whistler  was  the  last  Victorian  rattle 
which  gave  us  any  pleasure  or  amusement ;  les, 
jeiiitcs  fcioces  have  already  begun  to  find  fault 
with  the  music  of  the  Nocturnes. 

Rossetti  was  lucky  enough  to  die  so  long  ago  as 
1882.  His  reputation  survives  even  a  most  unfor- 
tunate series  of  biographies  and  monographs.  Two 
or  three  only  are  serious  tributes  to  his  memory — 
notably  Pater's  well-known  appreciation  and 
Mr.  Arthur  Benson's  brilliant  essay  ;  while  Mr. 
^H.  C.  Marillier's  admirable  and  indispensable 
record  of  the  painter's  progress  is,  indeed,  that  of 
a  Greatheart  who  has  got  lost  on  his  arrival  in 
Lthe  Celestial  City.  But,  oddly  enough,  though 
Mr.  Swinburne  and  others  have  written  with 
eloquence  and  conviction  of  the  man  and  poet, 
there  has  been  no  satisfactory  critical  estimate  of 
the  artist  who  I  think  it  no  exaggeration  to  say 
was,  with  the  exception  of  Turner,  the  greatest 
personality  in  the  English  school  of  the  nineteenth 
\j:entury. 

It  is  the  duty  of  every  critic  to  explain  his  own 
jargon;  and  I  must  hasten  to  addthatwhen  writingof 
pictures  I  distinguish  between  the  great  painter  and 
the  great  artist.  There  have  been  many  great  painters 
in  the  world  (not  perhaps  many  in  England), 
but  the  artists  are  few,  either  in  England  or  else- 
where. A  great  painter  is  one  who  has  learned 
to  handle  with  unsurpassable  skill  the  mediums  at 
his  disposal.  In  the  middle  ages  those  mediums 
were  tempera  and  the  materials  of  buoii  fresco ;  in 
modern  times,  oils  and  water  colour.  Giotto, 
Duccio,  Van  Eyck,  Titian,  Velazquez,  Hals, 
Gainsborough,  Chardin,  for  example,  were  great 
painters  in  the  first  instance  ;  that  they  were  great 
artists  as  well  is  beside  the  point.  It  will  be  clearer 
if  I  mention  the  names  of  two  artists  (among  the 

116 


greatest  the  world  has  ever  seen)  whom   I  do  not 
think    we    can    call    great   painters — Diirer   and 
Michelangelo.     From  their  finest  paintings,  surely 
it  would  be  affectation  to  pretend  that  we  derive 
the    same    pleasure,    the   same   satisfaction    with 
technique,  the  same  joy  in  paint,  that  we  derive 
from   Van   Eyck  or  Titian.     Diirer  and   Michel- 
angelo   are   terrific   indestructible   forces,    but   if 
all  their  pictures  perished  it  would  be  a  loss  of 
less    magnitude   than    the    destruction    of    every 
Velazquez.      The  engravings  of  the  one  and  the 
sculpture  of  the  other  would  still  continue  like  the 
art  of    Leonardo  to  act  and  react  on  the  art  of^ 
Europe.      I     do    not    attempt    any    comparison 
between    Michelangelo    and     Diirer  ;    nor    do    I 
wish    to   compare   either  of   them   with    Rossetti 
except  in  the  intellectual  influence  they  exercised, 
as  artists  and  intellectuals,  on  their  contemporaries 
and   successors.     An    intelligent   appreciation   of] 
this  aspect  of  the  Englishman's  genius  will  help  to 
place  Rossetti  in  the  exalted  niche  which  I  venture 
to  claim  for  him. 

In  the  opinion  of  his  immediate  hostile  critics 
Rossetti  could  not  draw,  though  a  sense  of  colour 
was  occasionally  conceded  hun.  The  difference 
between  a  good  drawing  and  a  correct  drawing  is 
only  beginning  to  be  understood  ;  and  it  is  by  a 
singular  irony  of  circumstance  that  now,  when 
our  drawing  is  much  more  correct  than  it  ever 
was  in  the  last  century,  Rossetti's  pen  and  pencil 
works  should  be  so  highly  prized  by  modern 
draughtsmen  some  of  whom  find  his  exquisite 
colour  too  primitive  and  daring. 

No  less  uncritical  than  the  habit  of  blaming  a 
painter  because  he  is  not  like  another  is  that 
praise  of  an  artist  for  what  he  does  not  possess. 
The  eulogists  of  Rossetti  have  tried  to  patch  up 
the  weak  places  in  his  armour  with  the  rags  they 
have  torn  from  his  less  capable  contemporaries. 
The  arid  teaching  of  the  Royal  Academy  did  not 
extenuate  his  faults,  which  are  obvious  to  any 
drawing  master.  From  what  we  know  of  his 
character  he  would  have  chafed  under  the 
discipline  of  any  school,  however  admirable ; 
whether  that  of  Squarcione,  the  Carracci  or 
Professor  Tonks.  We  must  remember  his  irritation 
at  being  asked  to  delineate  galley-pots  in  the  studio 
of  Madox  Brown.  Let  us  realize  and  accept  his 
limitations  in  order  to  appraise  him. 

In  the  manipulation  of  oil  he  was  never  quite 
proficient— and  that  is  why  he  is  not  a  great 
painter.    But  who  shall  define  the  cockleshells,  the 


Art  in  America 


staff  and  sandals  of  the  Artist  ?  That  component 
philosopher's  stone,  hke  genius,  lies  somewhere 
hidden  in  the  alembic  of  art  criticism,  and  may 
possibly  be  found  materialized  in  some  wizard's 

[retort.  At  all  events,  only  sheer  genius  will 
account  for  Rossetli's  few  oil  pictures  which  are 
adequate  expressions  of  that  genius  ;  such  are 
Moiiiia   Vaiiua,  The  Beloved,  and  The  Blue  Boiver 

1^ — the  finest  of  them  all. 

The  practice  of  tempera  painting  had  not  been 
revived  when  the  Prcraphaelite  movement  was 
initiated  ;  it  was  never  employed  by  Burne-Jones 
even,  and  Rossetti  found  in  water  colour  a  medium 
more  suitable  than  oil  for  the  expression  of  his  art 
and  its  archaistic  formulas.  It  is  often  a  shock 
to  see  again  some  of  Rossetti's  oil  paintings. 
Beautiful  designs  which  in  reproduction  are 
still  beautiful,  on  careful  reinspection  will  be 
found  to  be  badly  painted  ;  there  is  something 
positively  common  in  the  quality  of  the  paint — or 
let  mesay  in  the  absence  of  quality.  Vou  understand 
that  it  must  have  been  something  of  the  kind  which 
induced  Whistler  to  suggest  the  substitution  of  a 
sonnet  for  a  picture  in  the  frame,  when  invited  by 
Rossetti  to  admire  all  three.  It  has  been  suggested 
in    recent    memoirs    that    Rossetti's    Preraphael- 

jTlism  was  a  very  half-hearted  affair.  Arguments 
about  the  procession  of  that  idea  are  like  those  on 
the  Filioqite   clause ;    they  are   interminable   and 

^terile.  Rossetti's  own  painting,  however,  and  his 
own  written  words  prove  how  far  he  was  removed 
in  spirit  and  sympathy  from  the  exact  naturalism 
of  Tlie  Cnrpeiiter's  SIiop  by  Millais  or  the  brilliant 
Hireling  Shepherd  of  Mr.  Holman  Hunt.  The 
Ophelia  of  the  former  is,  perhaps,  a  better  and 
more  typical  picture,  from  which  the  divergence 
can  be  noted  ;  because  there  is  no  pietistic  motive, 
and  because  the  model  being  Miss  Siddall  there  is 
a  superficial  resemblance  to  Rossettismus — but  it 
is  only  superficial.  Millais,  v.-e  know,  repudiated 
in  later  life  the  possibility  that  he  was  ever 
influenced  by  the  greater  genius  and  lesser  painter 
for  whom  he  recorded  a  personal  dislike.  I  think 
we  may  accept  his  assurance— along  with  the 
unfortunate  circumstance,  accidental  maybe,  that 
all  his  best  pictures  were  painted  during  the  years 
that  he  was  in  touch,  if  not  with  Rossetti,  at  least 
with  Rossetti's  art,  through  the,  to  him,  more 
sympathetic  account  of  it  given  doubtless  by  Mr. 
Holman  Hunt  from  time  to  time.  We  have  good 
authority  for  believing  that  things  heard  are 
greater  than  things  seen.  We  know,  too,  that 
Ruskin  conjured  forth  dogmas  of  which  the 
Brotherhood  was  innocent,  and  that  Rossetti  must 
have  been  the  furthest  removed  from  the  Ruskin 
ideal.  But  that  wonderful  critic,  who  was  blind  to 
thequahties  of  Whistler  and  Madox  Brown,  became 
magnetized  by  a  marvellous  personality  and  an 
art  that  was  as  'contrairey'  to  his  teaching  as 
to  a  Mrs.  Gummidge.     It  was,  in  fact,  Rossetti 


who  influenced  Ruskin  ;  and  he  influenced  his 
master  Madox  Brown  a  great  deal  more  than 
Madox  Brown  influenced  him.  Madox  Brown, 
like  Millais,  was  a  far  better  oil  painter,  and  his 
execution  is  superior  generally  to  Rossetti's.  But 
in  invention,  beauty,  design  and  colour-sense  he 
was  the  lesser  man,  tliough  he  improved  under  the 
tutelage  of  his  pupil.  Critics  have  noted  with  sur- 
prise a  certain  Preraphaelitism  in  Whistler's  early 
pictures ;  but  I  think  it  will  be  found  that  it  is 
Rossetti's  impulse  or  inspiration — a  Melusine  or 
Lilith  that  crept  for  a  moment  into  the  impres- 
sionist's Eden.  Be/ore  thcMirrorand  The  Princess  of 
the  Porcelain  Conntry  are  well-known  examples. 
And  I  cannot  think  the  obvious  relationship  must 
be  attributed  to  the  fair  models  having  belonged  to 
similar  types  ;  or  to  having  been  the  same  person, 
as  in  the  case  of  Millais's  Ophelia.  It  is  a  momen- 
tary similarity  of  treatment,  sentiment  and 
feminism  which  impregnated  Whistler.  I  make 
the  observation  with  all  proper  reserve,  since  I  do 
not  wish  to  arouse  any  angry  protests  from  those 
brave  Horatios  who  guard  Battersea  Bridge ; 
and  for  whom  there  is  nothing  in  heaven  or 
earth  except  what  was  dreamt  in  the  Butterfly's 
philosophy.  But  you  could  not  know  Rossetti, 
you  cannot  know  his  art,  and  remain  Laodicean. 
You  must  hate  it  or  adore  it ;  and  you  must  feel, 
as  Millais  did,  its  sweetness  and  strength.  . 

English  painting,  when  it  was  neither  landscape 
nor  portraiture,  had  contributed  nothing  to  the 
art  of    Europe  until   Rossetti — nothing  tliat  was 
not  done  better  by  some  one  else.     But  Rossetti  is___/ 
unique  and  gives  us  something  that  is  not  to  be 
found  in  any  old  or  modern  master.     He  visualizes"^ 
thoughts,  motives,  colours  and  designs  in  a  way 
no  other  artist  has  attempted  or  contrived,  unless 
an    exception    be  made  of    Mr.  Charles  Conder, 
whose  talent  lies  in  another  and  narrower  direc-;J 
tion. 

The  trend  of  future  criticism  will,  I  believe,  be 
in  the  direction  of  detaching  him  from  the  purely 
local  disturbance  of  Preraphaelitism — because  his 
influence  is  much  more  important,  more  world- 
wide. Preraphaelitism  as  an  archaistic  revival, 
too,  was  not  the  revolution  it  was  supposed 
to  be  ;  it  was  a  natural  development  of 
English  painting,  a  fact  which  any  one  can 
attest  by  studying  the  earlier  work  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  in  the  paintings  of  George 
Richmond  and  the  pencil  drawings  of  Alfred 
Stevens,  for  example.  Rossetti's  debt  to  the  move- 
ment was  far  less  than  that  of  the  movement  to 
himself.  From  the  days  of  Reynolds  English 
painting  always  derived  its  nobler  impulses  from 
Italy  ;  and  artists  have  from  time  to  time  always 
tried  to  release  themselves  from  a  Batavian  bondage 
and  provincialismby  onejourncy  to  that  intellectual 
Emmaus.  In  Rossetti  by  some  divine  or  fortuitous 
avatar  Italy  came  to  England.    And  when  the  final 


117 


Art  in  America 


essay  on  his  art  comes  to  be  written  (by  Mr.  Charles 

Ricketts,  if  I  may  hazard  a  hope)  that  should  be  the 

attitude  we  may  expect  of  the  critic.     IVIoreover, 

when  we  remember  the  surprising  admission  of 

Bell-Scott  that  Preraphaelitism  was   due   to   the 

discovery  of  photography,  we  can  better  realize  the 

gulf    between    Rossetti  and  his  associates ;    that 

the  painter  of  Lady  Lililli  was  a  hybrid,  without 

reference  to  his  name.    All  great  art  is  hybrid  in 

its  origin,  if  not  in  its  manifestation.  Then  who  can 

deny  that  there  is  a  good  deal  of  the  daguerreotype 

in  the  BlacI; Bntiistvickcr  a.nd{he  Portrait  cf  Riisl;in 

byMillais  ?— while  some  other  well-known  pictures 

of  the  school  anticipated  the  triumph  of  chromo- 

lithography.    They  have  at  all  events  the  actuality 

if  nol  the  truth  of  process.     Thus  their  popularity 

maybe  accounted  for,  in  a  nation  that  always  prefers 

reproductions  to  original  painting.     In  the  more 

actual  landscapes  of  Rossetti's  pictures,  even  where 

they  can  be  identified — in   the  Boiccr  Mcadozv,  for 

instance — there  is  none  of  the  real  Preraphaelitism 

distinguishing  the  pictures  of  Mr.  Holman  Hunt, 

Dyce  or  Burton.     Howell  used  to  say  that  Ruskin 

never  forgave  Rossetti  for  inventing  trees  instead 

of  copying  some  in  Red  Lion  Square  for  one  of 

his  backgrounds. 

It  is  a  facile  and  convenient  theory  to  make 
Rossetti  responsible  for  the  disciples  who  have 
worn  out  the  convention  of  Burne-Jones  ;  though 
W\Q  Damsel  of  the  Sa lie  Gracl  is  a  terrible  piece  dc 
conviction.  And  it  will  be  some  one's  duty  to  rescue 
the  master  and  pupil  from  the  claws  of  their 
imitators.  It  is  of  course  the  archaistic  elements 
common  to  Rossetti,  Burne-Jones  and  to  all  the 
generic  Preraphaelites  which  confuse  the  issues 
and  involve  a  falsified  grouping  of  names  and 
i-epiitations.  Alarmed  by  the  brilliancy  of  their 
exhibitionsthroughoutthesixties,  the  Academicians 
banned  every  painter  of  excellence  for  a  Pre- 
raphaelite — until  Whistler's  influence  becoming 
a  scandal,  the  excellents  were  dubbed  impres- 
sionists. Poor  Albert  Moore  was  excluded  on 
both  counts — the  frying-pan  and  the  fire.  But 
then  the  Academicians  could  always  point  to 
Millais  as  an  example  of  how  by  determination, 
pains  and  hard  work  you  could  remain  a  success- 
ful Academician  without  being  an  artist. 

As  earlyas  1876  Mr.  Swinburne,  whose  admirable 
art  criticism  has  been  adumbrated  by  more  brilliant 
powers,  found  it  necessary  to  defend  his  friend  for 
being  lioth  a  poet  and  a  painter.  In  that  age  of 
specialists  it  was  hardly  regarded  as  quite  respect- 
able ;  the  admirers  were  told  that  something  must 
be  wrong  with  the  poetry  or  the  painting ;  and 
Mr.  Swinburne  wittily  observed  that  the  possessor 
of  a  double  talent  was  always  open  to  a  double 
kmd  of  attack.  Later  on,  when  there  followed  on 
the  artist's  death  the  reaction  against  the  uncritical 
adulation  of  the  eighties,  and  the  very  name 
'poet-painter'  induced  nausea,  French  aesthetics 

118 


began  to  be  preached  in  Chelsea.     It  was  decided 
that  Rossetti  endeavoured  to  express  in  art  what 
could  only  be  expressed  in  literature — '  Literature 
straying  into  paint '  was  the  phrase  used.     Though 
he   was   never   numbered    among    the  anecdote- 
mongers,  he  was  relegated  to  the  rank  of  illustrators 
by  the  '  new  criticism.'     The  late  Mr.   R.  A.  M. 
Stevenson,  the  prophet  of  that  school  of  criticism 
(for  it  is  rather  a  school  of  criticism  than  of  art), 
paid  however  a  tribute  to  Rossetti,  for  being  a  great 
innovator  and   inventor  who  might  be  included  in 
the  narrow  paddock  of  '  paint  for  paint's  sake  ' ;  it 
was  the  Blue  Boicer  which  converted  him.     That 
picture  is  indeed  a  masterpiece  in  which  beauty 
seems  justified  of  all  her  children,  caring  nothing 
for  explanations.     For  this   exquisite  work    Mrs. 
Schott  {iiee  Miss  Fanny  Cornforth)  was  the  inspir- 
ing model  whose  beauty  is  again  immortalized  in_ 
The  Lad\  Lilith.      The  oil  version  of  this  subject  1 
belongs   to    1864,   and   was   entirely    spoiled    by 
the  artist  in  1872,  the  head  being  repainted  from 
a  different  model.    Fortunately  two  water-colour 
replicas  had  been  executed  in  1867  for  Mr.  Coltart 
of  Liverpool  and  Mr.  Stevenson  of  Tynemouth 
respectively.     It  is  the  former  and  the  finer  (here 
reproduced)  which  has  been  secured  for  the  New 
York  museum  by  Mr.  Roger  Fry.     A  connoisseur] 
who  remembers  the  oil  picture  before  it  was  ruinea 
informs  me  that  Mr.  Coltart's  water  colour  was 
immeasurably  superior  in  the  opinion  of  Rossetti 
himself ;  and  the  circumstance  that  he  attempted 
to  improve  the  oil  painting  corroborates  this  view. 
It  would,  indeed,  be  difficult  to  imagine  a  more 
radiant  e.xample  of  Rossetti's  art  in  that  medium, 
in  which  his  most  characteristic  work  was  achieved, _ 
with  the  few  exceptions  I  have  mentioned.     For  irij 
spite  of  his  indignant  letter  to  the  '  Athena2um '  in 
1865    protesting   against   being   called   'a  water- 
colour  painter  who  only  occasionally  used  oils,' 
the   criticism   was    true   if    the    description  was 
inaccurate. 

An  exclamation  of  Ruskin  is  irresistibly  recalled 
before  Lady  Lilith.  '  You  can  cram,'  he  said,  on 
being  shown  the  wonderful  design  of  The  Weeping 
Queens  for  Moxon's  Tennyson.  Every  available 
space  in  Lady  Lilith  is  furnished  with  the  acces- 
sories the  artist  loved ;  but  they  are  not  mere^ 
accessories.  In  the  colour-scheme  they  all  have 
significance  and  unity  of  purpose.  The  picture 
illustrates  Rossetti's  preferences  in  colour  quoted 
by  Mr.  Marillier  a  propos  of  the  Blue  Boicer,  to 
which  they  scarcely  fit  with  the  same  nicety.  '  The 
order  in  which  Tlove  colours,'  writes  Rossetti, 
'are  :  No.  i,  pure,  light,  warm  green  ;  No.  2,  deep 
gold  colour  ;  No.  3,  certain  tints  of  grey  ;  No.  4, 
shadowy  steel  blue ;  No.  5,  brown  with  crimson 
tinge;  No.  6,  scarlet.'  The  reflection  in  the 
mirror  of  the  garden  outside  (No.  i),  Lady 
Z,;7;7/;'i- hair  (No.  2),  portions  of  the  dress  (No.  3), 
the  eyes  (No.  4),  the  foxgloves  (No.  5),  the  coral 


m 


Till      L  M  i"i     I  II  I  1  II,     I.  ,     ,  '  \  \  I  I      (,  \l;l.'ll    1      I,"  i-^l    M  I.       l;l  I,  liXTI.V 
ACol  INEl)     l;y      Till-,      Ml-.TUdlMLLTAN      Ml  SEl  M,     XIAV     YdlJK 


aI;t  in  ameUica 

I'LATK   I 


>''^ 


,^' 


,_    o 
c    y. 


Art  in  America 


on  the  wrist  with  the  poppy  in  the  glass 
(No.  6)  are  painted  testamenls  of  Rossetti's 
naive  confidences.  A  breadth  in  the  painting,  in 
spite  of  the  elaborate  detail,  differentiates  the  work 

Lirom  others  by  the  artist's  associates  and  friends. 
Not  only  by  the  title  does  Rossetti  lift  an  entirely 
genre  subject  into  a  higher  and  harder  field  of  paint- 
ing :  it  is  by  the  grandeur  of  treatment,  the  imagina- 
tive splendour  of  the  colour,  the  invention  of  design. 
You  can  hardly  help  suspecting  that  the  name  was 
an  afterthought,  because  he  refers  simply  to  the 
'Toilette  Picture'  in  writing  of  it  to  his  mother. 
Nevertheless  the  haunting  fascination  of  the  Lilith 
legend  may  have  been  the  direct  source  of  inspira- 
tion. On  the  back  of  the  frame  in  his  own  hand- 
writing is  a  translation  from  the  passage  in  Goethe 
where  Lilith  must  have  first  attracted  his  attention. 
All  the  biographers  have  dwelt  on  the  subtlety  of 
presenting  her  as  a  seductive  modern  lady  rather 
than  Eve's  predecessor,  the  mother  of  the 
glittering  sons  who  move  in  the  woods  and 
waters.  It  is  undeniably  typical  of  Rossetti's 
personal  and  peculiar  Preraphaelitism,  this 
Talmudic  or  progenetic  idea  of  womanhood,  and 
recalls  the  amusing  story  of  the  lady  who  asked 
Mr.  Leathart  of  Newcastle  '  if  he  did  not  find  it 
very  difficult  to  obtain  pre-Adamite  pictures.'  At 
the  same  time  it  is  harmful  to  Rossetti's  reputa- 
tion if  the  literary  motives  in  his  pictures  are 
dwelt  upon  rather  than  their  significance  as 
paintings  and  drawings.  We  must  not  be  lured 
by  his  exquisite  poetry  into  overlooking  the 
perfections  and  imperfections  of  his  delicate  and 
peccant  art.  The  reflex  action  of  his  poetry  and 
his  painting  belongs  to  the  history  of  the  man, 
not  the  artist.      Poetry   does    not   palliate    faulty 

I    execution. 

^  After  1872,  whether  on  account  of  chloral,  or  an 
unfortunate  communion  with  literary  parasites,  or 
popularity,  involving  too  much  dependence  on  his 
assistant  Treffy  Dunn,  his  paintings  and  drawings 
are  of  doubtful  value  in  the  artistic  or  commercial 
sense.  The  inarticulate  drawing  is  monotonous, 
the  types  are  affected  and  monstrous,  the  colour 
jis  positively  unpleasant.  When  Longfellow  visited 
Tile  artist  before  returning  to  America,  he  is 
supposed  to  have  said,  '  Tell  your  brother  that  one 
of  my  greatest  disappointments  has  been  my 
failure  to  meet  the  author  of  that  marvellous  poem 
"The  Blessed  Damozel.'"  If  the  dates  would 
only  fit,  the  story  might  be  told  as  an  instance 
of  Longfellow's  humorous  artistic  perception  : 
perhaps,  after  all,  it  was  an  invention  of  Whistler  ; 
and  it  would  be  still  better  if  the  paintino  of  the 
Blessed  Damozel  (1876)  had  been  in  the  studio  at  the 
time.  I  have  often  wondered  why  Mr.  Leyland 
only  possessed  a  single  first-rate  Rossetti ;  this 
was  the  superb  little  Love's  Greeting  which  he 
acquired  from  Mr.  Graham.  Yet  it  is  by  the 
Leyland  works  that  Rossetti  was  one  time  chiefly 


known  to  the  public,  and  to  a  generation  of 
younger  artists  who  are  naturally  appalled  until 
they  have  seen  the  wonderful  collections  of  Mr. 
Fairfax  Murray  now  at  Birmingham  and  other 
pictures  in  old  master  exhibitions.  The  real 
tragedy  of  genius  is  the  applause  generated 
by  its  errors,  not  the  neglect  of  its  imperishable 
virtues. 

To  realize  Rossetti's  significance  we  must  study 
his  art  prior  to  1872  ;  and  to  appreciate  his  influ- 
ence we  must  not  begin  by  depreciating,  in  the 
modern  fashion,  Burne-Jones,  or  admiring  the 
Sislers  Van-Bork.  We  must  look  for  his  sweetness 
and  his  strength  among  contemporary  artists — for 
instance,  Mr.  William  Rothenstein,  who  by  a 
gracious  coincidence  emphasized,  in  a  domestic 
sense,  an  artistic  debt  already  acknowledged  in 
many  charming  drawings.  And  at  a  recent  exhi- 
bition in  London  where  Rossetti  was  inadequately 
represented  (at  least  as  the  delineator  of  fair 
women),  Mr.  Charles  Shannon's  exquisite  por- 
trait of  Mrs.  Campbell  enabled  myself  and  many 
others  to  overlook  the  alisence  of  Monna  Vanna, 
the  Blue  Boiver  and  the  enchantress  Ladv  Lilitli, 
whose  influence  on  New  York  will  not,  I  trust,' 
result  in  any  moral  debacle. 

Robert  Ross. 


AN  ALTARPIECE   OF   THE   CATALAN 
SCHOOL 

The  great  majority  of  pictures  of  the  Catalan  school 
are  to  be  found  in  the  museums  of  Barcelona  and 
Yich,  and  in  the  churches  of  the  surrounding 
country,  but  a  few  have  found  their  way  to  other 
countries.  In  the  Musee  des  Arts  Decoratifs  at 
Paris  there  is  the  important  retable  of  St.  John 
tlie  Baptist  by  Luis  Borassa,  and  a  similar  one 
representing  St.  Aiidre'u'  from  the  church  at 
Perpignan  is  now  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of 
New  York.  The  altarpiece  published  is  also  in 
New  York,  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Wm.  Laft'an, 
by  whose  courtesy  it  is  here  reproduced.  It  is 
certainly  a  striking  and  important  work  of  this 
curiously  interesting  school.  The  form  is  unusual, 
being  long  and  low  instead  of  upright.  The 
subjects  are  all  taken  from  the  Passion.  In  the  first 
panel  is  represented  the  Agony  injlie  Garden.  The 
garden  is  here  symbolized  by  hurdles,  a  convention 
which  is  constantly  met  with  also  in  Italian  art.  The 
composition  is  unusually  crowded  owing  to  the 
introduction  of  the  eight  Apostles  supposed  to  be  in 
another  part  of  the  garden.  In  spite  of  this  crowding, 
however,  the  artist  has  found  place  for  a  very 
original  dramatic  invention,  that  of  Judas  indicating 
Christ  to  the  soldiers  who  are  about  to  enter.  The 
next  panel  represents  the  Capture  of  Christ.  With 
the  object  of  telling  the  story  as  fully  as  possible, 
Christ  is  represented  as  healing  Malchus's  ear  at  the 


12 


3 


Art  in  America 

same  moment  that  Peter  has  raised  his  sword  to 
strike  it  off.  The  next  scene  is  Chvisl  brought  before 
Caiaphas,  an  overcrowded  but  vigorous  compo- 
sition. Then  follows  the  Croiviiiitg  icilh  Thorns  and 
Mockery,  then  the  Scourging,  and  finally  Pilate 
Washing  his  Hands.  Below  each  panel  is  the 
head  of  an  Apostle  with  a  scroll  on  which  are 
words  from  the  Creed.  The  framework  is  of 
late  gothic  design,  with  richly  tooled  and  punched 
gilding. 

The  compositions  show  an  artist  who  has  liut 
little  idea  of  essentially  pictorial  composition,  but 
who  understands  well  how  to  express  the  essentials 
of  the  situation  in  the  gothic  tradition  of  craftsman- 
ship. Such  compositions  are  the  lineal  descendants 
of  the  work  of  ivory  and  woodcarvers  of  the 
fourteenth  century.  But,  although  a  purely  gothic 
designer,  he  has  clearly  seen,  either  in  drawings  or 
prints,  specimens  of  Italian  Renaissance  architec- 
ture, and  he  has  seized  on  the  concave  shell  design 
with  a  strange  avidity,  repeating  it  with  reckless 
frequency  and  often  without  the  least  idea  of  its 
structural  import. The  effect  isalmost  more  Moorish 
than  classical,  but  one  cannot  doubt  the  origin. 
It  is,  indeed,  probably  one  of  the  earliest  examples 
of  the  Plateresque  style,  because,  as  Seiior  Sanpere 
y  Miquel  has  pointed  out,  classical  forms  were 
first  adopted  by  the  painters  of  the  Catalan  school, 
and  from  them  passed  on  to  the  architects  and 
designers  of  the  peninsula. 

I  have  here  assumed  what  perhaps  demands  some 
proof,  that  this  is  in  fact  a  work  of  a  Catalan  artist 
of  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  century.  Its  points 
of  contact  with  various  works  of  that  school  are, 
however,  many.  In  the  last  panel  we  find  that 
Pilate's  wife  has  a  head-dress  which  is  almost 
identical  with  that  worn  by  Sta.  Engracia  in  the 
picture  by  Bartolome  Vermejo  in  Mrs.  Gardner's 
collection.  The  servant  pouring  out  the  water  has 
almostasstrongaresemblanceto  the  kneeling  donor 
in  Sir  Julius  Wernher's  picture  by  the  same  artist. 
Again,  Pilate's  head-dress  both  in  the  Sfo;/;;i^/';(^and 
the  Washing  oj  Hands— -^  high  peaked  cap  with 
ermine  revers— is  precisely  that  of  the  judge  in 
the  four  panels  of  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  George,  now 
in  the  Louvre,  which  are  in  all  probability  works 
by  an  unknown'  master  of  this  school. 

Again,  we  find  the  faces  throughout  to  be  well 
drawn  and  highly  expressive  when  compared  with 
the  quite  childish  ignorance  and  incapacity  revealed 
in  the  figures.  The  faces  are  also  unduly  large  and 
separated  in  modelling  from  their  surroundings  in 
a  curious  manner  which  is  typical  of  much 
Catalan  painting.  The  type  of  face  too,  flat, 
expansive,  large-featured,  with  long  upper  lip  and 
wide  partly-opened  mouth,  is  typical  of  the  school 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  century. 

'  Senor  Sanpere  y  Miquel  gives  them  to  Jaime  Huguet,  but  I 
believe  this  was  an  earlier  painter  with  much  more  dramatic 
power  than  is  shown  by  Huguet. 

124 


As  Seiior  Sanpere  y  Miquel  (to  whom  we  are 
indebted  for  almost  all  our  knowledge  of  this 
school)  has  shown,  painting  in  Barcelona  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  century  centred  round  the  atelier 
of  the  Vergos  family.  Of  the  founder,  Jaime 
Vergos  I,  we  know  nothing  ;  he  is  succeeded  by 
his  son  Jaime  Vergos  II,  who  is  known  to  have 
worked  on  the  altarpieceof  S.  Esteban  at  Granollers 
in  company  with  his  two  sons,  Pablo  and  Rafael. 
It  is  from  the  manner  in  which  we  name  the  three 
hands  in  this  altarpiece  that  we  derive  our  ideas  of 
the  three  masters.  Seiior  Sanpere  y  Miquel  thinks 
that  Pablo  was  the  greatest  of  the  three,  and  assigns 
to  him  all  the  most  striking  works,  from  the 
Condestable  altarpiece  of  1464  till  his  death  in  1495. 
Certainly  the  paintings  by  this  hand  have  great 
merit;  in  the  modelling  of  his  vividly  expressive 
faces,  in  the  strange  grey  colouring  of  his  flesh, 
and  to  some  extent  in  his  sentiment  he  reseinbles 
Borgognone.  Rafael  appears  as  mainly  a  feebler 
echo  of  Pablo,  while  to  the  father,  Jaime  Vergos  II, 
who  outlived  both  sons  and  died  about  1503,  Seiior 
Sanpere  y  Miquel  gives  works  of  such  totally 
different  character  and  of  dates  and  styles  so 
divergent  that  it  is  hard  to  form  any  clear  idea  of 
his  personality.  In  some  he  seems  to  be  as  advanced 
as  Pablo,  in  others  he  is  crudely  archaic.  Thus  in 
the  Retablo  of  San  Vicente  in  the  museum  at 
Barcelona  the  St.  Vincent  at  the  Stake  contains  faces 
full  of  character  and  subtly  expressive  drawing 
which  is  almost  indistinguishable  from  Pablo's 
finest  work.  This  is  given  to  Jaime  II,  his  father, 
but  he  is  also  credited  with  a  very  crude  and 
decidedly  earlier,  almost  barbaric  work,  the  Angels 
Comforting  St.  Vincent,  which  is  part  of  the  same 
altarpiece.  This  shows  how  difficult  it  has  been, 
even  with  so  prolonged  a  study  as  Senor  Sanpere 
y  Miquel  has  devoted  to  the  subject,  satisfactorily 
to  isolate  the  different  masters  of  the  Vergos  work- 
shop. 

I  mention  this  because,  while  Mr.  Laffan's  pic- 
ture has  the  general  characteristics  of  the  Vergos 
atelier  (note  in  particular  the  peculiar  halos),  it  is 
very  difficult  to  give  it  any  definite  name.  The 
heads  of  the  apostles  in  the  rounds  below  the 
panels  are  extremely  near  to  those  in  the  Pentecost 
panel  of  the  Condestable  retable  in  the  Museo  des 
Antiguedades  of  Barcelona.  This  is  given  to  Pablo 
Vergos,  but  it  appears  to  lack  {he  finesse  of  the  panel 
of  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  which  is  also  given  to 
him.  If,  as  seems  possible,  the  Pentecost  is  by 
the  same  hand  as  the  Resurrection  panel  in  the 
same  retable  and  this  hand  be  indeed  Jaime  Vergos 
II's,  the  older  and  less  accomplished  master,  I 
should  be  inclined  to  suppose  that  Mr.  Laffan's 
picture  is  by  him.  The  colouring,  like  the  com- 
position, refers  to  an  earlier,  more  purely  gothic 
tradition  than  Pablo's  delicate  harmonies,  and  it 
lacks  his  skilful  modelling. 

Roger  E.  Fry. 


.J- 


??/^e^i?*  gTc 


(S'S  PORTRAIT  OF  TENNYSON 
•^  FY   D.  S.   M  ■  COLL  rx» 


^\.^\<i(^'' 


hnk 


Win  tin : 


'•nirersof  theportn"''   ^"^enny- 

-~  may  challenge  tl;  :nent, 

pute  the  living  character  so 

lis's  canvas.  Nor 

-■      '*  the  poft 

thc^c  in 


-  ^,...;....;.i,   ;ur   the 

/lyson,  and    has   ob- 

the  executors  ot    Sir  James 

.  fFer   of  the  picture  for   a 

The    energy    and    good 

'^     the     Vela?.quez     in 

i    to    si: 

generally 


ned  from 
the  Fine  Art  Society,  who 
puoiiineu  an  engraving  after  it,  and  was 
shown  at  the  Society's  gallery  in  1881, 
when  the  first  Millais  exhibition  was 
brought  together.  It  has  since  then  been 
seen  at  the  Gr  Gallery  (1886)  and 

in  the  memoriai  v.  ^ii:i)ition  at  the  Academy 
(1898).      It   was   purchased,    when    first 
xhibited,   by  Sir  James   Knowles,  who 
secured  the  copyright  also  about  ten  years 

' "'-'ng  dissatisfied  with  the  existing 

*    nhotogravure  of  the  head 
Tmission  in  the  Life  of 


the  executors 

of 

■~' '-  r 

ricture  ^~^    - 

1  ^ 

I  ^  t 

T.   "'    1 

MILLAIS'S  PORTRAIT  OF  TENNYSON 
^  BY  D.   S.  MacCOLL  c*^ 


Y  the  death  of  Sir  James 
Knowles  a  friendly  Hnk 
with  the  art  and  letters  of 
the  nineteenth  century  has 
been   broken,  and  the  col- 

^  lection    of    works    of    art 

that  he  had  formed  has  been  dispersed. 
Among  these  was  a  relic  of  one  of  his 
friendships,  the  famous  portrait  of  Tenny- 
son. It  will  be  very  generally  felt,  on 
more  grounds  than  one,  that  this  picture 
ought,  if  possible,  to  be  secured  for  the 
nation,  and  the  National  Art-Collections 
Fund,  we  are  glad  to  learn,  has  organized 
an  effort  to  that  end.  The  Fund  was 
only  the  other  day  set  free  from  the  liabili- 
ties of  its  last  memorable  gift  ;  it  has  used 
its  recovered  liberty  to  issue  an  appeal  to 
members  and  the  public  generally  for  the 
purchase  of  the  Tennyson,  and  has  ob- 
tained from  the  executors  ot  Sir  James 
Knowles  an  offer  of  the  picture  for  a 
limited  time.  The  energy  and  good 
fortune  that  saved  the  Velazquez  in 
face  of  such  heavy  odds  ought  to  suc- 
ceed in  the  case  of  a  more  generally 
popular  picture  and  a  comparatively 
trifling  cost. 

The  portrait  belongs  to  the  maturity  of 
Millais's  later  manner.  It  was  painted  in 
March  of  1881,  a  year  of  vigorous  and 
happy  production,  when  he  was  fifty-two 
years  of  age,  and  his  subject  twenty  years 
older.  A  group  of  portraits  of  famous 
men  belongs  to  the  same  year,  including 
the  unfinished  Lord  Bcaconsfield,  Cardinal 
NflVman,  Principal  Caird  (in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Glasgow),  and  Sir  Henry  Thotnpson 
(now  in  the  National  Gallery).  The  Tenny- 
son is  a  first-rate  example  of  this  period, 
and  in  Millais's  own  judgment  was  the 
finest  portrait  he  had  painted,  and  'with- 
out immodesty,  I  am  sure  is  the  best  of 


him.''  Admirers  of  the  portraits  of  Tenny- 
son by  Watts  may  challenge  this  judgment, 
but  will  not  dispute  the  living  character  so 
absolutely  fixed  upon  Millais's  canvas.  Nor 
are  the  presence  and  dignity  of  the  poet 
wanting,  for  Tennyson  brought  these  in 
his  head  and  bearing.  The  abstract  of 
Watts  will  be  the  better  understood  by 
reference  to  a  rendering  so  closely  moulded 
upon  life,  as  is  the  case  with  portraits  by 
the  same  two  painters  of  Thomas  Carlyle, 
now  in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.  The 
philosopher  of  Watts  is  supplemented 
there  by  the  angry  Scottish  peasant-body 
out  of  whom  the  prophet  was  carved. 

The  Tennyson  was  commissioned  from 
Millais  by  the  Fine  Art  Society,  who 
published  an  engraving  after  it,  and  was 
shown  at  the  Society's  gallery  in  1881, 
when  the  first  Millais  exhibition  was 
brought  together.  It  has  since  then  been 
seen  at  the  Grosvenor  Gallery  (1886)  and 
in  the  memorial  exhibition  at  the  Academy 
(1898).  It  was  purchased,  when  first 
exhibited,  by  Sir  James  Knowles,  who 
secured  the  copyright  also  about  ten  years 
later,  being  dissatisfied  with  the  existing 
engraving.  A  photogravure  of  the  head 
appeared  by  his  permission  in  the  Life  of 
Millais. 

The  price  fixed  by  the  executors  of  Sir 
James  Knowles,  if  the  picture  should  be 
purchased  for  the  nation,  is  ^^3,000,  a 
moderate  sum  when  authorship  and  subject 
are  considered. 

The  picture,  indeed,  may  be  described 
as  a  national  monument,  and  would  enrich 
a  collection  that  is  poor  at  present  in 
modern  portraiture.  The  limit  of  time  is 
short — till  the  end  of  the  present  month  ; 
but     it    is    hoped     that     the    numberless 

'  See  letter  to  C.ilderon  (1892)  in  '  Life  .-incl  Letters  of  Millais  ■ 
ii,  p.143. 


The  Bl'rlington  Magazine,  Xn.  63.    Vol  Xlll-June,  n 


90S. 


I  27 


Millais*s  Tortrait  of  Tennyson 

admirers  of  poet  and  artist  will,  within 
that  time,  by  subscriptions  large  or  small, 
find   the  necessary  amount.     They  should 


address  themselves  to  the  Honorary  Secre- 
tariesof  theNational  Art-Collections  Fund, 
47  Victoria  Street,  Westminster. 


THE    EXHIBITION    OF     ILLUMINATED    MANUSCRIPTS 
THE  BURLINGTON  FINE  ARTS  CLUB 
;A^  BY  ROGER  E.   FRY  cK, 


AT 


HE  present  exhibition  will 
count,  we  believe,  as  of  un- 
usual importance,  even  among 
those  for  which  this  club  is 
known  all  over  the  world.  As 
Mr.  Sydney  Cockerell,  the 
author  of  the  catalogue,  says 
_  with  justifiable  pride,  'it  may 
confidently  'be  Asserted  that  so  many  splendid 
examples  of  the  illuminator's  art,  and  so  various  in 
their  excellence,  have  never  before  been  shown  in  a 
single  room.'  Perhaps  the  exhibition  in  the 
Bibliotheque  Nationale  in  1905  brought  forth  as 
many  works  of  superlative  excellence,  but  they 
were  confined  to  one  school  and  covered  only  a 
Hmited  period.  Here  we  have  works  of  many 
schools  extending  from  the  ninth  to  the  six- 
teenth century.  The  work  of  collecting,  classifying 
and  cataloguing  these  270  exhibits  has  been  a 
heavy  one.  The  mere  description  of  an  illuminated 
manuscript  requires  a  great  deal  more  research 
than  is  needed  for  the  description  of  any  other 
object  of  art,  since  it  implies  a  study  of  the  essential 
characteristics  of  the  whole  book,  and  when  we 
come  to  the  deductions  as  to  the  place  of  origin 
and  early  ownership  which  it  is  possible  to  make, 
the  amount  of  research  necessitated  and  the  wide 
range  of  authorities  to  be  consulted  become 
formidable.  It  would  obviously  be  impossible  at 
this  early  stage  to  estimate  the  exact  value  for  our 
knowledge  of  mediaeval  art  of  the  work  undertaken 
by  Mr.  Cockerell  and  those  who  have  assisted  him, 
but,  so  far  as  it  is  possible  to  judge  from  first 
impressions,  the  catalogue  appears  to  be  extremely 
rich  in  interesting  details  which  have  been  brought 
to  light  now  for  the  first  time.  With  regard  to 
one  school  of  miniature  painting,  the  English,  it 
is  hoped  that  we  shall  be  able  to  give,  in  a  future 
article,  the  results  arrived  at ;  for  the  present  I 
shall  confine  myself  to  a  general  survey  and  to 
recording  some  of  the  impressions  made  upon  one 
by  the  vast  range  of  early  European  art  which  the 
visitor  has  here  displayed  before  him  in  a  single 
purview. 

One's  first  impression  is  of  the  extraordinary 
beauty,  the  inviting  warmth  and  richness  and  yet 
surprising  lightness  of  the  whole  effect.  It  turns 
out  that  these  vellum  leaves,  prepared,  gilded  and 
coloured  with  such  minute  precision,  in  order  to 

128 


gratify  a  closely  scrutinizing  eye,  and  aiming  only 
at  detailed  perfection — it  turns  out  that  many  of 
them  have  also  the  dignity  and  weight,  the  large 
co-ordinationof  elements  of  products  of  the  major 
arts. 

Then  one  is  struck  by  the  extraordinary  changes 
in  the  artist's  point  of  view  which  these  manuscripts 
record  in  the  passage  of  five  or  six  centuries. 

To  the  European  eye  oriental  art  sometimes 
seems  regularly  uniform,  so  that  we  can  scarcely 
see  on  a  first  acquaintance  the  difference  between 
paintings  of  say  the  eighth  and  sixteenth  centuries. 
But  what  is  really  more  surprising  is  the  divergence 
of  European  art.  In  this  exhibition  we  can  see 
that  from  1000  to  about  1400  the  methods  are 
similar  :  thereare  variation, progress  and  declineand 
revival,  and  there  are  racial  and  local  dialects,  but 
the  language  is  the  same.  Jean  Pucelle  (No  130) 
in  1340  uses,  it  is  true,  a  different  symbol  to  the 
Anglo-Saxon  artist  of  the  Benedictional  of  St. 
^•Ethelwold  (No.  10),  who  worked  about  970,  but 
the  difference  is  only  such  as  corresponds  to  a 
different  attitude  to  life — the  two  artists  are  near 
enough  in  the  relation  of  their  painted  images  to 
actual  appearances.  They  are  infinitely  nearer  to 
one  another  than  either  is  to  Fouquet,  only  a  hun- 
dred years  later  than  Pucelle,  or  still  more  to  Simon 
Benning,  less  than  a  couple  of  centuries  away.  This 
difference  is  immense  and  its  effects  incalculable  ; 
it  implies  a  total  change  in  the  language  of  art,  the 
change  from  the  expressive  symbol  to  the  complete 
realization  of  actual  appearances.  Whatever 
triumphs  this  change  implied  for  other  arts — for 
painting  in  oils  or  for  sculpture — one  cannot  look 
round  the  walls  of  the  exhibition  without  feeling 
that  it  spelt  ruin  for  the  illustrator's  art.  That 
subtle  balance  between  the  different  elements  of 
his  design,  between  the  purely  decorative  and  the 
expressive, was  destroyed;  and  while  he  could  pro- 
duce more  and  more  wonderful  pictures,  could 
recall  to  the  devout  possessor  of  his  breviaries 
with  more  and  more  verisimilitude  all  the  incidents 
of  actual  life,  he  lost  the  power  of  direct  symbolical 
appeal  and  of  noble  decoration.  To  be  quite 
frank,  the  purely  decorative  work,  the  borders  and 
riufcanx  of  nearly  all  the  manuscripts  after  1400, 
are  almost  entirely  devoid  of  serious  artistic  merit. 
Some  of  the  Flemish  ones  of  the  sixteenth  century 
are  as  bad    in  taste,  as  deliberately  vulgar  and  as 


Exhibition  of  Illuminated  Manuscripts 


idly  pretentious  as  anything  the  mid-Victorian 
epoch  discovered  in  its  antimacassars  and  Berlin 
woolwork.  The  pictures  within  these  chromo- 
lithographic  borders  often  show  consummate  skill, 
but  almost  always  of  a  purely  mechanical  kind,  and 
their  appeal  is  to  a  childish  love  of  mere  bright- 
ness of  colour  and  minuteness  of  delineation. 
This  need  not  imply  the  condemnation  of  a  whole 
epoch  ;  it  merely  means  that  for  certain  epochs, 
the  centre  of  artistic  endeavour,  the  intenser 
artistic  life,  had  shifted  to  other  arts,  and  left  illu- 
mination to  commercial  craftsmen.  The  illumina- 
tor's art  had,  as  we  see  here,  varying  adventures, 
varying  fortunes,  in  different  countries  and 
ages.  The  Winchester  Vulgate  (No.  io6)  shows 
us  English  illuminators  of  the  twelfth  century 
doing  work  which  has  never  been  surpassed  in  any 
age  and  which  was  unequalled  elsewhere,  yet  at 
that  time  the  English  were  decidedly  inferior  to 
the  French  both  in  architecture  and  sculpture. 
Then  later  on,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  we  find 
the  French  illuminators  working  in  the  spirit  of 
great  independent  and  original  artists  with  an 
intellectual  ardour,  a  dignity^uid  logical  perfection 
of  taste  which  are  beyond  praise,  while  in  Italy  the 
illuminator  remains  throughout  a  minor  artist 
imitating  afar  the  great  works  of  the  fresco  painter 
and  never  originating  for  himself  principles  of 
design  and  handling  proper  to  his  art. 

Finally  with  the  late  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries  it  is  clear  that  the  fruitful  intellects  have 
deserted  illumination  in  favour  of  the  arts  connected 
with  printing,  and  the  illuminated  prayer-book 
is  a  commercial  product  got  up  for  the  delight  of 
the  vulgar  rich  with  that  peculiar  shop-finish  which 
under  such  circumstances  is  always  called  in  to  do 
duty  for  art. 

The  illuminator's  art  is  one  in  which  colour  is  of 
supreme  importance,  and  yet,  working  with  what 
answers  to  our  gouache,  the  artist  was  confronted 
with  the  difficulty  of  its  tendency  to  coldness  and 
opacity.  Looking  round  the  room  we  can  almost 
estimate  the  relative  general  excellence  of  the  art 
of  various  periods  by  the  success  with  which  they 
have  avoided  this  error.  Above  all,  the  case  devoted 
to  French  thirteenth-century  MSS.  amazes  one  by 
the  sober  intensity  and  solidity  of  its  colour,  its 
subdued  and  vibrating  splendour. 

The  history  of  the  illuminator's  colour  schemes 
as  revealed  here  is  full  of  interest.  In  the  earliest 
work,  such  as  St.  ^thelwold's  Benedictional 
(No.  ii)  or  the  Latin  Gospels  (12),  the  colouring 
is  subtle  and  refined ;  the  harmonies  are  strange 
— dull  puce,  dull  blue  greens  of  various  shades  pre- 
dominate. It  is  as  far  removed  from  anything 
primitive  or  barbaric  as  can  be  imagined,  and  like 
the  style  of  drawing  must  be  considered  as  a  diiect 
inheritance  from  the  last  refinements  of  classical 
civilization.      Already     in     the    Miracles   of    St. 


Edmund,  No.  18,  another  idea  of  colour  has  arisen. 
This  is  the  essentially  childish  one  of  mere  delight 
in  sensation  of  bright  primaries,  so  the  artist  puts 
together  pure  blues,  reds  and  greens  without  any 
preconceived  notion  of  harmony.  This  primitive 
barbaric  feeling  is  expressed  also  in  the  extravagant 
and  as  yet  somewhat  absurd  dramatic  intensity. 
All  through  the  early  period  we  can  trace  the 
conflict  of  these  two  forces,  the  old  traditional 
classicism  and  the  new  barbaric  love  of  strong 
colour  and  life.  Already  in  the  great  Winchester 
Vulgate  (106)  a  fusion  has  been  effected,  and  we 
get  intense  colour  controlled  by  a  great  synthetic 
idea,  drawing  full  of  dramatic  force  but  controlled 
by  a  noble  sentiment  for  style,  so  that  one  may 
wonder  whether  in  the  perfect  adaptation  of  all 
the  means  to  the  end  of  great  imaginative  book 
decoration  this  effort  has  ever  been  surpassed. 
Then  with  the  thirteenth  century  the  refining 
influences  prevail.  The  colours  are  gradually 
reduced,  blues  of  various  shades  predominate  : 
these  are  broken  with  an  incredible  subtlety  of 
method  so  as  to  avoid  coldness,  and  married  with 
the  gold  by  almost  invisible  notes  of  degraded  reds 
and  greens.  Here  we  find,  indeed,  that  consum- 
mate science  of  pure  colour  which  created  the 
stained  glass  decorations  of  Chartres  Cathedral, 
and  we  find  the  effects  arrived  at  by  identical 
methods,  the  subtlety  and  perfection  of  which 
almost  defy  analysis. 

With  the  fourteenth  century  there  intervened  a 
desire  for  greater  gaiety,  more  blondness,  for  a  less 
austere  splendour.  This  is  seen  to  perfection  in 
the  St.  Omer  Psalter  (68)  and  the  Psalter  of 
Humphrey  de  Bohun  (73),  but  it  implies  generally 
a  relaxation  of  the  purely  artistic  sense  of  colour 
harmony — a  return,  as  in  No.  153,  to  mere  bright- 
ness and  intensity  of  colour.  In  two  very  beauti- 
ful manuscripts  of  the  early  fifteenth  century  (204 
and  205),  however,  some  quite  original  and  as  yet 
unknown  artist  has  carried  the  ideas  of  blondness 
and  delicate  gaiety  of  colour  to  their  utmost  point 
of  refinement,  and  created  works  of  rare  and 
strange  beauty  in  which  for  the  first  and,  I  believe, 
only  time  the  slight  contrast  of  white  upon  the 
toned  warmth  of  the  vellum  is  used  throughout  as 
the  key  to  the  colour  scheme.  But  in  the  main, 
in  spite  of  the  Limbourgs  and  Fouquets,  the  fif- 
teenth century  shows  only  a  steady  loss  of  the 
artistic  control  of  colour,  and  now  for  the  first  time 
in  Bourdichon  and  the  contemporary  Italians  the 
old  red  lead  and  vermilion  tints  give  place  to  an 
excruciating  crimson  lake,  against  which  the 
golds,  greens  and  violet  produce  their  utmost 
effect  of  discordant  vehemence.  We  return 
once  more  in  the  sixteenth  century  to  a  purely 
barbaric  conception  of  colour  ;  but  the  barbarism 
is,  alas  !  no  longer  naive— it  is  sophisticated  and 
corrupt. 


129 


THE   NEW  ITALIAN  LAW   'PER  LE  ANTICHITA 

E  LE  BELLE  ARTI' 


^  BY  LIONEL  CUST 

'N  March  17th,  1908,  the 
Minister  of  Public  Instruction 
in  Italy,  acting  with  the  Minister 
I  of  the  Treasury,  laid  before  the 
'  Senate  a  project  for  the  new 
law  concerning  antiquities  and 
)the  fine  arts,  which  had 
I  already  been  passed  by  the 
Chamber  of  Deputies.  In  view  of  the  difficulties  of 
explaining  and  enforcing  the  laws  which  previously 
existed,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  Italian  Govern- 
ment, which  has  lately  shown  a  most  praiseworthy 
interest  in  the  preservation  of  the  treasures, 
historical,  archaeological  and  artistic,  the  bcllczza 
artisfica,  which  form  so  large  an  asset  in  the  pros- 
perity of  their  country,  should  seek  to  co-ordinate 
all  existing  laws  into  one  law  which  shall  be 
applicable  to  the  whole  of  Italy,  and  not  applied 
in  different  ways  and  in  different  circumstances  as 
local  feeling  and  local  interest  seem  to  demand. 

The  law  is  now  before  us,  and  cannot  be  said  to 
fall  short  in  any  way  of  comprehensiveness,  of 
drastic  intentions,  and,  it  may  also  be  said,  of 
lucidity. 

Article  i  states  that  all  things  immovable  and 
movable,  which  have  historical,  archaeological  and 
artistic  interest,  are  subject  to  the  new  law,  with 
the  exception  of  buildings  and  objects  of  art 
executed  by  living  artists  or  not  more  than 
fifty  years  previously.  Immovable  objects  include 
gardens,  forests,  landscapes,  waters,  and  all  places 
and  objects  in  nature  which  have  interest  as 
stated  above.  Movable  objects  include  manu- 
scripts, incunabula,  early  engravings  and  printed 
matter,  and  numismatic  collections. 

Article  2  states  that  all  objects  under  Article  i 
are  inalienable,  when  they  belong  to  the  State,  to 
communes  or  provinces,  to  manufactories,  to 
confraternities  and  religious  bodies  of  every  per- 
suasion. They  may,  however,  be  transferred  from 
one  of  these  bodies  to  another  under  certain 
conditions. 

Article  3  provides  for  a  statement  by  the  head 
official  of  every  body  under  Article  2,  including 
parish  priests,  of  the  objects  which  come  under 
Article  i. 

Article  4  empowers  the  Ministry  of  Public 
Instruction  to  provide  for  the  safety  of  such  objects 
by  removal  or  restoration. 

Article  5  lays  down  that  no  owner  of  an  object 
under  Article  i  which  has  been  noted  by  the 
public  authority  can  transfer  or  part  with  that 
property  without  informing  the  Minister  of  Public 
Instruction. 

Article  6  gives  the  government  the  right  of 
acquiring  any  such  object  under  Article  5  at  the 
same  price  as  may  have  been  already  agreed  upon 
by  contract  within  three  months  from  the  receipt  of 


,   M.V.O.,  F.S.A.   rj^ 

information,  or  within  six  months  if  the  government 
is  not  in  a  position  to  consider  the  immediate  acqui- 
sition. During  these  periods  the  object  in  question 
cannot  be  disposed  of. 

Article  7  empowers  the  Minister  of  Public  In- 
struction to  take  forcible  possession  of  any  object 
under  Article  i  which  is  in  need  of  care  or  in 
dangerof  perishingshould  the  necessary  work  not  be 
carried  out  by  the  proprietor  within  a  given  time. 
Article  8  forbids  the  exportation  from  the  king- 
dom of  any  object  of  historical,  archaeological  or 
artistic  interest  the  loss  of  which  would  be  of 
importance  to  the  nation.  Any  object  under  Article  i 
which  it  may  be  wished  to  export  must  be  submitted 
to  a  board  of  three  officials  appointed  for  the  pur- 
pose with  an  appeal  to  the  Superior  Council  of  Fine 
Arts. 

Article  9  provides  for  the  price  to  be  paid  by  the 
government  for  the  acquisition  of  objects  other- 
wise intended  for  exportation,  and  gives  the 
government  power  to  return  the  object  to  the 
proprietor  and  forbid  him  to  export  it. 

Article  10  imposes  a  tax  on  the  exportation  of 
any  object  under  Article  i,  but  Article  11  relieves 
from  this  tax  any  object  imported  from  foreign 
countries  within  a  period  of  five  years,  which 
period  may  be  increased  by  additional  periods  of 
five  years  at  the  wish  and  on  the  application  of  the 
parties  concerned. 

Articles  12  and  13  provide  against  any  change, 
modification  or  restoration  of  objects  under 
Articles  i  and  2  without  the  authority  of  the 
Minister  of  Public  Instruction. 

Article  14  extends  this  restriction  to  plans  for 
new  buildings  and  other  works  which  may  damage 
natural  objects  or  other  monuments  under 
Article  2. 

Articles  15-19  contain  the  regulations  for  exca- 
vations and  for  the  ownership  of  the  objects 
thereby  revealed.  Generally  speaking,  the  govern- 
ment assumes  the  right  to  control  all  excavations 
for  archaeological  purposes,  and  the  proprietorship 
of  all  objects  discovered  in  such  excavations.  The 
proprietor  of  the  site  is  to  be  compensated  either 
in  money  or  by  a  share  in  the  objects  discovered  ; 
but  the  government  has  the  right  to  appropriate 
the  property  altogether  and  award  suitable  com- 
pensation. Societies  and  private  people  can  obtain 
a  licence  to  excavate  under  the  supervision  of  the 
government,  and  may  receive  half  the  objects  dis- 
covered or  their  value  in  money,  according  to  the 
choice  of  the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction.  Any 
chance  discovery  of  antiquities  or  other  monuments 
in  need  of  excavation  has  to  be  reported  to  the  said 
minister,  who  must  decide  within  thirty  days  how 
to  act  in  the  matter.  A  foreigner  or  foreign  societies 
can  obtain  a  licence  to  excavate  under  similar 
conditions,  but  the  objects  awarded  to  them  cannot 


130 


The  Neva  Italian  Layo 


be  exported  from  Italy,  even  under  the  conditions 
allowed  by  Article  8. 

Article  20  includes  in  the  law  objects  of  palaeon- 
tology. 

Article  21  regulates  the  photographing  and 
publication  of  photographs  of  objects  belonging 
to  the  State  imder  Article  i. 

Article  22  regulates  the  use  of  the  sums  arising 
from  the  admission  fees  to  the  museums  and 
galleries  belonging  to  the  State. 

Articles  23-28  provide  funds  for  the  acquisition 
of  objects  which  come  under  the  law. 

Articles  29-36  state  the  pains  and  penalties  for 
evasion  of  this  law. 

Article  37  enables  any  citizen,  enjoying  full 
civil  rights,  or  any  body  of  people,  legally  recog- 
nized as  such,  to  take  action  against  transgressors 
of  this  law. 

Article  41  fixes  the  taxes  on  exportation  of  works 
of   art   at 

5  p.c.  on   the   first     5000    francs. 
7  p.c.  on  the  second     „  ,, 

9  p.c.  on  the  third       ,,  „ 

II  p.c.  on  the  fourth     „  „ 

increasing  up  to  a  final  tax  of  20  p.c.  according  to 
the  value  of  the  pictures. 

The  above  is  a  very  inadequate  rcstmic  of  this 
important  law,  which  embodies  the  law  of  June, 
1902,  formerly  in  force,  and  the  law  of  June,  1907, 
which  regulated  the  administration  of  the  museums 
and  salleries  of  ancient,  mediaeval  and  modern 
art  throughout  Italy.  A  comparison  of  the  new 
law  with  that  of  1902  shows  some  interesting 
divergences.  Notable  at  first  is  the  inclusion  under 
the  law  of  places  of  natural  beauty  and  interest, 
other  than  buildings,  such  as  landscapes,  gardens, 
waterfalls  and  trees.  It  is  very  satisfactory  to 
learn  from  the  speech  of  Senatore  Rava,  Minister 
of  Public  Instruction,  how  much  influence  has 
been  exercised  by  examples  from  our  own  country 
in  The  National  Trust  for  the  Preservation  of 
Places  of  Historic  Interest,  The  National  Society 
for  Checking  the  Abuses  of  Advertising,  and  the 
Act  for  the  Protection  of  Ancient  Monuments. 
With  this  attempt  to  preserve  the  beauties  of  Italy 
untouched  by  the  hand  of  the  destroyer  or  the 
botcher  all  lovers  of  Italy  and  the  arts  must  sym- 
pathize. The  proposed  inventory  of  works  of  art, 
intended  to  be  not  merely  a  list  but  a  catalogue 
raisoniic,  has  been  under  discussion  for  some  time. 
So  much  care  seems  to  have  been  taken  in  drawing 
up  this  law  with  a  view  of  giving  a  iiiiiiimiim  of 
annoyance  to  private  individuals  or  societies,  while 
insisting  on  the  execution  of  the  law,  that  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  with  reference  to  property  owned  by  the 
Church  the  French  model  will  not  be  followed, 
and  that  there  will  arise  no  excuse  for  the  pain- 
ful scenes  which  have  shocked  so  many  friends 
of  France.  The  new  law  is  careful  to  treat  tiie 
Church  in  no  way  differenUy  from  the  State  or 


other  public  bodies.  Here  the  human  element  must 
intervene  sometimes,  and  unfortunately  the  rela- 
tions between  Church  and  State  in  Italy  are  not 
everywhere  of  the  best.  Good  work  has  been  done 
in  Germany,  Belgium  and  elsewhere  in  this  line. 
The  new  law  in  Italy  trends  towards  conserva- 
tion, not  confiscation,  and  should  be  interpreted 
accordingly. 

The  laws  about  excavation  and  archaeological 
research  have  been  amended  with  greater,  if  not 
excessive,  consideration  for  the  claims  of  foreign 
archaeologists.  The  foreign  schools  at  Rome 
would  be  the  first  to  recognize  that  the  soil  of  Italy 
belongs  to  the  Italian  nation.  The  history  of 
ancient  Rome,  as  of  ancient  Greece,  is,  however, 
the  property  of  the  human  race,  and  to  deny  to  an 
archaeologist,  because  he  may  not  be  an  Italian 
subject,  a  share  in  the  revelation  and  interpretation 
of  this  history  would  be  an  act  of  exclusion  which 
could  only  damage  Italy  itself.  Great  Britain  is 
no  longer  a  predatory  country,  even  if  it  were  ever 
truly  liable  to  this  charge.  Now  that  Italy  has 
aroused  itself  to  protect  and  maintain  its  own 
treasures,  it  is  far  better  for  students  and  historians 
that  the  remains  of  ancient  Rome  should  remain 
in  Rome  itself.  The  baths  of  Diocletian  never 
served  a  better  purpose  than  they  do  at  the  present 
day  as  a  museum  of  ancient  sculpture.  Here  in 
the  Museo  delle  Terme,  and  elsewhere  in  the 
Forum,  on  the  Palatine,  and  wherever  the  exi- 
gencies of  a  busy  city  permit,  the  chaos  of  antique 
rubbish  is  being  sifted  and  classified  into  shape 
under  the  competent  direction  of  such  leaders  as 
Commendatore  Boni  and  Commendatore  Corrado 
Ricci.  By  a  sympathetic  system  of  exchange 
between  museums  in  different  countries  fragments 
could  be  reunited  to  fragments,  until  something 
like  a  whole  might  be  reconstituted,  as  in  the  case 
of  the  '  Ara  Pacis  '  of  Augustus.  It  is  useless  to  talk 
of  restoring  the  Parthenon  or  the  Colosseum,  but 
monuments  which  can  and  should  be  preserved 
in  museums  are  in  some  such  cases  capable  of  re- 
construction. Already  schemes  are  afloat  for  inves- 
tigating the  site  of  Herculaneum,  and  the  scheme, 
advocated  so  warmly  by  Professor  Waldstein,  may 
still  bear  fruit  of  some  sort. 

In  considering  this  new  law  in  Italy,  it  is  worth 
while  to  inquire  in  what  way  such  a  law  could  be 
adapted  for  use  in  our  own  country.  If  the  law 
seem  to  our  minds  somewhat  rigid  and  exclusive, 
it  must  be  remembered  that  the  circumstances  in 
the  two  countries  are  very  different.  Italy  has 
been  despoiled  by  the  foreigner  for  centuries ; 
England  is  only  beginning  to  share  this  fate,  and 
is  hardly  conscious  even  now  of  the  injury  which 
is  being  inflicted  upon  it.  Italy  has  need  to  defend 
itself,  and  so  lias  England.  The  attempts  to 
preserve  ancient  monuments  and  natural  scenery, 
although  quoted  with  approval  as  an  authority 
by   the   Italian  statesmen,  have  been  grudgingly 


131 


The  New  Italian  LaVi> 


recognized  by  the  government  of  Great  Britain. 
Tiie  destruction  of  monuments,  the  ruin  and  dis- 
figurement of  natural  scenery,  the  exportation 
of  valuable  works  of  art,  go  on  unchecked  year  by 
year,  neglected  deliberately  by  governments  of  all 
parties,  or  relegated  to  the  unimportant  duties  of 
some  already  overburdened  office  of  the  State. 

If  Italy  has  the  courage  and  the  common  sense 
to  raise  a  revenue  for  the  preservation  of  her  art 
treasures  by  taxing  those  objects,  the  loss  of  which 
Italy  cannot  prevent,  why  should  England  not 
follow  this  example  ?  The  property  which  would 
come  under  the  tax  is  mainly  shared  by  plutocrat 
owners  with  plutocrat  dealers,  by  whom  the  tax 
would  scarcely  be  felt. 

The  drawback  to  the  new  Italian  law  and  that  of 
June,  1907,  is  the  multiplication  of  the  petty  official 
in  the  service  of  the  State.  Many  of  the  troubles  and 
irregularities  of  petty  official  life  are  due  to  the  in- 
adequate remuneration  of  such  officials  from  the 
public  purse.  If  Italy  wishes  to  preserve  its  art 
treasures,  it  should  see  that  the  appointed 
guardians  are  properly  rewarded  for  the  trusts 
placed  in  their  hands.  To  take  the  inventories 
alone  will  require  the  services  of  a  squadron  of 
officials  who  possess  the  requisite  knowledge  and 
perception,  who  are  tactful  and  sympathetic,  and 


who,  above  all,  can  be  relied  upon  for  their  honesty 
and  integrity.  One  of  the  pleasing  signs  of  Italian 
prosperity  is  the  improvement  in  the  personnel 
attached  to  the  principal  museums  and  galleries, 
with  a  corresponding  improvement  in  the  work 
done  within  those  institutions.  The  supply  is 
probably  limited,  though  by  bringing  the  local 
museums  under  the  control  of  the  State  the 
Italian  Government  is  able  to  offer  to  the  younger 
members  of  its  staff  a  better  chance  of  progressing 
in  learning  and  knowledge  than  that  offered  in 
this  country,  where  a  young  man  is  tied  to  the 
same  post,  say  in  the  British  Museum,  for  the  full 
term  of  his  Civil  Service  existence,  and  has  little  or 
no  opportunity  for  becoming  acquainted  with  the 
contents  of  other  museums  or  galleries  in  his  own 
country  or  abroad,  and  of  thus  fitting  himself  by 
degrees  for  more  important  duties  of  administra- 
tion in   after  life. 

It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  there  is  much  to 
learn  from  this  new  law  in  Italy.  The  success  of  the 
law  itself  will  depend  upon  the  spirit  in  which  it 
is  worked.  If  a  spirit  of  good  feeling  be  adopted 
towards  the  foreigner,  and  if  the  rewards  go  to  the 
honest  and  successful  worker,  and  not  to  the  skilled 
wire-puller,  the  new  law  may  be  of  lasting  benefit 
to  Italy. 


THE  SNAKE  PATTERN  IN  IRELAND,  THE  MEDITERRANEAN 

AND  CHINA 
cA^  BY  CHRISTIANA  J.   HERRINGHAM  c^ 


HE  following  short  contri- 
bution to  the  analysis  and 
synthesis  of  decorative  art  is 
only  suggestive  of  a  line  of 
inquiry  which  is  nearly  un- 
touched. It  is  based  on 
materials  which  have  been 
easily  accessible  to  me.  My 
interest  in  the  question  arose  from  my  liking  for 
two  groups  or  developments  of  what  is  called 
applied  art  which  I  studied  separately,  not  in  the 
first  instance  having  any  suspicion  that  they  were 
even  remotely  connected  with  each  other.  These 
two  groups  are  Irish  MS.  illumination  and  metal- 
work  which,  roughly  speaking,  fall  between  400 
and  iioo  A.D.,  not  excluding  other  'Celtic 'art, 
and  early  hieratic  Chinese  art  as  known  to  us — 
almost  solely  in  bronze  vessels  and  vases  of  various 
early  dates — a  few  known  and  many  hypothetical. 
Irish  art  possesses  characteristics  which,  I  should 
say,  quite  definitely  distinguish  it,  taken  as  a 
whole,  from  all  other  art  developments,  though 
there  are  individual  objects  which  might  be 
thought  to  h.ave  a  more  eastern,  northern,  or 
southern  origin.  It  has  especially  the  quality  of 
a  sort  of  tenuity,  or  even  of  attenuation,  coupled 


with  an  unusual  quality  of  life,  energy  and  shape — 
variability — just  what  we  find  in  the  art  of  the  Far 
East,  and  quite  another  thing  from  the  dainty 
graciousness  and  sweet  or  gay  colouring  of 
mediaeval  illumination  proper.  If  in  motives  it 
does  not  boast  Cleopatra's  infinite  variety,  this  is 
atoned  for  by  an  endless  rearrangement  and  multi- 
plication of  parts  within  an  enclosing  framework 
of  bold  and  simple  design  which  allows  the  mind 
and  eye  to  survey  the  complexity  and  receive 
impressions  of  infinity  without  too  much  be- 
wilderment. 

The  essential  patterns  or  motives  from  which 
this  richness  has  been  evolved  are  not  very  many, 
and  most  of  them  may  be  traced  back  ultimately 
to  the  original  common  stock  which  we  usually 
now  call  Mycenaean.  Any  few  that  still  remain 
unfathered  can  be  found  in  what  we  generally  call 
Eastern  art,  or  in  the  art  of  the  still  further  east  of 
the  far  side  of  Asia. 

It  is  not  new  to  link  Celtic  spirals  with  the 
spiral  period  of  Mycenaean  art,  taking  this  term 
to  mean  the  primitive  pre-Hellenic  art  surround- 
ing the  east  end  of  the  Mediterranean.  The  climax 
of  this  '  culture '  is  usually  placed  at  about  1200  B.C., 
with  a  much  earlier  commencement,  and  no  term 


132 


can  be  put  at  the  otlier  end,  for  the  lotus  and 
spirals  may  be  moribund,  but  they  are  not  dead. 
I  believe  that  the  facile  desij^n  of  Algerian  copper 
and  brass  workers — elaborate  patterns  of  geomet- 
rical strap-work,  filled  with  complex  tracery  of  a 
sort  of  wreathing  stalk  with  tiny  leaves — is  'lotus' 
in  origin,  and  not  so  very  far  removed  from  that 
of  the  pages  of  the  Books  of  Kells,  Lindisfarne, 
or  Durrow. 

Mr.  George  Coffey  drew  attention  to  the  kinship 
of  Irish  and  Mycenaean  spirals  in  Vols,  iv  and  v 
of  the  '  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries 
of  Ireland,'  but  he  does  not  seem  to  have  per- 
ceived the  other  numerous  links,  which  I  had  al- 
ready found  before  I  noticed  the  identity  of  the 
spirals.  Mr.  Romilly  Allen  finds  a  certain  cousin- 
ship  with  Byzantine  art,  and  the  affinities  of  Celtic 
art  are  not  at  all  fully  traced  even  in  the  big  group 
of  works  by  Oscar  Monlelius  on  Scandinavian, 
Eastern  and  primitive  Italian  archaeology.  The 
Byzantine  resemblances  are  very  far  from  being 
the  closest  that  can  be  found.  Worsaae  has 
written  a  good  deal  on  the  eastern  sun  symbolism 
which  penetrated  into  Europe  in  the  Viking  Age. 

The  following  illustrations  give  a  notion  of  the 
likeness  between  Irish  spirals  in  MSS.  and 
Mycenaean  spirals  on  vases — that  is  to  say, 
some  pages  of  Irish  illuminated  books  are, 
barring  the  exaggerated  feeling  for  com- 
plexity and  repetition  and  attenuation, 
practically  Mycenaean  work.  Canterbury 
MSS.  of  about  the  same  or  a  somewhat  later 
period  serve   to  show  what    Romanesque 


The  Sna/^  Pattern 

(c.  700  A.D.)  in  the  British  Museum.  V\g.  2  is 
surely  a  near  relative  of  its  central  motive  from  a 
[apanese  colour  print  (J~-t  in  the  art  library  at 
South  Kensington.  This  is  also  the  Korean  national 


^^^s-^g^^ 


emblem.     Fig.  3  is  another  Irish  bit  much  en- 
larged, which  may  be  compared  with  fig.  4,  taken 


work   was.      They 
acanthus  patterns  w 
Celtic  work. 

Fig.  I,  which  in 
over  an  inch  m  leng 
of    Irish  penmanshi 
colour  added  in  the 
and  brown  ink  and 
the    Matthew   page 


have,   for   instance,    decadent 
hich  are  entirely  absent  from 

the  original  measures  barely 
th,  is  a  "thoroughly  typical  bit 
p  (having,  of  course,  a  little 
original,  which  is  delicate  pen 
not  coarse  line  block  !)  from 
cf    the   Lindisfarne  Gospels 


from  a  Rhodian  vase,  and  fig.  5,  from  a  vase  of 
Thera.  Compare  also  6a  and  6r3,  rudimentary 
lotus  with  spiral  scrolls  (the  latter  a  scarab,  in 
Leyden);  7A,  Egyptian  tomb  spiral ;  8,  Melian  spiral 
scroll,  which  seem  to  account  for  the  little  pointed 
leaflets  in  the  Irish  work  (these  are  taken  from 
Goodyear's  'Grammar  of  the  Lotus.')  Compare 
also  fig.  9,  taken  from  a  shield  in  the  Plate  of 
Combat  of  Hector  and  Menelaos  (British  Museum, 
Greek  vases,  seventh  century  B.C.)  with  No.  i,  and 
with  No.  10,  taken  from  the  Book  of  Kells. 

Fig.  7A,  together  with  7B  and  7c,  from  Cypriote 


The  Snake  Tattern 


vases  in  tlic  British  Museum,  seems  to  indicate  a 
possible  mode  of  development  for  so-called  Irish 
trumpet  patterns. 

In  the  outburst  of  art  in  Ireland  under  the 
impulse  which  seems  to  have  been  given  by 
Christianity  we  are  reminded  of  the  composite 
character  of  Phoenician  art.  The  crafts- 
man possessed  certain  decorative  items 
as  his  stock-in-trade,  one  might  almost 
say  picked  up  where  he  could  get  them, 
migratory  art  travelling  with  such  trad- 
ing and  religious  wanderers  as  managed 
to  reach  the  far  away  island.  It  is  like 
patchwork  or  like  country  folks'  talk  in 
proverb  and  wise  saws.  The  general 
feeling  is  of  a  later  loitering  of  the  early 
spiral  motives  of  the  Eastern  Mediterra- 
nean, especially  of  some  of  the  islands, 
than  can  be  found  anywhere  else  in 
Europe,  together  with  a  new  arrival  of 
Arab,  or  Saracenic  or  Moorish  influence, 
but  whether  direct  from  Spain  or  via 
Byzantium  I  am  not  competent  to  con- 
jecture. And  that,  of  course,  was  only 
another  stream  from  the  same  fountain 
head.  The  Chinese  feeling  in  Irish 
work  is  quite  likely  to  have  been  caused 
by  both  arts  having  been  affected  by  that  of 
Mycenae,  though  the  numerous  porcelain  seals — 
of  a  sort  quite  unknown  now,  having  a  script 
which  could  go  back  to  even  before  600  B.C. 
and  has,  I  understand,  been  in  use  ever  since 
for  seals — make  it  seem  just  possible  that 
Chinese  trade  reached  Ireland  at  some  remote 
period.^  There  is  a  bronze  bell  in  the  British 
Museum  which  has  a  distinctly  Chinese  look, 
both  in  patina  and  form.  And  it  seems  con- 
ceivable that  some  motives  of  design  came 
from  Asiatic  textiles.  But  this  is  a  rather  wild 
assumption,  and  a  Mediterranean,  Arab  or 
Coptic  origin  seems  more  reasonable  to  account 
for  anything  that  is  not  Scandinavian.  If 
Ireland  traded  with  South  France  and  Spain 
independently  of  Britain — in  support  of  which 
hypothesis  Mr.  G.  Coffey  adduces  some  distinctly 
valid  evidence — the  differentiation  of  her  art  is 
intelligible.  He  alludes  to  the  frequent  references 
to  Spain  in  the  ancient  literature  of  Ireland,  the 
mention  in  the  '  Tract  on  the  Fair  of  Carman  '  of 
a  market  of  the  foreign  Greeks,  and  to  a  passage 
in  the  '  Agricola '  of  Tacitus  where,  speaking  of 
Ireland,  he  says:  'The  soil  and  chmate,  the 
character  and  manner  of  the  inhabitants  are  not 
much  different  from  Britain  :  in  a  higher  degree 
the  approaches  and  harbours  are  known  by  com- 
merce and  merchants.' 

There  is  no  naturalism  in  Irish  art :  it  is  stylistic 
and  diagrammatic.  The  origin  of  the  patterns 
being   unknown,  the   forms   are  frequently   mis- 

'  I  am  indebted  for  this  opinion  to  Professor  H.  A.  Giles. 


understood.  The  repertory  of  the  artist  consisted 
of  interlacings  of  lines  or  bands,  various  rectan- 
gular and  diagonal  key  patterns,  bird  patterns 
derived  from  peacocks  or  geese,  animal  terminals, 
animal  patterns,  spirals,  swastika  and  other  sym- 
bols, mosaic  patterns  and  archivolt  and   pilaster 


arrangements.  Related  types  can  be  found  for 
all  these  items  in  the  art  of  other  countries ;  but 
the  zoomorphs  offer  scope  for  a  more  definite 
investigation  than  the  geometric  patterns,  though 
these  are  not  really  vague  or  uninteresting. 

There  is  a  sort  of  Midgard  serpent  page  in  the 
Book  of  Durrow  (eighth  century)  covered  with 
attenuated  creatures  biting  their  own  tails  (fig.  11). 
They  make  a  pattern  very  much  like  the  patterns 
which  the  Japanese  evolve  from  the  frequent 
repetition  of  an  identical  bird  or  animal.  From 
Ulltuna,  central  Sweden,  on  an  iron  umbo  (boss 
of  shield),  partly  covered  with  bronze  plates,  we 
get  fig.  1 2,  of  the  date  probably  of  about  700  or 
800  A.D. 

Fig.  13  is  taken  from  an  ancient  Chinese  bronze 
vase,  which,  judging  by  analogy  of  design  and 
metal  and  patina,  should  belong  to  the  Han  period 
of  Chinese  art,  about  200  B.C.  to  200  A.D. 

Fig.  14  is  taken  from  a  bronze  in  my  possession, 
which  I  bought  with  other  bronzes  as  ancient 
Chinese  ;  but  it  is  more  recent  than  13.  F"ig.  18 
shows  the  vase  in  outline,  and  fig.  19  the  design 
of  the  lid.  Fig.  14  has  curious  resemblances  to 
fig  15,  which  is  seemingly  a  lotus  design  (from 
Knossos),  and  it  does  not  seem  very  far  removed 
from  fig.  16,  a  rune  stone  of  the  Vikings,  this 
example  being  from  Ska-ring,  Soderland,  Sweden 
(a  bit  of  the  bodv  is  left  out,  being  too  long  in  the 
oval).  If  this  snake  were  biting  his  tail  the  Durrow 
book  pattern  would  be  accounted  for.  It  is  true 
the  creatures  of  fig.  11  have  legs  of  a  sort  and  tails, 
those  thin  winding  lines  which  seem  to  tie  them 


134 


The  Snake  Pattern 


together,  hut,  although  Mr.  Romilly  Allen  says  all 
'morphs'  have  their  remote  origin  in  the  lion,  I 
am  inclined  to  think  that  in  this  particular  case 


the  Irish  artist  had  no  actual  knowledge  of  serpents 
or  of  any  creature  without  legs,  so  he  added  them 
to  the  pattern  which  had  come  into  his  stock, 
somehow,  from  beyond  the  seas.  The  Book  of 
Kells  (eighth  century)  has  snaky  '  morphs  '  inter- 
woven on  a  waving  pattern  not  in  rings.  I  was  a 
little  diffident  about  my  explanation,  though  I  could 
recall  no  real  snakes  in  Irish  art,  so  I  asked  Dr. 
Norman  Moore  if  he  knew  of  any  and  received 
the  following  answer.  The  bell  shrine  snake  he 
mentions  has  also  a  leg. 

'  Natrix,  a  serpent,  is  in  Irish  Nathair  (in  older 
Irish  written  Nathir). 

'  The  word  occurs  in  the  famous  manuscript  of 
Priscian,  the  grammarian,  at  St.  Gall.  The 
manuscript  is  full  of  glosses,  and  the  Latin  word 
natrix  is  glossed  (f.  69A)  "  ind  nathir  sin  " — that 
serpent.  The  manuscript  is  not  later  than  the 
ninth  century. 

'St.  Broccan  lived  in  the  seventh  century,  and 
there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  the  authenticity  of  his 
hymn  in  praise  of  St.  Brigit,  though  the  MS. 
belongs  to  the  eleventh  century. 

'  In  the  third  stanza  of  his  hymn  the  third  line 
is  "  ni  bu  naithir  bemnech  brecc  " — she  was  not  a 
serpent,  blow-giving,  speckled. 

'  In  a  manuscript  at  Turin  (where  I  saw  it  before 
the  fire),  the  glosses  of  which  have  been  printed, 
occurs  the  note  : — 

'  ind  naithir  humaithe  thai. 
'  the  serpent     brazen    there. 

'The  manuscript  is  probably  of  the  ninth 
century. 

'These  passages  will  convince  you  that  the 
ancient  Irish  knew  snakes  in  literature.  They 
never  saw  them  in  their  own  island,  for  in  early 
times,  as  at  the  present  day,  snakes  formed  no  part 
of  the  Irish  fauna. 

'  In  a  manuscript  of  the  fourteenth  century  (in 
its  oldest  part),  now  in  the  Bodleian  (Rawlinson, 


B.   512),  there  is  a  note    comparing    Ireland    to 
Paradise  : — 

'Inis    hErenn,         tra,         ro    suidigad      isin 
'  Isle    of  Erin,  moreover,    is      situate     in  the 
fuined.      Amal  ata        Pardas         Adaim     ic   an 
west.         As       is  the  Paradise  of  Adam  at  the 
turcbail  is  amlaid  ata  hErin  ocan  fuiniud.     Ocus 
sunrise,  so  likewise  is    Erin   at  the  sunset.      And 
atat     cosmaile     o      aicmud  uire         amal   ata 
they  are   similar  from  quality  of  earth  :   as       is 
Pardas        cen  biasta,  cen       nathraigh, 

Paradise  without    monsters,    without     snakes, 

cen    leomam,     cen    dracoin,  etc.  Is   amlaid  ata 
without   lions,  without    dragons,     so  likewise  is 
Eirin   fon    innus  cetna,     cen      nach   nanmanna 
Erin     in   manner  like,   without  any       animal 
nerchoitech  acht  mic-tire  nama 
noxious      but  the  wolf  alone. 

'St.  Patrick  is  related  to  have  fought  with  evil 
spirits  on  Croagh  Patrick,  and  to  have  driven 
those  there  present  out  of  Ireland,  and  this 
incident  seems  in  very  late  times  to  have  led  to 
the  notion  that  he  expelled  snakes  from  Ireland. 
This  is  not  be  found  in  any  ancient  account. 

'  I  agree  w-ith  you  as  to  the  rarity  or  perhaps 
absence  of  well  drawn  snakes  in  early  illuminated 
Irish  writings  and  designs,  and  it  may  easily  be 
imagined  that  since  the  Irish  never  met  with 
snakes  on  their  mountains  or  plains  they  therefore 
did  not  draw  them. 

'The  nearest  approach  I  remember  is  on  the 
top  part  of  the  left  side  of  the  cover  of  the  bell  of 
St.  Patrick's  will,  a  work  of  art  of  which  you 
probably  have  a  drawing.  There  is  a  copy  of  it 
in  this  house. 

'  The  passage  in  English  literature  of  which 
your  husband  was  thinking  refers  to  Iceland,  not 
Ireland.     It  is  in  Boswell's  Life  of  Johnson. 

'  Johnson  had  said  that  he  could  repeat  a 
complete  chapter  of  "  The  Natural  History  of 
Iceland"  from  the  Danish  of  Horrebow,  the  whole 
of  which  was  exactly  thus:  "Chap.  LXXII. 
Concerning  Snakes.  There  are  no  snakes  to  be 
met  with  throughout  the  whole  island." 

'  It  is,  of  course,  true  of  Ireland.  The  modern 
Irish  expression  for  snake  is  Nathair  nimhe,  often 
pronounced  -n  Athair  nimhe,  whence  a  false 
etymology  "  father  of  poison "  (neinh,  poison, 
genitive  nimhe).  Of  course,  the  true  rendering 
of  Nathair  (gen.  Nathrach)  nimhe,  is  Natrix 
venenifera,  a  genitive  being  often  thus  used  with 
adjectival  sense.' 

We  will  now  go  a  stage  further.  The  Chinese 
vase,  fig.  18,  from  which  pattern  fig.  14  is  taken, 
seems  to  me  to  be  a  connecting  link  or  to  be  the 
great-grandciiild  of  a  connecting  link  between 
the  snake  (?)  patterns  which  have  been  figured 
above,  and   a   very    interesting  series   of   bronze 


M 


^IS 


The  Snake  Pattern 

vessels,  supposed  to  be  hinging  Limps,  discovered 
in     Scandinavian     and     Danish     graves.       The 


supremely  interesting  point  is  that  although  they 
have  a  definite  characterization  of  their  own  we 
are  compelled  to  connect  them  with  the  Mycenaean 
period  in  the  Greek  islands,  and  with  Etruscan 
work  in  Central  and  Southern  Italy,  and  with 
designs  on  gold  discs  found  by  Dr.  Schliemann  at 
Mycenae.  Fig.  20  shows  the  bottom  of  a  hanging 
bronze  vase  found  at  Senate  in  Vestergdttland 
and  described  by  Oscar  Montelius  in  his  '  Swedish 


cover,  also  found  in  a  bog  at  Senate,  and  described 
by  Du  Chaillu  in  his  'Viking  Age.'     Fig.  22    is 
another  described  by  Oscar    Montelius. 
Fig.  23,  another  found  in  Sweden.  Mon- 
^"^^^^^^V      telius  assigns  vases  of  this  class  to  all  three 
V5^=*:fc^  \    periods  of  the  bronze  age,  the  beginning 
iU('      of  which  he  puts  as  far  back  as,  at  any  rate, 
r    1500  B.C.      Some  vases  which  have  four 
holes  instead  of   two    handles  he   allots 
to  the  '  interesting   period    between    the 
bronze  and  the  iron  age ' — that  is,  about 
500  B.C. 

With  regard  to  correspondences  with 
other  ancient  art,  for  general  shape  we 
may  refer  to  Central  and  Southern  Italian 
pottery  of  what  is  usually  called  the 
Etruscan  period,  figured  by  Oscar 
Montelius  in  his  various  works  on  primi- 
tive civilization  (see  figs.  24-28),  also  to 
fig.  29  (pottery),  and  No.  30  (bronze  from 
Bologna  graves  of  the  later  iron  age). 

In  the  matter  of  design    fig.    23,    part 

of  a  Scandinavian  hanging  vessel,  may 

be  compared  with  fig.  31,  a  vase  pattern 

from  the  case  of  pottery  of  the  Mycenaean  period 


in  lalysos  and  Rhodes. 


Fig. 


13  may  be  compared 


with  32,  33,  34,  from  the  same  case.  Fig.  22,  Scan- 
dinavian, suggests  some  affinity  with  fig.  35,  a 
primitive  Italian  bronze  (Montelius)  ;  and  fig.  36, 
which  is  from  the  middle  of  the  bottom  of  a  Swedish 
hanging  vessel  of  bronze,  has  a  cousinship  with  fig. 
37,  from  an  Etruscan  pottery  vase. 

The  little  snakes  round  the  centre  of  fig.  23 
(Northern)  are  to  be  found  on  various  Southern 
vases.  See  for  example  figs.  25,  29  and  the 
grotesque  Etruscan  head,  fig.  38. 


Antiquities.'     Tliis     should    be    compared    with 

fig-  19-  ,  ■  , 

Fig.  21  is  another  similar  vase,  complete  with  a 

136 


The   gold  discs  found   at    xMycenae   offer    the 
most  remarkable  resemblance  that  I  have  found 
y where   to   the   peculiar    meander   patterns   ot 


an 


The  Snake  Pattern 


these  vases.     I  have  sketched  two  (figs.  39  and  40) 
out  of  several  showing  this  close  likeness. 


are  primitive  Bolognese — they  speak  for  them- 
selves. Fig.  48  is  the  ordinary  Greek  snake  of  the 
best  period  vases. 

Similar  chains  of  resemblance  can  be  traced  in 


from  the  tombs  of  Cabiri  in  Boeotia,  600-500  B.C. ; 
figs.  42-45  are  Scandinavian  patterns  ;  46  and  47 


respect  of  bird  forms,  with  the  universal  lion,  with 
key  or  meander  patterns  and  interlaced  work,  with 
terminal  heads  on  handles  and  weapons,  and  with 
regard  to  certain  other  details. 


THE  SACRAMENTAL  PLATE  OF  S.  PETER'S 
CHURCH,  VERE  STREET 

;A^  BY  ARTHUR  F.  G.   LEVESON  GOWER  rjkr 


HE  Sacramental  Plate  in  use 
at  S.  Peter's  Church,  Vere 
Street,  is  of  considerable  in- 
terest. It  was  given  to  the 
church  by  Edward  Lord 
Harley  and  his  wife  Hen- 
rietta, only  daughter  and 
heiress  of  John  Cavendish 
Holies,  Duke  of  Newcastle,  at  the  opening  on 
Easter  Day,  1724.  The  church,  which  was 
founded    by  Lord   and  Lady   Harley  (afterwards 


Earl  and  Countess  of  Oxford)  for  the  use  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  new  houses  in  Marylebone 
Fields,  was  first  called  Marylebone  Chapel,  and 
then  successively  O.xford  Chapel  and  S.  Peter's 
Church.  The  church  was  designed  by  the  well- 
known  architect,  James  Gibbs,  who  was  also 
architect  of  the  Church  of  S.  Martin's-in-the- 
Fields,  in  addition  to  many  other  well-known 
buildings  in  London,  Oxford,  Cambridge  and 
elsewhere. 

The   plate   includes   two    flagons   of   silver-gilt 


Tlate  of  S.  Peters  Qhurch^  Vere  Street 


with  plain  cylindrical  bodies  on  spreading  moulded 
feet,  with  flattened  dome  covers  and  scroll  handles 
of  the  time  of  James  I,  1617. 

These  flagons  are  inscribed  'For  the  use  of 
Marybone  Chapell,  the  gift  of  the  Founders, 
Easter  Day,  1724.' 

The  flagons  are  engraved  with  the  followmg 
coat  of  arms.  Quarterly  i  and  4,  or,  a  bend  cottised 
sable  (for  Harley)  ;  2  and  3,  or,  two  lions  passant 
gules  (for  Brampton).  On  an  escutcheon  of 
pretence,  quarterly  i  and  4,  ermine,  two  piles  m 
point  sable  (for  Holies) ;  2  and  3  sable,  three  bucks 
heads  argent  attired  or  (for  Cavendish).  The 
supporters  are  two  angels  ppr.  habited,  and  wings 
displayed  or.  Underneath  is  the  motto  '  Virtute 
et  fide.'  On  the  covers  is  the  crest,  a  castle 
triple-towered  or;  out  of  the  middle  tower  a 
demi-lion  issuant  gules  (for  Harley). 

The  alms  dish,  which  is  oval,  is  of  silver-gilt, 
with  plain  sunk  centre,  the  border  ornamented 
with  leafage  strapwork,  and  shells  with  gadroon 
and  rosette  edging.  Its  length  is  \']\  inches  and 
the  date  is  George  I,  1724. 

This  dish  is  inscribed  '  For  the  use  of  Marybone 
Chapel  the  Gift  of  the  Founders  1724.' 

There  are  two  chalices  or  cups  of  silver  gilt, 
with  arabesque  and  convex  flute  strap  ornament, 
baluster  stems  and  moulded  feet,  8  inches  high. 
These  are  of  the  time  of  George  I  ;  but  they  are 
not  hall-marked,  the  probability  being  that  they 
had  to  be  made  by  a  given  date— viz.,  Easter  1724 — 
and  that  there  was  no  time  to  stamp  them,  and 
that  they  were  allowed  to  be  sent  to  the  church 


on  the  occasion  of  the  opening  on  Easter  Day  to 
be  returned  to  be  hall-marked  afterwards,  but  that 
this  was  eventually  omitted  to  be  done.  These 
cups  are  engraved  '  For  the  use  of  Marybone 
Chapell  the  Gift  of  the  Founders,  Easter  Day 
1724,'  and  underneath  are  the  words  '  Bibite  ex 
hoc  omnes.' 

The  two  patens  of  silver-gilt,  which  form  covers 
to  the  cups,  are  plain,  with  raised  edges  on  plain 
feet  and  are  engraved  with  the  words  '  Hoc  est 
Corpus  Meum.'  These  patens  are  5^  inches  in 
diameter,  and  are  of  the  time  of  George  I. 

In  addition  to  the  above  there  is  an  interesting 
piece  of  foreign  plate — viz.,  a  silver-gilt  dish, 
circular,  with  shaped  edge,  boldly  chased  with 
bosses,  terminating  in  spiral  convex  flutes,  and 
interspersed  with  punched  scroll  ornament,  having 
a  plain  circular  centre,  bordered  with  matted  band 
and  engraved  with  a  foreign  coat  of  arms  and 
coronet.  This  dish  is  13^  inches  in  diameter,  is 
late  seventeenth  century,  and  manufactured  at 
Dantzig. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  bell  of  S.  Peter's 
Church  is  also  engraved  with  the  names  of  Lord 
and  Lady  Harley,  the  founders,  and  with  the 
maker's  name,  Phelps,  who  also  made  the  big  bell 
of  S.  Paul's  Cathedral.  Richard  Phelps  was 
predecessor  to  the  present  firm  of  Mears  and 
Stainbank. 

Several  famous  organists  are  also  connected 
with  the  church,  amongst  whom  may  be  enume- 
rated William  Boyce  and  Edward  Francis 
Rimbault. 


THE    ENAMELLING    AND    METALLESQUE    ORIGIN    OF 
THE  ORNAMENT  IN  THE  BOOK  OF  DURROW 
^  BY  JOSEPH  M.   DORAN    ^^ 

HEN  in  Dublin  a  short 

time  ago,  with  a  double 

intention  in  view — to  see 

if   any   of   the    technical 

processes  used  by  the  old 

Irish  craftsmen  were  re- 

vivable,  and  also  if  they 

would    throw   any    light 

^ „. ...  I  was  attracted 

by  a  piece  of  champleve  enamel  with  panels 
suggesting  milletiori  glass  (fig.  i).  My  interest 
was  redoubled  when  later  I  found  that  the  illumm- 
ators  had  evidently  derived  some  of  their  decorative 
motives  from  work  of  this  kind  (fig.  2).  Both  Du 
Chaillu,  in  his  'Viking  Age,'and  Dr.  Ingvald  Undset, 
in  '  Petites  Etudes  surle  dernier  age  de  fer  en  Nor- 
v^ge,'  published  in  the  '  M6moires  de  la  Societc 
des  Antiquaires  du  Nord'  for  1890,  have  noticed 
and  illustrated  bronze  vessels  found  in  graves  in 
Norway  which  are  embellished  with  enamel  similar 

138 


on  the  origin  of  Irish  Christian  art 


FIG.  I.     FRAGMENT    OF     ENAMELLED     BRONZE   IN 
THE    ROYAL  IRISH  ACADEMY  COLLECTION,  DUBLIN 


It 


,^^ 


,^' 


The  Ornament  of  the  Book  of  Durrow 


from  ^he  5ooKoj  Kelis, 
Gospel  XV,  2-5. 


FIG.    2 


to  the  piece  in 
the  Royal  Irish 
Academy  col- 
lection  in 
Dublin.  Dr. 
Undset  is  of 
SrIi>.Tk  opinion  that 
these  bronze 
vessels  came 
from  this 
country,  but 
is  unable  to  determine  whether  from  England, 
Ireland  or  Scotland.  However,  their  interest  lies  in 
the  fact  that  the  illuminator  of  the  Book  of  Durrow, 
when  he  drew  the  symbol  of  St.  Matthew  (fig.  3), 
was  evidently  inspired  by  a  handle  similar  to  one 
that  Dr.  Undset  illustrates  (fig.  4).  The  symbols 
of  the  other  three  Evangelists  in  this  manuscript 
show  the  same  infiuence  in  varying  degree,  that  of 
St.  Luke  least  of  all.  The  'Cross'  page  in  the 
same  manuscript  (fig.  5),  places  the  matter  beyond 
the  shadow  of  a  doubt.     The  cross  is  evidently  the 

illuminator's  ver- 
sion of  this  kind 
of  enamel,  which 
for  the  sake  of 
being  explicit,  but 
using  the  term 
loosely,  we  might 
name  'champleve- 
millefiori  enamel ' 
(Mr.  Day  in  his 
recent  book  on 
enamelling  makes 
some  valuable 
technical  remarks 
on  millefiori  glass 
inlay  on  metal), 
and  when  one 
sees  what  the  cross 
has  been  derived 
from,  the  rest  of 
the  page,  with  its 
bright  yellow, 
green  and  red  in- 
terlacings,  separ- 
ated from  a  black 
background  by  a 
line  of  colourless 
vellum,  becomes, 
one  might  almost 
say,  an  elaborate 
pieceofchampleve 
enamel,  the  vellum 
Ime  correspond- 
S^mboX  o|-  S>t  Mi-ffKetu,  jro-m  ing  to  the  metal 
"  me  ^oKof  Dw^Trpgi?,     ■       one   left    by    the 

enameller  and  the 
black  background 
being  of  course  the  calligrapher's  writing  fluid. 


The  late  ].  Romilly  Allen  has  pointed  out  that 
the  page  of  'Trumpet'  pattern  in  this  manuscript 
was  derived  from  enamelled  discs  showing  that 
device,  and  the  enamelled  roundels  on  the  'Thames' 
shield  in  the  British  Museum,  which  are  resembled 
in  technique  by  those  on  the  Ardagh  chalice,  are 
also  used  in  the  ornamentation  of  the  Books  of 
Durrow  and  Kells  (fig.  6). 

It  is  most  significant  that  the  dominant  note  in 
the  ornamented  pages  of  the  Book  of  Durrow 
should  be  derived  from  a  phase  of  enamelling 
associated  so  unmistakably  with  the  Romano- 
British  period  and  a  phase  of  glass  working  which, 
if  not  associated  quite  so  closely  with  the  same 
period,  has  at  least  left  some  traces  of  connexion 
with  it.  There  are  two  other  instances  of  the 
familiarity  of  the  Irish  craftsmen  with  Roman 
glass-working  methods  :  one  in  the  glass  cameos 
on  the  '  Tara '  brooch,  and  the  other  in  the  practice 
of  engraving  a  pattern  in  a  glass  base  and  filling  it 
with  another 
vitreous  paste 
which  melts  at  a 
lower  tempera- 
ture than  that  to 
which  it  is  ap- 
plied ;  of  which 
Roman  examples 
can  be  seen  in 
a  collection  of 
rings  in  the  Glass 
Room  of  the 
British  Museum, 
and  its  Irish 
parallel  on  the 
upper  side  of 
the  foot  of  the  Handle  o[  BTon3e  Vessel 
Ardagh  chalice.  .  .  .  , 

Having    got  a  fo«J.na  ^^^  Moklebusr,  Notlu^. 

clue  to  what  was      fig  4 
dominating     the 

mind  of  the  illuminator  of  the  Book  of  Durrow  in 
some  portions  of  his  work,  let  us  see  if  it  is  applic- 
able to  all.  Take,  for  instance,  the  opening  words 
of  the  Gospel  of  St.  John.  Some  of  the  interlaced 
patterns  on  this  page  show  a  peculiar  treatment 
(fig.  7).  Observe  how  a  strand  which  is  double  in 
one  part  of  the  pattern  is  divided  into  single 
strands  in  another  (evidently  in  the  illuminator's 
mind  each  is  a  separate  unit),  and  how  colour  is 
interspersed  in  the  spaces  between  the  knots. 

Naturally  influenced  by  the  facts  we  have  already 
ascertained,  we  turn  to  the  art  of  the  Romano- 
British  period  to  see  if  there  are  any  remains  of 
enamelled  metal-work  showing  interlacing,  and 
find,  so  far  as  I  know,  only  one  specimen,  but  a 
most  significant  one,  a  gold  bracelet  (said  to  be 
of  the  second  century  a.d.),  found  in  Radnorshire 
and  now  in  the  Gem  Room  of  the  British 
Museum.      The  interlaced  portion  is  composed  of 


H3 


The  Ornament  of  the  Book  of  T)urrow 


three  strands  of  gold  wire  placed  parallel  to  each 
other   and  then    interwoven  ;     the  clasp,  which 


eUam  \t\i  coloul i— Jrles3 


lT\^eI■l»■c^'i 
Green  pile "3  '^0, 

line  ofcoulr 


4wn<!)  yeUouj 
bAckqrouncL^Xl 


from  fhe  Book  of  Durrocu. 


FIG.  5 


shows  characteristic    Celtic    curves    made    with 
beaded  wire,  has  little  dots  soldered  here  and  there 

ENAMELLEFIS'       VERSIONS. 


THAMLS     SHIELD.*    ARDAGH    CHALICE. 
(  LLL!.M  I  NATOFLS'     VCRSIONS. 


BOOK  Of  DURR-OVi'.  •    BOOK  OF  KE.LLS. 
FIG,  6 

at  the  junctions  of  the  curves  and  enamel  in  the 
spaces  between  the  wires  (fig.  8).  It  seems  to  me 
a  short  step  from  introducing  enamel  in  the  spaces 
left  by  the  curves  and  spirals  to  introducing  it  in 


those  left  by  the  interlaced  wire.  If  this  is 
granted  we  have  an  excellent  reason  for 
Ihe  invention  of  the  stopped 
knot  in  the  endeavour  of  the 
workman  to  get  a  large  space 
in  which  to  put  enamel ;  in 
fact,  the  invention  of  the 
stopped  knot  was  forced  on 
him,  or  else  he  would  have  had 
to  abandon  a  most  obvious  idea. 
By  a  process  of  reasoning  back 
from  the  pattern  in  the  Book 
of  Durrow  which  I  have  just 
cited,  and  the  peculiar  treat- 
ment of  which  would  be  ex- 
plained by  the  fact  that  it  is  a 
development  of  interlaced  pat- 
terns similar  to  that  on  the 
Radnorshire  bracelet  built  up 
of  strands  of  wire  (hence  the 
separating  of  one  strand  from 
another),  we  see  the  idea  was 
not  abandoned.  The  problem 
was  solved,  most  likely  in  Brit- 
ain, and  a  new  decorative  device 
was  evolved  which  later  gen- 
erations of  Celtic  craftsmen 
carried  as  far  as  it  was  humanly 
possible. 

Further  proof  of  this  theory 
can  be  seen  on  the  Welsh 
Crosses  illustrated  in  Westwood's  '  Lapida- 
rium  Walliae.'  Plate  lo.  2.  B.  shows  the  sculptor's 
version  of  the  goldsmith's  wire  and  dots,  so  do 
patterns  on  plates  28  and  43,  and  in  his  description 
of  the  cross  in  Nevern  churchyard,  Pembrokeshire 
illustrated  on  plate  62,  Westwood  remarks  that 
'  some  of  the  gigantic  initials  above  alluded  to 
(in  Irish  manuscripts)  may  be  said  truly  to  repre- 
sent the  shafts  of  these  great  crosses  reduced  to 
the  size  of  a  miniature,  thus  proving  the  identity  of 
the  workmanship  as  well  as  the  workmen  by  whom 
both  classes  of  monument  were  executed.'  This 
is  partially  correct  ;  both  were  derived,  though  I 


FIG.    7 


FIG.   8.      EX.-VMELLED    GOLD  BRACELET   FOUND 
IN  R.'VDNORSHIRE.         IN  THE  BRITISH    MUSEUM 

think  independently  of   each  other,  from  the  en- 
amelling and  goldsmiths'  work  I  have  been  alluding 


144 


The  Ornament  of  the  'Book  of  T^urrow 


to.  Another  instance  of  the  fact  that,  wliether  a 
strand  was  double  of  treble,  each  of  its  units  was 
considered  separate  can  be  seen  on  plate  83,  fig.  2, 
where  the  double  strand  of  which  the  interlaced 
portion  is  composed  separates  into  its  units,  which 
are  used  to  make  a  symmetrical  fret  pattern  of 
Roman  type.  Westwood  points  out  several  Roman 
fret  patterns  on  the  Welsh  crosses — fig.  4,  plate  83, 
for  instance. 

It  is  evident  from  the  facts  shown  above  that  the 


Book  of  Dlutow  is  one  of  the  earliest  of  the 
illuminated  manuscripts  of  the  Celtic  school,  and 
also  that  it  was  done  before  the  continental  in- 
fluences to  be  seen  in  the  Book  of  Kells  had 
reached  Ireland,  as  all  the  ornament  in  it,  with  the 
exception  of  the  zoomorphic  portions,  has  been 
traced  to  internal  sources.  Is  it  possible  the  inscrip- 
tion it  contains,  assigning  its  writing  to  '  Columba,' 
is  correct  as  to  date,  and  that  it  belongs  to  the 
later  part  of  the  sixth  century  ? 


DOCCIA  PORCELAIN  OF  THE  EARLIEST  PERIOD 
c^   BY  DR.  EDMUND  WILHELM  BRAUN  cKs 


ITTLE  is  known  about  the 
beginningsof  the  different  Italian 
manufactories  of  porcelain. 
Though  Franks  in  his  'Cata- 
logue of  a  Collection  of  Conti- 
nental Porcelain,'  and  Chaffers 
m  his  '  Keramic  Gallery,'  as 
well  as  in  his  '  Marks  and 
historical  notes  and 
to 


something 


enlarge 


Monograms,'  have    given 
reproductions,   which    do  _ 

this  knowledge,  their  work  is  not  free  from  errors 
and  mistakes.  For  instance,  I  have  been  able  to 
identify  the  number  456,  the  statue  of  a  Roman 
warrior  seated,  which  Franks  described  as  being 
of  Venetian  origin,  as  a  piece  from  the  manufactory 
of  Fiirstenberg ;  and  the  tureen,  bearing  the 
name  of  the  painter  Jacobus  Helchis,  reproduced 
as  Venetian  porcelain  by  Chaffers,  and  described 
as  German,  uncertain,  by  Franks,  I  was  able,  in 
connexion  with  several  other  pieces  bearing  the 
same  signature,  to  identify  as  early  Vienna  porce- 
lain about  1735.'  After  much  study  and  travel  I 
have  got  together  a  large  quantity  of  material  for 
a  history  of  the  Italian  manufactories  in  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  which  I  hope  to  publish  in  the 
future.  Here  I  wish  merely  to  call  attention  to  a 
new  discovery,  made  by  myself,  which  throws  a 
very  interesting  and  instructive  light  on  the 
beginning  of  the  manufactory  of  porcelain  in 
Doccia  near  Florence,  founded  by  the  Marchese 
Giuori  in  1737. 

We  know  from  a  short  historical  review  (pub- 
lished by  the  still  existing  manufactory)  of  the 
history  of  the  manufactory  by  Lorenzini,  that  the 
first  porcelain  was  made,  after  two  years  of  experi- 
ment, in  1737,  with  the  help  of  Carl  Wandhelein, 
of  the  Vienna  manufactory. 

In  the  above-mentioned  book  on  the  Vienna 
manufactory  of  porcelain  I  have  pointed  out  the 
fact  that  no  Carl  Wandhelein  was  known  in  the 
latter  manufactory,  but  there  was  a  Carl  Wendelin 
Anreiter,  whose  signature  appears  on  many  pieces 

'  See  the  recently  publislied  book,  '  The  History  of  the 
Imperial  Vienna  Minufactory  of  Porcelain,' written  by  my- 
self and  my  friend,  Josef  Folnesics. 


of  Vienna  porcelain,  and  who  belonged  to  the 
great  family  of  porcelain  painters  and  miniaturists, 
Anreiter  von  Zirnfeld.  I  am  of  opinion  that  in 
the  account  given  in  the  Italian  review  some  con- 
fusion has  taken  place.  The  Italians  changed,  as 
it  seems,  the  second,  to  them  unknown,  baptismal 
name  Wendelin  into  Wandhelein.  The  correctness 
of  this  supposition  is  proved  by  the  fact,  that  there 
have  recently  appeared  two  cups  painted  by 
Anreiter  in  Doccia. 

The  collection  of  Dr.  Fritz  Clemm,  sold  by 
auction  in  Berlin  in  December,  1907,  contained 
one  of  these  cups  (cat.  No.  183).  It  is  a  slender 
cup  without  handles,  curving  outwards  tovv,u-ds 
the  brim,  and  octangular  in  shape.  The  inside  is 
entirely  gilded,  as  is  also  the  foot.  The  eight 
arched  fields  on  the  outside  are  richly  painted, 
chiefly  with  market-scenes  containing  two  or 
often  three  figures,  alternating  with  iron-red 
scrolls  which  make  the  framework  to  a  panel  en- 
closing a  gold  etched  bust,  which  is  a  form  of 
ornamentation  in  use  in  the  first  half  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century.  Above  the  gold  foot  there  is 
written  in  extremely  small  iron-red  letters  the 
signature  '  Carlo  Anreiter  VZ.'  This  VZ  does  not 
mean  the  abbreviation  of  Venezia,  as  the  Clemm 
catalogue  suggests,  but  is  the  abbreviation  of 
Anreiter's  suffix  '  von  Zirnfeld.' 

Opposite  to  this  signature  is  a  second  one 
'  Fierenze,'  not  remarked  by  the  compiler  of  the 
catalogue  of  the  Clemm  sale  (figs,  i  and  2).  The 
cup  was  bought  at  the  rather  high  price  of  1,600 
marks  by  a  Vienna  collector  of  porcelain,  Herr 
Heinrich  Rolhberger.  The  exact  pair  to  this  cup 
is  in  the  possession  of  the  Kaiser  Franz  Josef 
Museum  in  Troppau,  to  which  it  was  presented  by 
the  great  art  collector,  the  Baron  George  Beess  of 
Vienna  ;  this  second  piece  shows  the  same  colour- 
ing and  double  signature  '  C.  Anreiter  VZ.'  and 
'  P'ierenze'  (fig.  3).  The  substance  of  the  cup 
shows  clearly  that  it  is  a  trial  piece.  The  too  cal- 
careous and  therefore  too  vitreous  enamel  is  too 
thickly  put  on  the  porcelain,  and  some  sandy 
ruggedness  on  the  bottom  indicates  still  existing 
technical  inadequacy. 

H5 


IDoccia   Porcelain 


Both  these  signed  pieces  are  indubitable  early 
Doccia  porcelains,  and  through  comparison  with 
these  I  am  able  to  ascribe  to  the  same  manufactory 
a  charming,  finely  modelled  flagon  in  the  collection 
of  Herr  Cahn-Speyer  in  Vienna,  which  is  painted 
exactly  in  the  same  manner  with  figure  subjects 

(fig-  4)- 

The  ornamental  decoration  of  the  above  des- 
cribed cups  shows  clearly  the  influence  of  the 
earliest  Vienna  porcelains,  but  the  pretty  figures 
are  very  likely  painted  after  contemporary  Italian 
prints. 

A  second  group  of  early  Italian  porcelains  which 
show  the  direct  influence  of  Meissen  models 
I  also  ascribe  to  the  manufactory  of  Doccia. 
The  pieces  in  question  are  cups,  tureens  with 
covers  and  saucers,  etc.,  for  the  most  part  with  the 
so-called  'Neuozier'  brim,  and  cartouches,  framed 


by  iron-red  and  golden  tendrils  and  violet 
lustre  fields,  painted  with  coloured  Chinese  and 
pastoral  scenes. 

I  reproduce  here  a  tureen  from  the  museum  of 
the  porcelain  manufactory  at  Charlottenburg  (fig. 
c;),  a  tureen  from  the  Berlin  Kunstgewerbe 
Museum  (fig.  6),  a  cup  from  the  collection  of  Dr. 
Sarbo  in  Budapest  (fig.  7),  all  of  them  very  char- 
acteristic types  of  these  porcelains. 

A  number  of  pieces  with  the  same  decoration  were 
once  owned  by  the  Marchese  d'Azeglio,  whose  col- 
lection is  now  at  the  Museo  Civico  in  Turin  ;  one  of 
these  pieces  bears  the  stamp,  also  reproduced  by 


Chaffers 


© 


containing  the    initials  of    Pietro 


FanciuUo,  who  was  working  in  the  manufactory 
of  Doccia. 


THE  GORLESTON  PSALTER 
^  BY  SIR   EDWARD   MAUNDE  THOMPSON,  K.C.B. 


rA; 


N  the  course  of  the  last  few 
years  there  has  been  a  consider- 
able revival  in  the  general 
interest  in  and  study  of  Illu- 
minated Manuscripts,  after  a 
fairly  long  period  during  which 
these  beautiful  productions  of 
the  Middle  Ages  rather  dropped 
into  the  background  in  presence  of  other  more 
fashionable  literary  and  artistic  pursuits  succes- 
sively in  vogue.  Those  of  us  whose  memory  goes 
back  some  five-and-forty  years  will  not  have 
forgotten  how  popular  was  then  the  taste  for 
copying  from  illuminations.  Ruskin,  the  apostle  of 
mediaeval  art,  was  in  the  zenith  of  his  glory.  His 
disciples  were  many  and  enthusiastic  ;  and  the 
Preraphaelite  school  was  flourishing. 

The  modern  revival  of  the  taste  is  chiefly  due 
to  means  which  can  reach  further  than  even  the 
eloquent  voice  and  pen  of  Ruskin  ever  reached. 
Mechanical  contrivances  for  photographic  repro- 
duction now  perform  feats  which  would  once 
have  been  regarded  almost  as  magic,  and,  though 
they  cannot  bring  together  the  actual  manuscripts 
from  their  several  resting-places,  they  can  present 
us  with  their  simulacra  in  such  an  accurate  form 
that  the  study  and  comparison  of  illuminations,  as 
indeed  of  other  works  of  art,  are  made  easy,  and 
the  published  works  upon  the  subject  are  rendered 
intelligible  and  instructive  to  the  general  reader  to 
a  degree  which  was  formerly  impossible. 

The  monograph  before  us '  is  an  instance  of 
the  modern  method  of  treatment  in  describing  an 
important  manuscript — minute    and  accurate  in 

''The  Gorleston  Psalter':  .t  manuscript  of  the  beginning  of 
the  fourteenth  century  in  the  Library  of  C.  \V.  Dyson  Perrins. 
Described  in  relation  to  other  East  Anglian  books  of  the  period 
by  Sydney  C.Cockerell.    London:  Bernard  Quaritch.   /3  i3s.6d. 

146 


detail,  after  a  fashion  that  might  prove  tiresome 
were  it  not  for  the  generous  supply  of  photographic 
illustrations  which  are  selected,  not  only  from  the 
manuscript  itself,  but  also  from  other  volumes,  for 
purposes  of  comparison.  Mr.  Cockerell  has  not 
failed  to  render  his  description  in  this  respect  as 
complete  and  instructive  as  possible. 

The  Gorleston  Psalter  is  one  of  a  group  of 
illuminated  manuscripts  produced  in  the  Eastern 
Counties  early  in  the  fourteenth  century  ;  works 
of  the  East  Anglian  school  of  book  decoration, 
which,  while  essentially  English  in  sentiment, 
probably  owes  something  to  the  influence  of 
the  art  of  French  Flanders  from  across  the 
Channel.  Without  going  altogether  with  Mr. 
Cockerell  when  he  finds 'a  sympathy  with  the 
vigorous  schools  of  Artois  and  French  Flanders  ' 
to  be  '  clearly  shown  in  the  fondness  for  marginal 
grotesques' — for  the  fondness  for  grotesques  in  the 
mediaeval  art  of  the  countries  of  western  Europe 
was  too  universal  to  be  marked  down  as  the 
special  attribute  of  any  particular  school — yet  we 
may  certainly  agree  that  there  is  a  reminiscence  of 
Flemish  art  in  certain  forms  of  the  conventional 
foliage  and  in  the  occasional  heaviness  of  outline 
in  the  drawings.  So  far  we  may  concede  an  ex- 
ternal influence.  But  the  general  style  of  the 
East  Anglian  school  is  peculiarly  its  own— not  of 
the  very  highest  type  of  illumination,  robust 
rather  than  refined,  and  in  its  scheme  of  ornament 
rather  inclining  to  heaviness  and  over-elaboration  : 
faultswhicharepartiallydisguisedin  theoriginals  by 
brilliant  colouring  and  liberal  use  of  gold,  but 
which  obtrude  themselves  in  the  unrelieved  mono- 
tone of  the  photographs. 

The  manuscript,  which  has  hitherto  been 
generally  known  as  the  Braybrooke  Psalter,  seems 
to  have  been  e.xecuted,  as  Mr.  Cockerell  tells  us, 


I.       nuCClA    Cll'    PAINTED    BY   AXKKITKK.      IN    THI-; 
CliLLECTIciX   OF    HERN    H.     KOTHBEKGEli,    VIENNA 


OPFOMTE   HUE   OF   CLP    IN    FIG.    I 


3.       DCILXIA    HP    PAlNTEIl    BY    ANKEIThK.        IN 
THE    KAIM-N    FNAN/.-JOSEF    MISEL'M,  TKoPPAU 


4.      DoiX  \  \    II I   ■     I  HE   COLLEC- 
TION   OF    HEKK    CAH.N-bPEYEU,    VIENNA 


/^ 


n 


UOCCIA    POKCELAIN    OF    THE 
EARLIEST   PERIOD.      PLATE   I 


<^^ 


5.      DOCCIA   TIKEEX.      IN     THE    MUMIM    u\-    THE 
PORCELAIN  MANTKACTORY   AT  CHAKLOTTENlilRG 


0.      DllCClA      TIKEEX.         I\      THE 
KUNSTGEWERBE  MUSEUM.  BERLIN 


7.      DOCCIA  CUP.     IN  THE  COLLEC- 
TION    OK    DR.    SARBO,     BVDAPEST 


DOCCIA    PORCELAIN    OF    THE 
EARLIEST   PERIOD.      PLATE    II 


The   Gorleston    Tsalter 


for  some  distinguished  person  connected  with  the 
church  of  St.  Andrew  of  Gorleston,  a  place  once 
of  some  importance  lying  close  to  Yarmouth. 
Influenced  chiefly  by  the  occurrence,  in  two 
places  in  the  volume,  of  the  arms  of  Roger  de 
Bigod,  fifth  earl  of  Norfolk  and  Marshal  of 
England,  who  died  in  1306,  Mr.  Cockerell  is 
led  to  suggest  tentatively  that  the  earl  was  the 
distinguished  person  in  question  ;  and  again,  on 
this  assumption,  he  is  induced,  rather  contrary  to 
his  better  judgment,  to  fix  the  date  of  the  manu- 
script earlier  than  1306.  But  so  many  shields  of 
arms  of  different  English  families  are  introduced 
into  the  illuminated  pages  merely  as  ornaments, 
that  there  seems  to  be  no  good  reason  for  attaching 
more  importance  to  one  coat  than  to  another  ; 
and,  as  to  the  actual  period  of  the  execution  of  the 
volume,  some  clue  is  afforded  by  the  character  of 
the  writing  of  the  catchwords  of  the  quires,  which 
are  in  a  charter-hand  of  the  type  which  is  usually 
attributed  to  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  Arguments 
from  such  niceties,  however,  must  not  be  pressed 
too  far.  There  is  good  reason  for  assuming  that 
the  manuscript,  like  the  great  Ormesby  Psalter  of 
the  Bodleian  Library,  passed  at  an  early  date  into 
the  possession  of  the  cathedral  priory  of  Norwich, 
for  a  litany  applicable  to  that  church  was  added 
to  the  volume  in  the  course  of  the  fourteenth 
century.  By  the  sixteenth  century  it  had  passed 
into  secular  hands,  being  then  owned  by  Sir 
Thomas  Cornwallis,  a  noted  East  Anglian,  who 
flourished  in  the  reigns  of  Mary  and  Elizabeth  and 
even  survived  to  see  King  James  upon  the  throne. 
It  descended  in  the  Cornwallis  family  until  the 
death  of  the  second  Marquess  Cornwallis  in  1823, 
when  it  passed,  by  marriage,  to  the  Lords  Bray- 
brooke  of  Audley  End.  Mr.  Perrins,  the  present 
fortunate  owner,  acquired  the  manuscript  in  1904. 
By  way  of  frontispiece  to  the  present  publica- 
tion, the  page  containing  the  initial  and  border 
ornamenting  Psalm  ci  is  reproduced  in  colours, 
affording  a  sample  of  the  brilliant  decoration  of 
this  splendid  psalter.  The  central  object  which 
arrests  the  eye  is  the  graceful  female  figure  sym- 
bolizing the  Church,  which  appears  to  be  the  best 
example  of  decorative  figure-drawing  in  the  volume. 
With  the  colours  in  this  plate  to  guide  us,  we  can 
more  easily  follow  the  structure  of  the  peculiar 
conventional  growths  of  which  the  borders  of  the 
manuscripts  of  this  school  are  composed,  and  here, 
as  in  other  English  manuscripts,  a  pleasing 
feature  in  the  scheme  of  ornament  is  the  introduc- 
tion of  natural  plant  life— oak-leaves,  acorns,  daisies, 


etc.,  along  with  the  foliage  of  the  ordinary  stereo- 
typed pattern. 

The  rest  of  the  plates  are  photogravures  and 
collotypes  ;  and  it  is  among  these  that  a  selection 
from  the  illuminated  pages  of  other  manuscripts 
affords  us  the  means  of  comparing  the  art  of  the 
Gorleston  Psalter  with  that  of  other  examples  of 
the  East  Anglian  school.  Two  psalters  in  particular 
are  closely  connected  in  style  with  that  of 
Gorleston— -namely,  the  Douai  and  the  St. 
Omer  Psalters.  The  Douai  manuscript  is  itself 
of  Gorleston  origin,  having  been  the  gift  of 
Thomas,  vicar  of  Gorleston,  to  an  abbot  John, 
who  may  have  been  John  of  Aylesham,  abbot  of 
Hulme  in  Norfolk  from  1325  to  1346.  The  St. 
Omer  Psalter,  so  called  from  its  having  been 
executed  for  a  member  of  the  family  of  St.  Omer, 
is  unfortunately  incomplete.  It  now  forms  part 
of  the  collection  of  Mr.  Henry  Yates  Thompson. 
Comparing  the  '  Beatus '  page  (Ps.  i)  of  the  three 
several  manuscripts  (plates  iv,  xv,  xvii),  there  can 
be  no  hesitation  in  accepting  the  order  of  merit 
assigned  to  them  by  Mr.  Cockerell  :  the  St.  Omer 
is  facile  priiiccps,  and  the  Douai  excels  the 
Gorleston.  The  St.  Omer  page  is  a  wonderful 
production  of  minute  and  delicate  work,  with 
which  the  other  two  bear  no  comparison.  But 
even  in  this,  the  finest  example,  there  is  the  fault 
of  overcrowding ;  and  we  cannot  forgive  the 
artist  for  introducing  a  series  of  heads  or  busts  of 
startling  appearance  which  upset  the  balance  of 
the  design.  Nor  can  we  be  brought  to  admire 
the  two  Crucifixions  from  the  Gorleston  and  the 
Douai  volumes  (plates  iii,  xvi).  The  drawing  is 
poor  and  the  borders  are  unimaginative  ;  so  differ- 
ent from  the  noble  treatment  of  the  subject  as 
seen  in  the  Arundel  Psalter  in  the  British  Museum 
(plate  xxi),  probably  the  finest  example  in  existence 
of  this  school,  and  here  inadequately  represented 
by  two  plates,  we  regret  to  say  very  poorly 
executed. 

We  must  not  take  leave  of  this  handsome  and 
finely  printed  monograph,  for  which  we  have  to 
thank  Mr.  Perrins's  liberality,  without  noticing 
the  many  grotesques  and  humorous  scenes  from 
domestic  and  animal  life  with  which  Mr.  Cockerell 
has  filled  several  of  his  plates.  We  enjoy  the 
amusement  which  these  little  drawings  afford  us  ; 
no  doubt  they  amused  the  draughtsmen  still  more. 
But  we  never  cease  from  wondering  why  the 
margins  of  religious  books  were  so  frequently 
selected  to  receive  the  expression  of  very  mundane 
humour  and  even  the  parody  of  sacred  things. 


NOTES  ON  VARIOUS  WORKS  OF  ART 


THE  'PARADE,'  BY  GABRIEL  DE  SAINT- 

AUBIN 
Among  recent  acquisitions  of  works  representing 
eighteenth-century  France  in  the  National  Gallery 


the  most  interesting  is  undoubtedly  The  Panide, 
by  Gabriel  de  Saint-Aubin.  The  story  of  its  identifi- 
cation is  briefly  related  in  the  director's  report 
for  1907.     The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  Baring 

N  151 


Notes  on  Various  JVorks  of  Art 

collection,  where  il  was  given  to  Wattcau's  master, 

Gillot.     It  was  purchased  in  the  saleroom  through 

Messrs.  Agnew  for  the  modest  price  of  ^^99  15s. 

and  was  recognized  by  Mr.  ].  P.   Heseltine  as  the 

original  of  an  engraving  in  '  Les  Theatres  Libertms.' 

Unfortunately   the   engraving   did    not   bear    the 

artist's  name,  so  that  identification  seemed  as  far 

off  as  ever.     At  last  M.  Gaston  Sch6fer  discovered 

in  a  portfolio  of  theatrical  prints  at  the  Bibliotheque 

Nationale  an  unfinished  proof  of  the  plate,  dated 

1760.     On  it,  inscribed  in  an   old   handwriting, 

were  the  words  'Gabriel  de  Saint-Aubin  pinxt.' 

The  discovery  was  remarkable.  Even  those 
keen  and  persistent  workers,  the  brothers  de  Gon- 
court,  had  failed  in  their  classic  work  on  French 
art  of  the  eighteenth  century  to  identify  a  single 
painting  by  Gabriel  de  Saint-Aubin.  The  picture 
just  acquired  by  the  National  Gallery  would  thus 
seem,  for  the  moment  at  least,  to  be  the  single  oil- 
painting  from  the  hand  of  this  brilliant  member  of 
a  brilliant  family. 

In  point  of  spirit  and  skill  The  Parade  is  not 
unworthy  even  of  so  talented  an  author,  for  in  its 
way  the  thing  could  not  be  done  better.  Since  its 
acquisition  by  the  National  Gallery  a  discovery  has 
been  made  in  France  which  sheds  new  light  on 
Saint-Aubin  and  his  connexion  with  Paris,  and  at 
one  point  touches  our  picture  so  nearly  that  it 
may  not  be  out  of  place  to  mention  it  here. 

In  the  'Gazette  des  Beaux-Arts'  for  April,  1908, 
M.  Philippe  Descoux  describes  and  illustrates  a 
copy  of  '  La  Description  de  Paris '  by  Piganiol  de 
la  P'orce  (Paris,  1742)  which  has  recently  been 
found  in  the  collection  of  M.  Jacques  Doucet. 
This  copy  once  belonged  to  Gabriel  de  Saint-Aubin, 
and  between  the  years  1770  and  1779  he  filled  the 
eight  volumes  with  notes  and  sketches  of  things 
Parisian.  Of  the  170  little  drawings  contained  in 
the  volume,  M.  Descoux  reproduces  only  a  few 
specimens,  but  one  of  these,  The  Alley  of  Lime 
Trees  in  the  Tiiileiies  Gardens,  dated  April  20th, 
1774  (which  he  reproduces),  bears  so  close  a 
resemblance  to  the  spirit  and  treatment  of  The 
Parade  that  the  sketch  might  well  seem  to  have 
helped  to  inspire  the  painting,  had  not  the  dates 
made  this  impossible.  It  can  thus  be  regarded 
only  as  an  interesting  parallel.*  C.  J.  H. 

AMBROSE    BENZONE 

Among  the  paintings  which,  prior  to  my  discoveries 
in  the  Archives  of  Flanders,  were  wont  to  be 
attributed  to  Roger  Van  der  Weyden,  and  later  on 
to  John  Mostaert  or  Gerard  David,  there  arc  a 
number  evidently  by  pupils  or  followers  of  the 
latter.  Two  of  these  followers  I  restored  to 
history:  Albert  Cornells  (c.  1475-1532)  in  1863,1 
and   Adrian    Isenbrant   (c.  1480-1551)    in   1865.- 

1  Illustration  from  a  photograph  by  Hauptaengl. 
1  'Le  Bcffroi,'  i,  i-:!2. 
■'  Ibid.,  ii,  320-3-^4 


The  central  panel  of  one  triptych  is  still  the  only 
work  known  to   have  been  painted  by  Cornells. 
Of  a  whole  series  of  works  attributed  by  Waagen 
to  Mostaert,  one  of  the  best,  the  altarpiece  of  Our 
Lady  of  Dolours,  in  the  church  of  Our  Lady  at 
Bruges,  was  restored  to  Isenbrant  in  1902  by  M. 
Hulin  and   myself.     Isenbrant   probably  worked 
with  David   until   June,  1520,  when  he  took  an 
apprentice  and  seems  to  have  started  a  workshop 
of   his  own.     A  large  number   of   paintings  are 
now  attributed  to  him  by  Friedlaender  and  Hulin.' 
Attention  was  first  drawn  by  Justi'to  several  other 
paintings  which  were  supposed  by  him  to  have 
been  the  work  of  a  Spaniard  who  had  learned  his 
craft  in  Bruges,  had  come  under  the  influence  of 
David,  and  had  modified  his  style  after  returning 
to  his  native  land.     He  proposed  to  call   him  the 
'  master  of  Segovia,'  his  best  work  being  in   the 
church  of  St.  Michael  in  that  city  ;  another  by  the 
same  hand,  signed  AB.,  he  found  in  the  collection 
of  Count  Valencia  at  Madrid.     Another,  similarly 
signed,   was    noticed     by   Friedlaender     in     the 
Germanic  Museum  at  Nurnberg  and  thought  by 
him  to  be  the  work  of  a  German  painter  influenced 
by  the    Lombard   school.     Hulin    found    in   the 
register  of  the  Guild  of  St.  Luke  at  Bruges  the 
record   of    admission  as  free  master  in   1519  of 
Ambrose  Benson  from  Lombardy.     As  long  ago 
as    1875   I    had    brought   together   a   number   of 
documents   concerning    Benson   and    his  family, 
but  as  I  had  found  no  mention  of  any  painting 
executed  by  him  nor  any  proof  that  he  had  pro- 
duced a  single  work  of  art  I  reserved  them,  hoping 
at  some  future  time  to  publish  the  same  with  a 
large  number  of  notes  on  other  Bruges  painters 
of  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries.     It  would 
be   interesting   to   know  something  of    Ainbrose 
Benson  prior  to  his  arrival  at  Bruges— whence  he 
came,  who  were  his  parents,  and  where  he  had 
learned    his   craft.     The   entry   in    the     Bruges 
register  merely  states  that  he  was  from  Lombardy, 
but  when  he  died  his  younger  son  John  was  still  a 
minor,  and  the  guardian  appointed  to  administer 
his  affairs  as    next-of-kin   to  his  father  was  one 
Francisque  da  Verona,  a  barber  who  had  settled 
in  Bruges  in  1510.     He  was  a  Lombard  but  not 
necessarily  a  native  of  Verona.     In  the  sacristy  of 
the  cathedral  of  that  city  there  is  a  painting  signed 
Antonio  Benzono  1523,^  but  I  have  been  unable  to 
find   mention   of   any  other    Benzone  at  Verona 
about  that  time.     There  was,  however,  a  family  of 
painters  of  this  name  who  flourished  at  Ferrara  in 
the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries.     Geminian 
Benzone  had  a  son,  a  painter,  who  was  already 
dead  in   1504;  by  his  wife  Beatrice,  daughter  of 

'A  list  of  these  is  given  in  Bodenhaiisen's  monumental  work 
on  Gerard  David  and  his  school,  p.  209. 

*  In  the  '  Zeitschrift  fiir  bildende  Kunst,'  xxi.  139,  Leipzig,  1886. 

'H.  von  Tschudi  in  the  '  Allgemeines  Kiinstler  Lexikon,'  iii, 
566.    His  manner  is  said  to  resemble  that  of  Francis  Caroto. 


152 


THE      PARAUE,      BY      (JAIiKMKI,      lih      SAIN  l-.AI  KIN 
HKCENTLY  ACl^UIRED  BY  THE    NATIONAL  GALLERY 


.s^^ 


rilK    PAkADi:.    BY    (.AIllv'III.    DE   SAINT-AlllIN 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 


a  master  Ambrose,  he  had  several  sons,  two  of 
whom,  Geminian  and  James,  were  painters, 
Geminian  being  mentioned  in  public  documents 
as  'pictor  egregius'l"  It  was  customary  at  that 
time  to  give  the  eldest  son  the  name  of  his  pater- 
nal, and  the  second  that  of  his  maternal  grand- 
father :  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  Ambrose 
who  came  to  Bruges  may  have  been  the  second 
son  of  Geminian  and  Beatrice,  but  there  is  no 
mention  of  any  member  of  the  family  bearing 
that  name.  Ambrose  quickly  gained  the  esteem 
of  his  fellow  craftsmen,  for  he  was  chosen  a  member 
of  the  council  in  1521,  1539,  1540  and  1545,  and 
was  twice  dean — in  1537-38  and  1543-44.  During 
several  years  he  exhibited  works  for  sale  at  the 
January  and  May  fairs  held  in  the  cloister  of 
the  P'riars  minor.  The  magistrates  of  the  Liberty 
of  Bruges  when  building  their  Landshuis  twice 
consulted  him  with  regard  to  their  projects  for  its 
decoration.  During  his  career  of  thirty  years 
he  doubtless  executed  many  paintings,  as  he  left 
at  his  death  in  January,  1550,  the  sum  of  90l.gr. 
Flemish  currency.  His  two  sons,  William  and  John, 
and  his  grandson,  Ambrose,  were  all  painters. 
William  was  a  member  of  the  council  in  1551-52 
and  1561-62,  and  died  in  1585.  John  went  to 
Antwerp  and  was  admitted  as  free  master  into  the 
guild  there  in  1551,  but  returned  to  Bruges  at  the 
end  of  1552,  was  a  member  of  the  council  in  1553- 
54  and  died  in  1585,  shortly  after  his  brother,  as  did 
also  Ambrose  the  younger. 

Bodenhausen  gives  a  list  of  works  attributed  to 
Benson  ;  as  to  the  two  signed  AB,'  there  can  I 
think  be  no  doubt,  but  as  regards  the  remainder 
it  must  be  remembered  that  Isenbrant,  the  sons  of 
John  Prevost,  the  Bensons  and  others  were  for 
many  years  busily  employed  in  painting  original 
works  and  copies  which  they  exported  to  Bilbao, 
where  they  met  with  a  ready  sale,  and  it  is 
in  Spain  that  Bruges  paintings  of  this  period 
are  chiefly  met  with.  They  are  easily  recognized  ; 
the  types  of  the  figures  as  a  rule  resemble  those  of 
David,  as  for  instance  those  of  Our  Lady  and  Child 
with  SS.  Katherine  and  Barbara  in  the  collection  of 
Martin  Leroy  at  Paris,  but  occasionally  the  type 
of  the  Holy  Child  and  the  landscape  liackground 
show  reminiscences  of  Milanese  masters.  The 
modelling  of  the  heads  is  often  hard,  the  fingers 
too  long  and  thin  ;  dark  red  and  dark  green  seem 
to  have  been  favourite  colours. 

W.  H.  J.  W. 

DRAWINGS     BY     GERARD     DAVID 
These  drawings,  evidently  leaves  of  a  sketch-book, 
were  sold  as  Holbeins  in  some  sale  or  other  not 

"  See  Cittadella,  '  Documenti  risgarduanti  la  Storia  aitistica 
Ferraiese,'  1868,  p.  25.  For  this  reference  I  am  indebted  to 
Drs.  Thieme  and  Becker,  the  editors  of  the  important  'Allgemeines 
Kunstler  Lexikon,'  now  in  course  of  pubHcation. 

'  These  are :  a  Holy  Family  at  Nurnberg  in  the  Germanic 
Museum,  244,  and  a  triptych  representing  the  Adoration  of  the 
Ma:ii  with  SS,  Anthony  of  Padua  and  Secundus  on  the  shutters. 


many  years  ago.  How  I  obtained  the  photo- 
graphs I  do  not  remember  ;  probably  I  picked 
them  up  otif  some  bookstall.  It  is  enough  to 
compare  the  heads,  evidently  drawn  from  life, 
with  the  heads  in  Gerard  David's  Marriage  at 
Caiia,  now  in  the  Louvre,  painted  for  Jan  de 
Sedano  early  in  the  sixteenth  century  (according 
to  Professor  Hulin),  to  see  that  the  draughtsman 
must  have  been  the  same  man  as  the  painter. 

Martin  Conway. 

NOTES  ON  SOME  EARLY  SPANISH 
MASTERS 
I.  One  of  the  most  important  points  about  Lo 
Fil  de  Mestre  Rodrigo — his  parentage — is  eluci- 
dated by  Seizor  L.  Tramoyeres  Blasco,  keeper  of 
the  museum  of  Valencia,  in  '  Cultura  Espailola,' 
No.  ix  (February,  1908).  The  article  is  of  great 
importance  in  view  of  the  National  Gallery's 
recent  accession,  an  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  signed 
by  this  rare  Valencian  master.'  F"irst  mentioned  in 
a  document  of  1464  concerning  a  now  lost  work, 
the  painter's  father,  Mestre  Rodrigo  de  Osona, 
again  occurs  in  1483  as  '  pictor  retabulorum  sedis 
Valentie,'  when  he  probably  supplanted  the 
Neapolitan  Francisco  Pagano,  and  Paolo  de  San 
Leocadio  of  Reggio,'  in  the  execution  of  works  for 
the  decoration  of  the  choir  of  Valencia  Cathedral, 
commenced  in  the  episcopate  of  Rodrigo  Borja, 
afterwards  Pope  Alexander  VI.  Mestre  Rodrigo 
is  considered  to  be  the  pupil  of  Jaime  Bago  or 
Jacomart  (d.  146 1),  the  painter  of  Alfonso  V  of 
Aragon,  for  a  knowledge  of  whose  career  we  are 
indebted  also  to  Senor  Trainoyeres  Blasco's 
researches.  Analyzing  different  paintings  existing 
at  Valencia,  the  author  assigns  to  Mestre  Rodrigo, 
the  elder,  panels  representing  SS.  Vincent  (Martyr) 
and  Vincent  Ferrer,  and  four  scenes  in  the  life  of 
St.  Narcissus,  in  the  cathedral ;  a  Crncifixion 
signed  Rodrigus  (de  Veia  ?),  in  the  church  of  S. 
Nicolas,  published  by  Monsieur  Bertaux  in  the 
'  Revue  de  I'Art  ancien  et  moderne,'  xx  (425)  ; 
various  fragments  of  works,  and  a  Pieta,  in  the 
museum.  When  Rodrigo  died  is  unknown,  as  is 
also  the  precise  significance  to  be  attached  to  the 
predicate  'de Osona,'  from  which  his  origin  in  the 
Catalan  town  of  Osona  might  be  inferred.  His 
works  exhibit  that  fusion  of  the  native  and 
Netherlandish  styles,  and  that  acquaintance  with 
Renaissance  details,  traced  by  Senor  Tramoyeres 
Blasco  first  in  Jacomart  and  later  in  Rodrigo's 
son.  So  far  as  can  be  judged  from  the  reproduc- 
tions accompanying  the  article,  the  conclusion 
appears  justified  that  Rodrigo  I  was  a  more 
accomplished  artist  and  his  style  purer  than  that 
of   Rodrigo   II,      The   son   lived   in   days  when 

'  Reproduced  and  described  in  The  Burlington  Magazine, 
Vol.  xi,  pp.  108  and  iii,  May,  1907. 

•^  For  this  artist's  works,  especially  at  Gandia,  see  Monsieur 
Bertaux's  article  in  the  '  Gazette  des  BeauK-Arts,'  3rd  series, 
xxxix,  207-20.    (March)  190S. 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 

Italian  influences  were  rapidly  gaining  the  upper 
hand,  and  the  painting  at  the  National  Gallery, 
and  a  Christ  before  Pilate  (Valencia  Museum),  here 
attributed  to  him,  are  combinations  it  is  difficult 
to  summarize  in  words.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
further  material  concerning  both  artists  will 
reward  Seiior  Tramoyeres  Blasco's  zeal  in  the  cause 
of  the  early  Valencian  school.  At  present  the 
only  documentary  record  of  '  Lo  Fil  de  Mestre 
Rodrigo  '  is  an  entry  in  the  tax-rolls  (his  art  was, 
apparently,  a  remunerative  one)  in  1513. 

II.  In  'Arte,'  vol.  x  (fasc.  v),  Signor  R.  Schiff 
ascribes  a  recently-aquired  panel  in  the  Palazzo 
Mediceo,  Pisa,  to  the  San  Severino  master,  Lorenzo 
Salimbene.  The  subject  represented  is  Saint 
Catherine  of  Siena's  Last  Exhortation  of  Iter  Disciples. 
Although  it  has  passages  somewhat  similar  in 
treatment  to  Salimbene's  best-known  work,  the 
triptych  of  the  Mystic  Marriage  of  St.  Catherine, 
(Did  SS.  Simon  ami  Jude^  in  the  San  Severino 
Gallery,  there  can  be  not  the  slightest  doubt  that 
it  is  from  the  hand  of  the  painter  of  the  Catalan 
altarpiece  of  the  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  at  Manresa. 
According  to  Seiior  Sanperey  Miquel  this  is  Louis 
Borrassa,  but  there  is  no  documentary  evidence  for 
this,  and  when  damaged  the  painting  was,  in  141 2, 
repaired  by  Francisco  Feliu.  The  Pisa  panel  has 
close  affinities  with  another  Pentecost  picture,  in 
S.  Anne's,  Barcelona,  illustrated  by  the  same 
authority  as  a  Borrassa,  and  likewise  with  the 
Santa  Clara  altarpiece  of  1415  (Vich  Museum),  the 
latter  an  authenticated  work  by  the  master.  The 
pseudo-Salimbene  is  a  closely  crowded  composi- 
tion, and  it  has  the  identical  types,  with  their 
almost  exaggerated  characterization,  of  the  master 
of  the  Manresa  painting.  The  shape  of  the  panel  is, 
moreover,  one  affected  by  Catalan  artists  for  the 
smaller  compartments  of  retables. 

III.  Three  panels  from  the  Ciudad  Rodrigo 
altarpiece,  now  in  Sir  F.  Cook's  collection,  were 
described  and  illustrated  in  The  Burlin'GTON 
Magazine,  vol.  vii,  pp.  388,  392  and  393,  August, 
1905.  It  is  interesting  to  find  one  of  them  serving 
as  the  composition  for  a  woodcut  in  an  edition  of 
Antonio  Nebrissensis's  'Aureaexpositiohymnorum,' 
printed  by  Paul  Hurus  at  Saragossa  in  1499. 
Including  a  few  alterations,  and  transpositions  of 
the  figures,  nearly  all  the  right  hand  and  central 
portions  of  the  painting  are  to  be  found  in  the  cut. 
The  latter  is  reproduced  in  Herr  Haebler's 
'  Tipografia  Iberica,'  pi.  xlii,  from  a  copy  of  the 
work  in  the  Royal  Library,  Stuttgart.  A  great 
feature  of  the  productions  of  the  Hurus  press  is 
(to  translate  the  same  authority)  'the  prodigious 
number  of  cuts  they  contain,  not  all  of  artistic 
merit,  but  many  after  originals  by  the  best  German 

2  Finished  in  1416,  and  signed  and  dated  by  the  artist,  then 
act.  26,  who  died  some  four  years  later.  Reproduced  in  '  Rassegni 
d'Arte,'  vi,  p.  50,  1906.  There  is  also  a  good  photograph,  since 
its  exhibition  at  Macerata. 

156 


masters.'  Any  one,  therefore,  who  could  spare  time 
to  examine  the  rare  and  somewhat  scattered  Hurus 
publications  might  be  in  a  position  to  decide  the 
date  of  certain  very  late  fifteenth-century  works, 
and  perhaps  discover  a  cut  after  some  famous  lost 
original.  A.  V.  D.  P. 

THE  GREEK  STATUE  FROM  TRENTHAM.i 

As  I  am  at  present  engaged  in  the  publication  of 
a  work  of  some  size  on  Roman  female  draped 
statues,the  excellent  article  on  the  interesting  draped 
figure  from  Trentham  in  the  March  number  of 
The  Burlington  Magazine  was  specially 
welcome.  A  careful  study  of  the  available 
material  has,  however,  convinced  me  that  the 
conclusions  of  Mr.  Cecil  Smith  as  regards  the 
most  essential  point  cannot  possibly  hit  the  mark. 

1  see  no  convincing  reason  for  separating  the 
statue  from  the  inscription.  On  the  contrary,  the 
character  of  the  style  and  the  somewhat  rough 
execution  of  the  figure  seem  to  me  in  perfect 
keeping  with  the  period  mentioned  in  the  inscrip- 
tion— namely,  the  first  century  B.C.  iThe  statue 
can  never  be  regarded  as  an  original  work  of  the 
fourth  century.  The  figure  belongs  to  the  class 
of  artistic  creations  of  the  first  century  B.C., 
which  do,  indeed,  already  bear  Roman  inscriptions, 
but  are  still  purely  Grecian  in  spirit.  As  the 
nearest  analogy  I  may  mention  the  honorary 
statues  from  Magnesia,  which  were  erected  to 
the  female  members  of  the  family  of  Q.  Baebius 
and  the  Pro-consul  L.  Valerius  Flaccus.-  These 
too  have  Roman  inscriptions,  and  date  from  the 
first  century  B.C.  The  draped  figure  from 
Trentham — like  the  statues  from  Magnesia — is 
no  new,  original  invention  ;  it  goes  back,  rather, 
to  a  well-known  model  of  the  fourth  century,'^  and 
repeats  it  in  the  spirit  of  the  waning  Hellenistic 
feeling  for  art.  The  execution  of  the  folds  has  no 
longer  that  easy  play,  the  surface  of  the  robe  has 
no  longer  that  shimmering  textural  charm,  which 
are  found  in  the  plastic  creations  of  the  Hellen- 
istic florescence.  The  command  of  form,  the 
lively,  curious  feeling  for  art,  have  died  out  in 
riotous  masses  ;  have  aged,  become  weary.  The 
face,  too,  of  the  Trentham  statue  is  but  a  banal 
well-known  ideal  type,  by  no  means  a  new 
creation  of  a  really  independent  artist. 

The  statue  comes  from  a  Grecian  studio  of  the 
first  century  B.C.,  and  was  then  used,  with  an 
added  inscription,  to  decorate  the  grave  of  P. 
Maxima.  Lastly,  I  may  mention — what  has 
escaped     Mr.    Cecil    Smith — that    there   are   two 

'  Translated  by  L.  I.  Armstrong. 

-Cf.  Humann,  Rothe,  Watzinger  :  '  .Magnesia  am  Maander.' 
Pp.  191  ft'.  A.  Hekler  :  '  Romische  weibliche  Gewandstatuen,' 
'  Miinchener  archeologische  Studien,'  pp.  123  ft",  (in  the  press.) 

2  The  comparison  of  the  statue  from  Trentham  with  dated 
draped  figures  of  the  fourth  century,  B.C.  like  the  Themis  from 
Rhammus  or  the  so-cMetiArkmisui  is  most  instructive.  Cf.'E^ij/ti 
apx-  1^9'-    f    4;  Brunn-Bnnckmann  :  Denkmaler  pi.  242. 


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Notes  on  Various  Works  of  A  rt 


known  replicas  of  the  type  of  the  Trentham 
figure:  one  in  the  Hall  of  Inscriptions  in  the 
Uftizi  at  Florence  ;*  the  other,  with  a  Roman 
portrait  head,  in  the  Palazzo  Lazzeroni  in  Rome.^ 
The  motive  of  the  figure  has  also  been  employed 
in  the  Sarcophagus  of  the  Muses  in  the  Munich 
Glyptothek.*'  Dr.  Anton  Heklek. 

Budapest. 

♦LANVAL'  AT  THE  PLAYHOUSE 

It  is  all  too  seldom    that  a    production   on    the 
London  stage  deserves  notice  in  a  magazine  devoted 
to  the  fine  arts,  and  '  Lanval,'  the  romantic  drama 
of  the  Arthurian   age  performed  at  two  matincei 
last   month,  must   not    be   allowed   to   pass   un- 
chronicled.     The  author,  '  Mr.  T.  E.  Ellis,'  whom 
the  newspapers  have  revealed  to  be  Lord  Howard 
de  Walden,  is,  if  not  a  practised  dramatist,  at  least 
an  author  of  an  original  and  fertile  imagination,  a 
writer  of  sound  blank  verse  not  without  passages 
of  true  poetry,  and  a  contriver  of  interesting  and 
powerful  dramatic  scenes.     We  should  have  liked 
to  see  the  whole  play  staged  and  dressed  by  Mr. 
Charles  Ricketts,  for  whose  genius  in  this  branch 
the  author's  conceptions  would  have  provided  a 
fine  field.     As  it  was,  only  one  of  the  scenes  was 
entrusted  to  the  artist  of  'Attila'  and  '  Don  Juan 
in    Hell ' ;    but   that   was   one   which   demanded 
treatment  beyond  the  reach  of  the  ordinary  de- 
signer.   Lanval,  wandering  penniless  and  homeless 
from  Arthur's  court,  is  wooed   in  the  forest  by  a 
maiden  from  '  the  middle  world,'  and  accompanies 
her  to    her  own  domain.     This  was   the   region 
revealed  to  us  by  Mr.  Ricketts.     Save  for  a  sh.ift 
of  red  light  cast  from  the  turmoil  of  the  upper 
world,  the  only  colour  was  green.     Under  a  sky  of 
infinite  depth,  where  stars  twinkled,  rose  strange 
green  rocks  of  many  sizes,  but  all  approaching  in 
shape  to  the  conical.   The  middle  world  is  a  place 
of  rest  and  dreams,  not  of  action,  and  the  contrast 
to  the  hard  and  dusty  world  of  men  was  not  only 
indescribably  refreshing  but  the  very  gist  of  the 
author's  meaning.     The  whole  was  v.ague,  myste- 
rious, quiet,  and  empty  ;  the  atmosphere  was  cold 
and  still  ;  the  light   appeared  to  be  one  with  the 
place,  and  not  to  fall  on  it  from  a  point  outside  ; 
and  the  scene  told  its  own  story  and  created  its 
own    impression    before  a  word    had  been    said. 
The  costumes,   too — the  floating  drapery  of  the 
maiden  and  the  exquisite  tunic  worn  by  Lanval — 
were  the  work  of  the  same  artist,  and  part  of  his 
conception.     For  the  rest  of  the  scenes,  the  pro- 
ducers had  done  their  best  with  ordinary  material, 
and  it  must  be  admitted  that  in  some — the  forge, 

*  Amelung  :  '  Fiihrer,' No.  112,  p.  78  ;  Reinach  :  '  Rcpeitoiie 
de  la  statuaire  'II,  606,  7. 

'  Einzelverkauf,  No.  i  170 ;  A.  Hekler  :  '  Romische  weibliche 
Gewandstatuen,'  p.  19S. 

■*  Furtwaengler :  '  Beschreibung,'  No.  326;  Baumcister  : 
Denkmaler,'  Abb.  11S6.  Cf.  also  the  motive  in  terra-cottas  : 
Winter  :  '  Die  antiken  Terrakotten,'  p.  50,  i,  2,  p.  51,  i,  etc. 


for  instance,  where  the  author  incidentally  betrayed 
the  connoisseur's  joy  in  armour — they  had  done 
very  fairly  well.  H.  C. 

A   LOST   ALTARPIECE    BY  THE    MAITRE 

DE  FL^MALLE 
The  peculiar  fascination  which  seems  to  attach 
itself  to  the  Maitre  de  Flemalle  is,  perhaps,  partly 
due  to  the  fact  that  there  still  exists  a  chance  of 
discovering  him  in  works  attributed  to  other 
masters.  His  characteristics,  too,  are  so  strongly 
marked  that,  if  he  has  once  been  recognized,  there 
is  hardly  any  room  for  doubt  left.  Indeed,  since 
Dr.  Bode,  some  twenty  years  ago,  identified  him 
with  the  famous  Merode  triptych  at  Brussels, 
which  proved  so  great  an  attraction  at  the  recent 
exhibition  of  the  Golden  Fleece,  various  other 
paintings  have,  with  good  reason,  been  assigned 
to  him. 

A  fresh  glimpse  of  light  has  recently  been  thrown 
on  the  master's  activity  by  a  dated  inscription  on 
a  picture  by  him  in  the  Prado,  which  was  formerly 
attributed  to  Jan  van  Eyck.  It  represents  Henricus 
Werlis,  a  well-known  master  of  arts  at  Cologne, 
with  St.  John  the  Baptist.  According  to  this  in- 
scription, the  panel  in  question,  which  evidently 
formed  the  left  wing  of  a  triptych  (the  right  wing 
being  the  Si.  Barbura  Rending,  likewise  at  the 
Prado),  was  painted  in  1438.  LJnfortunately,  the 
centre-piece  of  these  side-panels,  which  were 
formerly  at  Aranjuez,  has  disappeared. 

Now,  is  it  not  possible  that  a  later  copy  of  this 
centre-piece  has  come  down  to  us  in  an  Aiuuiiicia- 
tion  in  the  Louvre,  which,  labelled  '  Ecole  Flam- 
mande,'  has  hitherto  passed  unnoticed  ?  It  evi- 
dently bears  the  same  relation  to  the  wings  in  the 
Prado  that  the  Merode  altarpiece  bears  to  its 
wings.  The  Virgin,  holding  an  open  missal  in  her 
left  hand,  is  interrupted  in  her  reading  by  the 
divine  messenger.  With  her  long  hair  parted  over 
her  forehead,  and  falling  in  heavy  curls  over  her 
shoulders,  she  forcibly  recalls  the  reading  Mary  of 
the  Merode  picture  ;  whilst  the  angel,  with  his 
gorgeous  dalmatic  and  white  under-garment 
sweeping  with  heavy  folds  over  the  patterned  floor, 
seems  to  be  inspired  by  Roger  van  der  Weydeii's 
Angel  Gabriel  in  the  Kann  collection.  As  to  the 
interior  of  the  chamber,  it  bears  a  close  analogy  to 
the  oratory  of  the  Si.  Btnbiiia  Reading.  There  is 
the  same  window  in  the  background  looking  out 
on  a  landscape ;  there  is  a  nearly  identical 
mantelpiece  with  the  lustre  over  the  centre  and 
the  bottle  with  its  well-drawn  shadow  on  one  side 
of  it.  The  bronze  basin  and  pitcher,  too,  placed 
on  a  gothic  cabinet  near  the  window  are  of  a 
similar  cast  as  the  same  utensils  in  the  Prado 
panel. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  the  alternate  influences 
of  the  \'an  Eycks  and  of  Roger  van  der  Weyden 
in  the  Louvre  picture  ;  and  again  the  Maitre  de 

161 


Notes  on  Various  JVorks  of  Art 

Fleinalle's  own  characteristic  touches,  as,  for 
instance,  in  the  sparkhng  tints  of  hght  on  sombre 
shadows,  and  in  the  dexterity  with  which  accessories 
are  handled.  Yet  with  all  his  adaptability,  the 
later  pupil's  hand  did  not  attain  the  same  force 
and  vitality,  the  power  of  plastic  modelling,  which 
we  find  in  the  original  works  of  the  master.  As 
it  is,  the  merit  of  this  Anminciation  in  the  Louvre 
lies  only  in  the  fact  that  it  seems  to  record  a  lost 
original  of  the  Maitre  de  Flemalle. 

Louise  M.  Riciiter. 

THE  EMBLEMS  OF  THE  EVANGELISTS 
It  needs  some  courage  nowadays  to  claim  a 
Western  origin  for  any  detail  of  the  received 
iconography  of  Christian  art.  Yet  such  is  the 
object  of  the  present  note  ;  and  that,  too,  for  a 
device  so  symbolical — and  therefore,  it  might  be 
supposed  prima  facie,  so  Eastern — as  the  emblems 
of  the  four  Evangelists.  It  has  been  admitted, 
however,  by  that  enthusiastic  and  thoroughgoing 
Byzantinist,  as  well  as  learned  archaeologist.  Pro- 
fessor Kondakov,'  that  this  device  is  unknown  in 
Byzantine  art  from  the  sixth  century  to  the  twelfth  ; 
and  1  only  wish  to  go  a  little  further — viz.,  to 
suggest  that  it  was  invented  in  the  West,  and  never 
found  its  way  at  all  into  Byzantine  art  until  the 
latter  period. 

Copies  of  the  Greek  Gospels,  containing  full- 
page  mmiatures  of  the  Evangelists,  form  by  far  the 
most  numerous  class  of  Byzantine  illuminated 
manuscripts.  The  earliest  extant  manuscript  of 
this  kind  is  the  Codex  Rossanensis,  of  the  sixth 
century,  in  which  one  only  of  the  four  portraits — 
that  of  St.  Mark — remains.-  He  sits  writing  his 
Gospel  at  the  dictation  of  a  lady,  who  is  generally 
explained  as  typifying  Divine  Wisdom  ;  but  there 
is  no  trace  of  the  lion  with  which  he  is  com- 
monly associated.  No  more  of  these  portrait- 
miniatures  have  survived  from  the  early  ages 
of  Byzantine  illumination ;  it  is  not  until  the 
beginning  of  the  tenth  century  that  the  great 
series  of  Greek  Gospel-books  becomes  con- 
tinuous. During  the  interval  the  personification 
of  Divine  Wisdom  drops  out  of  the  picture — dis- 
carded, perhaps,  as  being  too  directly  reminiscent 
of  pagan  art  ;  but  she  is  not  replaced  by  the  em- 
blems until  long  after  the  Crusades  had  begun  to 
bring  Western  ideas  into  the  East.  In  fact,  I 
know  of  no  instance  of  their  appearance  before 
1326,  when  they  occur  in  a  Gospel-book Hvritten  by 
Constantine,  priest  and  notary,  in  a  monastery 
dedicated  to  St.  Demetrius  the  Martyr,  probably  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Mount  Sinai,  where  it  was 
procured  by  Bishop  Butler.  It  is  possible,  of 
course,  that  between  the  sixth  and  tenth  centuries 
they  had  been  introduced  and  afterwards  rejected; 

"  Geschichte  des  byzant.  Emails,'  1S92,  p.  177. 
'^A.  Haseloff,  'Codex  purpureas  Rossanensis,'  1898,  pi,  14; 
A.  Muiioz,  '  11  Codice  purpureo  di  Rossano,'  1907,  pi.  15. 
»  Brit.  Mus.,  Add.  11838. 

162 


but  most  unlikely,  seeing  how  Byzantine  painters 
clung  to  symbolic  imagery,  especially  to  symbols 
of  such  unexceptionable  origin  as  the  'four  living 
creatures'  of  Ezekiel  i.  10,  the  'four  beasts'  of 
Revelation  iv.  7. 

In  Latin  patristic  literature  the  interpretation  of 
the   Apocalyptic   beasts   as   symbols   of   the   four 
Evangelists  goes  back,  no  doubt,  to  a  very  early 
date;  it  is  set  forth  in  full  detail  by  St.  Jerome  (d. 
420)  in  his  Commentaries  on  Ezekiel  and  Matthew.* 
Probably  the  oldest  surviving  examples  of  its  use 
in  art  are  an  ivory  diptych,  now  in  the  Trivulzio 
collection   at    Milan,"  and    the    mosaics   of     the 
Baptistery  of   S.   Giovanni   in  Fonte  at  Naples.^ 
Both  are  assigned  by  the  best  judges  to  the  end  of 
the  fourth  century  or  beginning  of  the  fifth,  and 
though  the  former  has  been  claimed  by  some  zealous 
Byzantinists,  there  are  good  reasons  for  regarding  it 
as' Roman  or,  at  any  rate,  Italian  work.  Illuminated 
copies  of  the  Latin  Gospels  from  the  seventh  century 
onwards  practically  always  include  the  emblems  : 
they  appear,  for  instance,  in  the  seventh  century 
Gospels  at  Cambridge  ;'  in  the  Codex  Amiatinus 
at    Florence,  w-ritten    in    Northumbria  about   the 
year  700  ;'  and  in  the  Durham  Book,"  written  at 
Lindisfarne    about     700.     Perhaps     the     earliest 
instance,  however,  of  their  occurrence  in  miniature 
is  the  Verona  Psalter  (v-vii  century).'"  The  Durham 
Book  is  known  to  have  been  copied — at  least  so 
far  as  the  prefatory  matter  is  concerned — from  a 
manuscript  emanating  from  the  neighbourhood  of 
Naples  ;  and  though  the  purely  decorative  orna- 
ment in  this  beautiful  and  famous  book  is  distinctly 
Celtic,  the  full-page  miniatures  of  the  Evangelists 
are  of  a  different  character,  and   their  composi- 
tions were  doubtless  inspired  by  the  corresponding 
paintings  in  the  Neapolitan  archetype.     There  is 
one  very  curious  feature  about  these  four  pages. 
The  figures  of  the  Evangelists  are  inscribed  '  O 
agios    Mattheus,'  '  O  agios  Marcus,'  and  so  on  ; 
while  the  emblems  bear  the  inscriptions  'imago 
hominis,' '  imago  leonis,'  etc.     The  former  legends 
prove  incontestably  the  Greek  parentage  of  the  por- 
traits.    May  we  not  regard  the  latter  as  affording 
equally  good  evidence  of  a  Latin  origin  for  the 
emblems  ?  In  short,  my  suggestion  is  that  the  idea 
of  depicting  the  emblems  occurred  first  to  an  Italian 
artist ;  that  he  and  his  earliest  imitators  used  them 
as  symbols  or  substitutes  for  the  figures  of  the 
Evangelists  (it  is  thus  that  we  find  them  in  the 
Trivulzio  diptych  and  the  Naples  mosaic) ;    and 
that  their  later  use  as  adjuncts  or  attributes  arose 

■■  Migne  XXV.  21,  xxvi.  19. 

=  Molinier,  '  Hist.  gen.  des  Arts,'  i,  1S9G,  pi.  6. 

"  Garrucci,  '  Storia  della  Arte  cristiana,'  iv,  1877,  tav.  270 ; 
'  L'Arte,'  1S9S,  pp.  325-7;  '  Nuovo  BuUettino  di  Archeologia 
cristiana,'  1900,  pp.  99—106. 

•Corpus  2S6,  see  Palaeogr  See,  ser.  i,  pll.  33,44. 

'Gariucci,  iii,  tav.  141  :  Pal.  Soc,  ii.tj. 

»Biit.  Mus  ,  Cotton  MS.  Nero  D  iv,  fully  described  by  Dr 
G.  F.  Warner,  'Illuminated  MSS.  in  the  Brit.  Mus..'  1903. 

1"  Goldschmidt  in  '  Repert.  f.  Kunstw.'  xiciii  pp.  265  if. 


TWiP    WIN'GS  OF   A   TRIPTYCH    BY  THE   MAITRE    DR    FI.EMAI.LF 
AND   ST.    BARBARA    READING.      IX   THE    PRADO 


HENRICrS   WEKLIS   WITH  ST.    JOHN    THE  BAPTIST 


/6^ 


THE   ANNUNCIATION,    POSSIBLY   AFTER   AN   ORIGINAL 
BY  THE    MaItRE    DE    FLl^MALLE.      IN    THE     I.OLVRE 


A    L(.)ST   AI.TARPIKCE    BY   THE   MAITRE    DE   FI.KMALLE 


,6^ 


2: 

E- 


from  an  Italian  (perhaps  Neapolitan)  miniaturist 
combining  the  Latin  emblem  with  the  Greek  por- 
trait on  one  page,  giving  to  each  its  own  inscription 
as  he  found  it.  There  would  be  nothing  improb- 
able in  the  presence  of  a  Greek  Gospel-book  at 


Notes  on  Various  Works  of  Art 

Naples  in  the  iifth,  sixth  or  seventh  century,  and 
we  know  that  at  least  one  representation  of  the 
emblems  was  actually  there  at  that  time — viz.,  the 
mosaic  which  has  survived,  though  in  a  mutilated 
state,  to  the  present  day.  J.  A,  Herbert. 


cA^  LETTERS  TO  THE  EDITOR  r*^ 


A    PORTRAIT   ATTRIBUTED    TO 
VELAZQUEZ 

To  the  Edilor  of  The  Burlington  Magazine. 

Sir, — Having  seen  in  No.  LV  of  The  Burling- 
ton Magazine  a  photogravure  of  A  Utile  Girl  by 
Velazquez  in  the  possession  of  Messrs.  Duveen,  I 
enclose  a  photograph  of  A  Little  /joy,  by  the  same 
artist,  trusting  that  it  may  be  of  interest  to  your 
readers  and  subscribers.  I  am  sorry  that  I  cm 
give  no  clue  as  to  whom  it  represents.  I  only 
know  that  it  was  in  my  f.unily  collection  and  is 
now  in  my  private  one.  Trusting  that  it  may 
throw  some  light  on  the  work  of  the  great  Velaz- 
quez, I  offer  it  you  for  publication. 

I  remain,  Sir,  Yours  very  truly. 

Prince  Doria  Pamphili. 

Palazzo  Doria,  Rome. 

[Owing  to  the  heavy  pressure  on  our  space  we 
have  been  compelled  to  delay  publication  of  the 
interesting  and  attractive  portrait  to  which  Prince 
Doria  Pamphili  refers.  A  reproduction  will  be 
found  on  p.  i66. — Ed.] 

THE  IDENTIFICATION  OFTHE  '  FULLER' 

COAST-SCENE   AND  SIMILAR  WORKS  BY 

TURNER 

To  the  Edilor  of  The  Burlington  Magazine. 

Sir, — It  is  now  a  rare  event  for  a  picture  by 
Turner  to  be  offered  at  auction  for  the  first  time, 
and  it  was  not  surprising,  therefore,  that  the 
characteristic  example  that  was  brought  before  the 
public  at  Christie's  on  April  4th  was  received  with 
applause  ;  nor  that,  from  a  starting  bid  of  3,000 
guineas,  it  should  have  reached  double  that  sum 
before  the  hammer  fell.  This  work,  which  was 
catalogued  as  The  Beach  at  Hastings,  was  painted 
by  the  artist  in  his  full  vigour,  at  the  age  of  thirty- 
five,  being  signed  in  full  and  dated  1810,  and  was 
purchased  from  him  by  the  patron,  Mr.  John 
Fuller,  of  Rose-Hill  Park,  for  whom  he  produced 
so  many  lovely  water-colour  views  of  the  Weald 
of  Sussex  five  or  six  years  later  than  that  date. 
Those  drawings,  thirteen  in  number,  were  to  have 
been  all  engraved  and  published  by  W.  B.  Cooke, 
in  either  the  '  Views  in  Sussex,'  of  which  only  one 
part  was  issued  in  1819,  or  the  '  Views  in  Hastings 
and  its  Vicinity,'  which  fell  through  entirely  for 
lack  of  subscribers.  It  is  unfortunate  that  such  a 
fine  connected  series  of  local  views  should  now 
have  become  dispersed,  at  the  same  sale,  before 
being  reproduced  together  by  photogravure  pro- 
cess for  modern  publication. 

The  oil  painting  is  specially  worthy  of  notice  as 


being  a  favourite  subject  with  Turner,  to  which  he 
returned  repeatedly  after  his  first  conception  of 
The  Sun  Rising  tliroiigli  Vapour  in  1807,  the  large- 
scale  work  (52  X  70)  in  the  National  Gallery.  When 
first  exhibited  at  the  Academy  the  artist  added  to 
his  description  of  that  famous  work.  Fishermen 
Cleaning  and  Selling  Fish,  which  he  altered  to 
zvith  Fishermen  Landing  and  Cleaning  their  Fish 
when  hung  at  the  British  Institution  two  years 
later;  while  he  varied  the  small  replica  (27x40) 
which  he  painted  for  Mr.  Fawkes  into  a  Sicnset : 
Sussex  Coast.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  Turner  would 
never  repeat  himself  in  his  work.  For  Mr.  Gillott 
he  painted  three  such  coast  scenes,  which  were 
sold  at  his  sale  in  1872  for  1,100,  270  and  300 
guineas  respectively,  the  first  being  entitled 
Hastings  Beach  :  the  Fish  Market.  For  Mr.  Fawkes 
he  also  executed  a  water-colour  drawing,  which 
he  called  Fish  Market,  English  Coast,  and  other 
similar  drawings  were  once  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  John  P\arnworth  (of  Woolton,  near  Liverpool), 
and  of  Mr.  Griffiths  (of  Norwood)  ;  while,  finally, 
he  painted  his  largest  canvas  of  the  subject  (60  x  84) 
imder  the  title.  Fishing  Boats,  ivith  Hncksters  Bar- 
gaining for  Fish,  which  was  in  the  British  Institu- 
tion exhibition  of  1838. 

Mr.  Fuller's  picture,  which  has  just  been  sold  by 
his  descendant.  Sir  Alexander  Acland-Hood,  is  a 
'Kit-cat'  (the  actual  sight  measurement  is  35  by 
47),  and  when  lent  to  the  International  Exhibition 
in  1862  the  title  was  Hastings  sea-coast;  but  there 
are  no  means  whatever  by  which  one  can  decide  as 
to  the  locality.  It  was  painted  about  the  same  time 
as  Bligh  Sand,  which,  although  not  shown  at  the 
Academy  until  1815,  was  included  in  a  catalogue 
of  the  works  in  the  artist's  gallery  which  he  printed 
in  the  year  1809,  as  '  No.  7.  Fishing  npon  the  Blythe 
Sand,  Tide  setting  in '  ;  that  canvas  is  of  the  same 
size  precisely,  but  about  seventy  of  his  pictures 
were  variations  of  three  feet  by  four  feet.  As  this 
picture  does  not  appear  in  the  1809  catalogue,  we 
may  presume  that  it  was  not  painted  before  the 
date  it  bears,  though  most  probably  it  did  not 
pass  into  Mr.  Fuller's  possession  before  1815. 
It  is  very  doubtful  whether  the  name  Hastings 
should  have  ever  been  attached  to  the  work,  there 
being  no  indication  of  the  '  sea-coast '  of  that  place, 
n(jr  any  resemblance  to  its  '  beach.'  The  shore 
here  is,  in  fact,  a  level  sand  without  any  shingle, 
and  it  might  be  either  near  Bligh-sand  or  Margate  ; 
which  recalls  the  fact  that  the  Fish-market  on  the 
Sands:  the  Sun  rising  through  Vaponr  {t,^  x  44), 
exhibited  in   1830,  and   now  in   the  collection   of 

167 


Letters  to  the  Editor 


Mr.  Edward  Chapman,  is  said  by  Mr.  C.  F.  Bell 
to  have  been  sometimes  called  The  Sliorc  at  Margate. 

Certain  it  is,  however,  that  Turner  gave  the 
name  Fish  Market  at  Hastings  to  an  important 
water-colour  drawing  (17^  x  265),  which  he  lent 
to  Mr.  W.  B.  Cooke,  the  engraver  and  publisher,  for 
his  exhibition  in  1824,  and  which  he  afterwards 
presented  to  Sir  Anthony  Carlisle.  That  drawing 
was  sold  in  1858,  and  it  has  been  confused  in  Mr. 
Bell's  list  with  the  oil  painting  sold  in  the  Gillott 
sale  of  1872,  already  referred  to  ;  while,  on  the 
authority  of  Mr.  Finberg,  it  is  stated  to  be  now  in 
the  collection  of  Mr.  G.  W.  Vanderbilt,  in  New 
York. 

It  may,  perhaps,  be  thought  unnecessary  for  so 
many  pictures  and  drawings  to  have  been  thus 
briefly  referred  to  in  this  connexion  ;  but  there 
has  been  so  much  confusion  caused  by  the  fre- 
quent variation  in  titles  given  at  different  times  to 
Turner's  works  in  general  that  it  has  become 
extremely  difficult  to  identify  them  and  to  trace 
their  pedigree   correctly.    This   difficulty   is   fre- 


quently intensified,  instead  of  cleared,  by  the 
descriptions  given  in  what  should  be  reliable 
catalogues.  In  illustration  of  this  objection  it  is 
surprising  to  find  that  in  the  Christie  sale  cata- 
logue the  spectator's  '  right '  and  '  left '  are  through- 
out reversed,  thus  falsifying  the  compositions  of 
(he  pictures  entirely,  and  upsetting  the  identifi- 
cation of  the  works  in  question.  Another  instance 
of  erroneous  description  may  also  be  appropiately 
mentioned  here.  In  the  sale  catalogue  of  April 
30th,  1904,  an  oil  picture  on  panel  (10  x  14) 
called  '  Hastings,'  attributed  to  Turner,  was  really 
a  copy  of  the  oil  painting  (11  X  i4)of '  LyiiieRegis ' 
which  was  engraved  in  the  '  Southern  Coast '  series. 
It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  more  care  is  not 
exercised,  both  in  regard  to  the  titles  and  the 
descriptions  of  pictures  and  drawings  ;  and  also 
in  the  measurements,  which  are  very  frequently 
given  incorrectly,  and  therefore  become  misleading 
as  important  data  for  precise  identification. 
I  am,  Sir,  etc., 

William  White. 


^  ART  BOOKS  OF  THE  MONTH  cKp 


ART    HISTORY 

Manuel  d'Art  Musulman.  Two  volumes :  (1) 
L' Architecture,  par  H.  Saladin  ;  (2)  Les  Arts 
Plastiques  et  Industriels,  par  Gaston  Migeon. 
Paris  :  Picard,  1907.  15  francs  each. 
These  volumes,  containing  together  upwards  of 
1,000  pages,  mark  a  very  distinct  advance  in  the 
study  of  Muslim  art,  and  that  by  reason  no  less 
of  their  detail  than  of  their  comprehensiveness. 
For  the  first  time  we  have  a  systematic  attempt  to 
examine,  compare  and  correlate  the  geographically 
far-sundered  artistic  products  of  Islam — to  trace 
the  history  and  development  of  its  artistic  spirit 
through  all  its  manifestations.  The  task  is  an 
immense  one  ;  and  MINI.  Saladin  and  Migeon 
deserve  the  warmest  recognition  of  the  time,  labour 
and  skill  devoted  to  this  manual,  which  must  take 
its  place  at  once  as  a  most  valuable  work  of 
reference  for  students.  This  it  cannot  fail  to  be, 
and  no  criticisms  which  we  may  feel  compelled 
to  make  will  seriously  qualify  this  judgment  upon 
the  book.  With  every  division  of  the  subject  is 
given  a  bibliography,  which  is  most  useful,  though 
the  authorities  given  are  not  always  the  best,  and 
a  doubt  is  suggested  whether  the  authors  are 
acquainted  with  Arabic,  and  in  M.  Saladin's  case 
even  with  English. 

M.  Saladin  treats  in  his  volume  on  Architecture 
of  five  great  schools,  which  he  calls  (i)  Syro- 
Egyptian  —  Syria,  Egypt  and  Arabia  ;  (2) 
Moorish — Algeria,  Morocco,  Spain  and  Sicily  ; 
('3)  Persian  —  Persia,  Mesopotamia,  Armenia, 
etc.;  (4)  Ottoman — Asia  Minor  and  Constanti- 
nople ;  and  (5)  India.  Each  of  these  schools  is 
considered  in  respect  of  religious,  civil  and  military 

168 


architecture  ;  and  it  is  little  wonder  if  M.  Saladin 
complams  that  he  had  greatly  to  compress  his 
material ;  the  wonder  rather  is  that  he  has  put 
together  so  much  in  so  small  a  compass.  His 
history  is  not  always  good  :  he  relies  too  much  on 
authors  like  Le  Bon,  quoting,  for  example,  his 
most  inaccurate  statement  that  the  effect  of  the 
first  contact  of  Islam  with  earlier  civilizations  was 
to  galvanize  their  last  remains.  Nor  is  M.  Saladin 
very  happy  in  his  general  theorizing  upon  the 
origins  of  Muslim  architecture.  He  rightly 
gives  Persia,  Egypt  and  Spain  as  the  three  poles  of 
Muslim  art;  but  in  attributing  the  strong  local 
colour  in  each  case  to  the  fact  that  all  three 
countries  had  strong  artistic  traditions,  which 
clever  workers  were  ready  to  revive,  he  goes  too  far. 
In  Persia  and  Egypt  the  traditions  and  the  practice 
of  the  arts  were  alive  and  needed  no  revival,  indeed 
Islam  did  much  to  destroy  both  Graeco-Roman 
and  Pharaonic  monuments  in  Egypt ;  while  in 
Spain  neither  any  great  tradition  nor  any  highly 
skilled  craft  existed  in  the  seventh  and  eighth 
centuries.  So,  too,  it  seems  a  sort  of  obsession 
with  M.  Saladin  to  derive  nearly  all  forms  of 
architectural  decoration  from  textiles.  He  thinks 
that  wall-tiles  were  suggested  by  textile  hangings, 
that  pillars  hung  with  embroidery  inspired  the 
treatment  of  the  small  columns  in  the  sebil  of 
Kait  Bey  in  Cairo,  and  he  even  traces  the  richly 
carved  designs  on  the  arcading  at  S.  Sophia  to  a 
motive  from  embroidery  or  jewellery.  This  kind  of 
of  theory  is  too  fanciful — even  fantastic — to  be 
helpful  in  determining  the  evolution  of  Muslim 
art ;  and  a  scientific  study  of  that  subject  has  still 
to   be   made.     But    for  such   a   study   the   facts 


Art  History 


which  M.  Saladin  amasses,  both  from  his  own 
wide  travels  and  researches  and  from  the  work 
of  others,  are  invaluable.  The  range  which  he 
covers  is  astonishing,  and  the  minuteness  of  his 
descriptions,  as  well  as  the  profusion  of  his  plans 
and  illustrations,  gives  him  a  strong  claim  to  the 
admiration  and  the  gratitude  of  all  workers  in  the 
same  field. 

Even  more  unqualified  praise  may  be  given  to 
M.  Migeon's  volume  on  the  industrial  and  plastic 
arts.  As  he  says,  the  neglect  of  Muslim  art  as  a 
whole  is  incredible  ;  and  he  strongly  insists  on  the 
need  for  a  Chair  of  Muslim  Art  and  Archaeology 
in  connexion  with  one  of  the  existing  schools  of 
Oriental  Languages.  That  is  an  idea  which  one 
of  our  English  Universities  might  well  borrow  :  it 
is  an  idea  which  M.  Migeon's  work  will  certainly 
do  much  to  forward,  whether  it  be  first  realized  in 
France,  Germany,  or  England.  Limits  of  space 
forbid  any  detailed  examination  of  M.  Migeon's 
learned  review  of  Mohammedan  miniature  paint- 
ing, sculpture,  mosaics,  wood-carving,  ivories, 
metal-work,  ceramics,  glass  and  crystal.  In  all 
these  branches  of  art  the  author  gathers  together 
and  illustrates  the  most  important  known  examples; 
and  the  theories  he  formulates  are  stated  with 
reserve  and  caution,  as  becomes  a  writer  conscious 
that  a  vast  amount  of  study  is  still  required  before 
the  great  problems  of  his  subject  can  be  solved. 
Forexample,take  the  tenth-century  Spanishablution 
tank,  frankly  Byzantine  in  character,  yet  bearing 
a  Cufic  inscription.  Was  the  artist  a  Christian  or 
a  Muslim  by  race  ?  Is  his  work  Muslim  at  all  ? 
and,  more  generally,  when  in  Persia,  Egypt,  and 
Spain,  did  Muslim  art  cease  to  learn  and  to  copy  ? 
When  did  it  begin  to  design  and  to  teach  ? 
No  simple  or  single  answer  can  be  given  to  such 
questions.  On  the  subject  of  mosaics  the  discus- 
sion of  origins  is  quite  inadequate  ;  indeed,  the 
whole  chapter  is  too  short,  and  it  contains  no 
mention  of  glass  mosaic  in  Cairo.  The  attribution 
of  fig.  98  (Minbar  at  Sidi  Okba)  to  a  time  long 
anterior  to  Egyptian  woodwork  is  very  doubtful ; 
it  contains  characteristically  Egyptian  mushrabiah 
work — probably  of  thirteenth  century — but  the 
author  associates  it  with  that  absurd  legend  dating 
the  tiles  in  the  same  mosque  ninth  century — a 
legend  for  which  M.  Saladin  is  responsible,  and 
which  has  been  completely  refuted  in  this  maga- 
zine.' The  same  mistake  must  be  pointed  out  on 
p.  257,  under  the  head  of  ceramics.  The  only 
other  specimen  of  so-called  ninth-century  lustre 
ware  given  by  M.  Migeon  is  the  dish  on  p.  258, 
but  no  evidence  whatever  is  furnished  for  the  date. 
Again,  on  p.  259  the  author's  want  of  acquaintance 
with  Arabic   leads  him  to   speak  of  Vacoub,  the 

'  See  under  '  Letters  to  the  Editor  '  in  the  numbers  for  Sep- 
tember, October  and  November,  1907,  the  correspondence 
between  Mr.  Van  de  Put  and  Dr.  A.  J.  Butler.  Vol.xi,  pp.  391-2, 
Vol.  xii,  pp.  48,  107. 


geographer,  instead  of  Yakut — a  mistake  which 
has  slipped  even  into  the  catalogue  of  the  Burling- 
ton Fine  Arts  Club  Exhibition  of  1907.  How- 
ever, the  chapter  on  ceramics  on  the  whole  is  an 
admirable  piece  of  work,  and  the  great  number 
of  dated  specimens  it  contains  give  it  an  excep- 
tional value.  Admirable  also  are  the  chapters 
dealing  with  metalwork  and  enamelled  glass. 
Indeed,  the  richness  and  variety  of  Muslim  art 
products  as  disclosed  in  this  volume  will  be  a 
revelation  to  most  people.  One  could  wish  that 
for  so  many  forms  of  art  M.  Migeon  was  less 
inclined  to  rest  on  the  theory  of  a  '  Mesopotamian 
origin ' — thrice  blessed  as  the  word  Mesopotamia 
is  by  most  authorities.  But  that  the  origins  of 
faience  are  nearer  geographically  and  more  remote 
historically  than  has  been  generally  allowed  seems 
no  longer  doubtful  after  the  extraordinary  dis- 
coveries at  Knossos  of  glazed  and  coloured  ware, 
held  by  Dr.  Arthur  Evans  to  date  from  2,000  B.C. 
But  it  would  be  equally  unfair  and  ungracious 
not  to  recognize  to  the  fullest  the  debt  which  all 
Oriental  scholars  owe  to  the  accomplished  authors 
of  this  book.  The  debt  would  be  greater  if  to 
both  volumes  were  added  a  fuller  and  more 
scientific  index. 

NiEDERLANDISCHES       KiJNSTLER     LEXIKON     AUF 

Grund  archivalischer  Forschungen 
bearbeitet  von  Dr.  A.  von  Wurzb.\ch.  2^ 
Band.  5'*  und  6''^  Lieferungen.  Wien,  1907. 
These  two'  fascicles  bring  the  notices  of  artists 
down  to  Rembrandt ;  those  of  fifteenth  century 
painters  are  as  a  rule  followed  by  a  long  list  of 
paintings  attributed  to  them  by  one  or  other  critic, 
many  without  any  docuinentary  evidence  (see 
for  example  A.  van  Ouwater,  Patenir,  Prevost); 
it  is  well  that  these  should  be  recorded,  if  only  as 
a  warning  to  future  writers,  but  one  cannot  help 
thinking  how  much  more  useful  it  would  be  to 
examine  thoroughly  the  immense  number  of 
documents  that  have  yet  to  be  dealt  with,  although, 
as  the  present  writer  knows  too  well,  such  research 
does  not  meet  with  much  encouragement.  The 
bibliographical  references  are  generally  fairly  com- 
plete, but  in  the  case  of  Adrian  van  Overbeke, 
neither  H.  Keussen,  '  Der  Meister  des  Schreins  am 
Hauptaltare  in  de  Pfarrkirche  zu  Kempen  '(Bonn), 
nor  the  notice  in  P.  Clemen's  'Kunstdenkrnalcrdes 
Kreises  Kempen  '  (Diisseldorf,  1891),  p.  62-65,  is 
mentioned.  Van  Overbeke,  like  several  of  his 
contemporaries  at  Antwerp,  did  not  confine 
himself  to  painting  pictures,  but  also  undertook  the 
execution  of  carved  and  polychromed  oak 
statues  and  altar  reredoses ;  for  one  of  the  latter, 
which  still  adorns  the  high  altar  of  the  church 
at  Kempen,  he  received  a  commission,  nth 
August,  1513,  from  the  confraternity  of  Saint  Anne 
for  the  sum  of  three  hundred  gold  florins.  The 
central  sculptured  portion,  polychromed,  represents 

169 


Art  History 


subjects  from  tlie  life  of  Christ  ;  the  shutters, 
painted,  scenes  from  the  story  of  Saint  Anne  ; 
above  the  reredos  is  a  polychromed  statue  of  that 
saint.  At  the  back  of  the  central  portion  is  the  Last 
Judgment  painted  by  another  hand.  Albert 
Duerer  in  the  diary  of  his  journey  to  the  Nether- 
lands mentions  a  Master  Adrian  whose  portrait  he 
drew  ;  this  may  possibly  be  Van  Overbeke  ^  On 
5th  March,  152 1,  Van  Overbeke  was  summoned 
before  the  magistrates  for  having  been  present  at 
a  Protestant  sermon,  and  on  the  19th  he  with  two 
other  painters  and  a  sculptor  were  again  brought 
up  on  a  similar  charge, when  they  were  admonished 
and  dismissed.  On  the  26th,  Van  Overbeke  was 
again  in  trouble,  this  time  for  having  publicly 
read  and  expounded  the  Scriptures,  and  was 
sentenced  to  leave  the  town  before  sunset  and  to 
make  a  pilgrimage  to  Wilsenaken,  and  in  default 
to  suffer  the  loss  of  his  right  hand.  In  1529  he 
painted  an  altar-piece  for  the  chapel  of  Saint 
Joseph  in  the  church  of  Kempen  ;  this  was  taken 
away  in  1662  to  Kaiserwerth. 

As  to  Joachim  Patenir,  there  may  possibly  be 
some  truth  in  C.  van  Mander's  statement  that  he 
was  in  the  habit  of  signing  his  paintings  with  a 
little  figure  of  a  man,  apparently  a  play  on  his 
name.  In  the  print-room  of  the  British  Museum 
there  is  a  drawing  by  John  De  Beer  of  Antwerp, 
1504-1536 — probably  the  painter  of  the  altar-piece 
at  Lierre  and  of  the  Richmond  Saint  Katlicrinc  and 
the  philosophers — on  the  back  of  which  are 
Patenir's  name  (signature  ?)  and  the  little  man. 
I  have  discovered  him  in  two  paintings  in  the 
Prado  Gallery  :  Tlie  Holy  Fainilv  resting  on 
the  icay  to  Egypt  and  Tlie  Elysian  fields  and 
Tartarus  ;  and  he  may  possibly  be  found  in  others, 
but  like  the  owl  in  pamtings  by  Bles,  he  is  generally 
difficult  to  find.  The  sheet  of  paper  with  the 
figures  of  Saint  Christopher  given  to  Patenir  by 
Duerer  is  now  in  the  possession  of  M.  Henry 
Duval  of  Liege.  The  Bruges  goldsmith,  John 
Pcutin  or  Puetin — not  Pentin,  one  of  Laborde's 
many  misreadings — made  the  enamelled  collars 
given  to  the  first  twenty-five  members  of  the  Order 
of  the  Golden  Fleece.^ 

Peter,  son  of  John  Pourbus  or  Poerbus  (pounce- 
box)  of  Gouda,  was  born  c.  1512  ;  it  is  not  known 
where  he  served  his  apprenticeship.  He  came  to 
Bruges  about  1538  and  probably  worked  under 
Lancelot  Blondeel  whose  daughter  Anne  he 
married  in  1544.  He  was  admitted  as  free-master 
into  the  gild  of  Saint  Luke,  August  26,  1543  ; 
was  a  member  of  its  council    for  the  first  time, 

' '  Item  hab  meister  Adrian  mit  den  koh'n  conterfet.''Tagebncli 
ed.  Leitschuh  '  p.  63.  In  another  entry  (p.  76)  he  mentions  Sir 
Adrian, '  herr  Adrian,'  certainly  the  secretary  of  the  municipality, 
but  as  in  another  (p.  77)  he  calls  tlie  latter  '  maister  Adrian,  der 
von  Antorff  secretary,'  it  may  probably  be  he  whose  portrait  he 
drew. 

■■* '  Compte  de  la  Recette  Generale  de  Flandre,'i432,  fol.  ccxiv. 
Archives  of  the  Department  of  the  North,  Lille. 

170 


not  in  1552  but  in  1550,  and  held  the  office 
of  dean  in  1569-70  and  1580-82.  He  may  have 
travelled  in  Italy,  and  probably  did,  but  if  so,  it 
must  have  been  prior  to  his  settling  in  Bruges. 
He  was  a  very  gifted  and  many  sided  man  ;  as  a 
cartographer  he  has  seldom  been  surpassed  ;  his 
portraits  are  remarkably  fine  ;  his  religious  com- 
positions generally  show  Italian  influence,  but  he 
was  a  great  admirer  of  his  Netherlandish  prede- 
cessors, especially  of  Memlinc,  David  and  Isen- 
brant,  for  some  of  whose  works  he  painted  shutters 
not  unworthy  of  them.  Of  his  allegorical  com- 
positions there  is  a  remarkable  example  in  the 
Wallace  collection,  formerly  in  that  of  William  II., 
king  of  Holland.  John  Prevost,  the  painter  of  the 
Last  Judgment  in  the  Bruges  museum,  was  not  a 
Fleming,  but  a  native  of  Mons  in  Hainault,  and 
in  all  the  earlier  documents  his  name  is  thus 
written  ;  it  would  therefore  be  well  to  keep  to  that 
form.  The  Walloon  painters,  Campin,  Daret,  De 
la  Pasture,  Marmion,  Gossart,  Prevost,  Patenir  and 
Bles,  had  a  considerable  influence  on  the  develop- 
ment of  the  Netherlandish  school,  and  the  attempt 
to  hide  this  by  always  employing  the  Flemish 
equivalents  of  their  names  is  quite  as  indefensible 
as  the  late  M.  Bouchot's  mania  of  claiming  the 
Flemish  artists  as  belonging  to  the  French  school. 
The  Bruges  Last  Judgmeid  of  1525  is  the  only 
painting  proved  to  be  by  Prevost,  but  many  others 
not  only  of  contemporary  and  later  masters,but  also 
of  much  earlier  date,  have  been  attributed  to  him. 
Some  critics  now  claim  to  be  able  to  show  what 
the  author  of  a  dated  work  painted  in  after  years 
and  even  to  trace  his  manner  back  to  his  early 
efforts.  When  fresh  documents  happen  to  be  dis- 
covered these  speculative  guesses  almost  always 
turn  out  to  be  wrong. 

W.  H.  J.  W. 

A  History  of  Art.  By  Dr.  G.  Carotti.  Vol.  I : 
Ancient  Art.  Revised  by  Mrs.  Arthur  Strong, 
Litt.D.  London  :  Duckworth,  5s.  net. 
A  SHORT  time  ago  we  had  occasion  to  praise  this 
volume  of  the  '  Manuali  Hoepli '  :  we  now  welcome 
it  in  English.  Miss  Todd,  the  translator,  it  is  true, 
has  kept  so  closely  to  her  original  that  her  style 
retains  something  (occasionally  not  a  little)  of  the 
rather  ponderous  complexityof  Dr.  Carotti's  Italian, 
but  the  book  on  the  whole  has  become  infinitely 
more  accessible  for  English  readers.  It  has  gained, 
too,  by  Mrs.  Strong's  super\'ision,  though  she  has 
left  Dr.  Carotti's  text  almost  untouched.  We  note 
here  and  there  additions  or  corrections  on  minor 
points  {e.g.,  the  note  on  the  Knossos  excavations) 
which  are  of  distinct  value,  and  the  defects  of  the 
book  are  few  in  comparison  with  its  merits.  The 
art  of  pre-  and  proto-dynastic  Egypt  is  incompletely 
summarized  ;  in  the  case  of  ^linoan  art,  a  brief 
outline  of  the  three  chief  periods  and  a  reference 
to    the    unique    collections    in    the    Ashmolean 


Art  History 


Museum  might  h:ive  been  added  ;  and  the  section 
on  India  is  too  sHght.  But  the  httle  book  as  a 
whole  is  an  admirable  compilation,  its  systematic 
plan  makes  it  easy  of  reference  ;  its  five  hundred 
and  forty  illustrations  are  excellently  chosen  ;  it  is 
furnished  with  a  good  bibliography  and  an  index; 
while  its  handy  form  and  modest  price  make  it  the 
most  generally  useful  introduction  to  ancient  art 
that  has  iiitherto  appeared  in  English. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Portraits  in  Suffolk  Houses  (West).  By 
Rev.  Edmund  P\urer,  F.S.A.,  Hinderclay 
Rectory,  Suffolk.  London  :  B.  Quaritch. 
1908.  L.p.,  £2  10s. ;  s.p.,  25s. 
Dr.  Johnson,  vvho  is  seldom  reckoned  as  an  art 
critic,  speaking  of  his  friend,  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds, 
said,  '  I  should  grieve  to  see  Reynolds  transfer  to 
heroes  and  to  goddesses,  to  empty  splendour  and 
to  airy  fiction,  that  art  which  is  now  employed  in 
diffusing  friendship,  in  renewing  tenderness,  in 
quickening  the  affections  of  the  absent,  and  con- 
tinuing the  presence  of  the  dead.'  On  another 
occasion  the  same  great-hearted  sage  said  of 
portraits  that  'Every  man  is  always  present  to 
himself,  and  has,  therefore,  little  need  of  his  own 
resemblance  ;  nor  can  desire  it  but  for  the  sake  of 
those  whom  he  loves,  and  by  whom  he  hopes  to 
be  remembered.  This  use  of  the  art  is  a  natural 
and  reasonable  consequence  of  affection,  and 
though,  like  other  human  actions,  it  is  often  com- 
plicated with  pride,  yet  even  such  pride  is  more 
laudable  than  that  by  which  palaces  are  covered 
with  pictures,  that,  however  excellent,  neither 
imply  the  owner's  virtue  nor  excite  it.'  In  these 
words  Dr.  Johnson  strikes  a  special  note  in  the 
history  of  the  British  race,  that  justifiable  pride  in 
one's  own  self  which  is  derived  from  the  example 
of  our  forefathers  and  is  intended  to  benefit 
posterity,  and  which  takes  its  concrete  form  in 
family  portraits. 

Family  portraits  are  a  characteristic  part  of 
family  life  in  this  country,  and  serve  to  accentuate 
the  value  of  home  and  family  with  their  inherent 
liabilities,  as  opposed  to  the  mere  individualism  of 
the  moment.  The  idea  involved  in  membership 
of  a  family  is  one  which  prevails  strongly  through- 
out England  even  in  these  days,  when  the  lines  of 
demarcation  between  the  landed  gentry  and  the 
people  become  day  by  day  less  strongly  marked. 
Many  houses  to  this  day  preserve  within  their 
walls  portraits  of  their  former  owners,  their  wives 
and  children,  and  others  whose  lives  were  bound 
up  with  the  old  place,  or  with  the  history  of  the 
country  or  locality,  and  in  the  company  of  which 
each  successive  owner  hopes  to  be  remembered 
by  his  own  posterity.  It  is  true  that  few  branches 
of  the  painter's  art  have  been  so  much  neglected 
by  art  critics  and  art  historians  as  family  portraits, 
the  reason   being  that,  as  a  sense  of  duty  rather 


than  mere  personal  vanity  has  often  been  the 
prevailing  cause,  the  portraits  in  themselves  do 
not  in  the  majority  of  cases  attain  to  any  high 
position  of  artistic  merit. 

Such  portraits  are  however  a  study  in  them- 
selves, and  any  student,  who  cares  to  detach 
himself  from  the  contemplation  or  dissection  of 
masterpieces  will  find  in  family  portraits  a  fruit- 
ful field  of  research.  He  can  learn  from  these 
portraits  the  rise  of  a  particular  family,  and  the 
distinction  conferred  upon  it  by  the  success  of  any 
particular  member  of  the  family.  He  will  be  able 
to  trace  the  existence  of  local  schools  of  artists, 
swayed  as  to  fashion  by  the  leading  artists  of  the 
great  world  in  London,  and  painting  in  the  man- 
ner of  Lely,  Kneller  or  Lawrence,  as  the  caprices 
of  society  might  from  time  to  time  dictate.  He 
can  study  the  vagaries  of  costume,  and  the  pre- 
valence of  convention,  such  as  the  'fancy  dress 
which  was  frequently  painted  on  the  canvas  before 
the  arrival  of  the  sitter.'  In  all  such  studies  he 
will  find  an  intelligent  and  useful  guide  in  the 
Rev.  Edmund  Farrer,  whose  book  on  Suffolk 
portraits  is  before  us  now. 

It  is  only  a  few  years  since  at  the  Congress  of 
Archaeological  Societies  in  London  a  scheme  was 
mooted,  carried  and  put  into  execution  for 
obtaining  some  kind  of  record  of  the  innumerable 
portraits  existing  in  country  houses,  colleges, 
public  institutions  and  elsewhere  in  this  country. 
In  far  too  many  cases  the  care  of  these  portraits 
has  been  sadly  neglected,  and,  although  there  are 
many  houses  where  the  family  portraits  have  been 
duly  cared  for  and  the  names  preserved,  there  are 
too  many  in  which  such  portraits  have  been  treated 
as  mere  worthless  or  just  tolerable  furniture,  the 
names  in  most  cases  lost,  and  the  pictures  them- 
selves allowed  to  go  to  decay.  The  scheme,  how- 
ever, was  fruitful  of  but  scanty  result. 

Mr.  Farrer's  book  is  evidence  in  itself  of  the 
expenditure  of  time  and  trouble,  to  say  nothing  of 
more  material  expenses,  which  must  be  incurred  in 
any  exhaustive  and  scientific  attempt  to  enumerate 
the  portraits  in  any  given  part  of  the  country. 
Mr.  Farrer's  industry  has  been  phenomenal.  In 
house  after  house  he  has  not  only  noted  the  por 
traits  in  the  drawing-room,  but  has  descended  into 
the  parlour,  as  Horace  Walpole  describes,  to  find 
my  father's  and  mother's  pictures,  and  then 
climbed  upstairs  to  search  after  my  grandfather 
and  grandmother,  and  as  many  generations 
back  as  the  staircases  and  passages  may  reveal.  The 
result  is  a  book  of  peculiar  interest  for  historical, 
local  and  artistic  purposes.  In  view  of  the 
difficulty  attending  such  researches  it  would  be 
ungracious  to  criticize  the  form  or  language,  to 
seek  for  inaccuracies  or  omissions.  The  mere 
fact  that  this  one  portion  of  Suffolk  should  include 
the  portraits  in  such  important  houses  as  Barton 
Hall,   Culford  Hall,  Euston  Hall,  Hengrave  Hall 

171 


Miscellaneous 


and  Ickwoith   is  sufficient  to  denote  the   value  of 
the  book  as  a  work  of  reference. 

Mr.  Farrer  may  be  congratulated  on  completing 
this  portion  of  the  catalogue  of  the  Suffolk 
portraits.  Tlie  illustrations  in  themselves  add 
value  to  the  book,  and  are  no  inconsiderable  addi- 
tion to  the  art  history  of  the  nation.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  he  will  see  his  way  to  complete  the  work 
by  cataloguing  the  remaining  portraits  in  East 
Suffolk.  L.  C. 

Heraldry  as  Art.  An  account  of  its  develop- 
ment and  practice,  chiefly  in  England.  By 
G.  W.  Eve.  Batsford.  12s.  6d.  net. 
There  are  already  so  many  little  heraldry  books 
that  a  newcomer  needs  more  excuse  than  we  can 
find  for  this  one  of  Mr.  Eve's.  As  a  popular 
engraver  and  designer  of  book-plates  and  the  like 
Mr.  Eve  has  some  tricks  of  craft  which  his  fellows 
may  study  to  their  advantage.  But  through  the 
most  part  of  a  book  written  with  a  somewhat  heavy 
pen  we  must  read  again  the  familiar  compilation 
from  well-known  works — a  compilation  unen- 
lightened by  original  study,  and  with  a  liberal 
share  of  its  forerunners'  mistakes. 

No  antiquary,  and  having,  therefore,  to  take  his 
archaeology  at  second-hand,  Mr.  Eve  falls  under 
the  curse  which  the  learned  Woodward,  in  putting 
forward  his  '  Heraldry,  British  and  Foreign,'  pro- 
nounced upon  all  the  host  of  the  '  freebooting 
compilers'  who  borrow  without  acknowledgment. 
The  curse  fulfils  itself,  for  the  borrower  borrows 
without  judgment,  and  the  lack  of  original  study 
is  soon  betrayed.  In  his  first  pages  Mr.  Eve  warns 
the  antiquary  that  he  need  adventure  no  further. 
'  In  Europe,'  writes  Mr.  Eve,  'heraldry  began  to 
be  systematized  (as  we  know  it)  somewhere  about 
the  eleventh  century.'  Seeing  that  archaeologists 
have  as  yet  found  in  the  eleventh  century  no  trace 
of  any  use  of  heraldic  forms,  Mr.  Eve's  opinion 
on  their  systematization  seems  of  little  value.  Let 
us  finish  his  sentence  :  ' .  .  .  it  flourished  exceed- 
ingly until  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  the  period  thus  indicated  being  that  of  its 
greatest  strength  and  beauty.'  Here  the  student  of 
decorative  art  may  slap  the  book  cover  and  follow 
the  antiquary.  These  things  are  but  matters  of 
taste,  but  we  have  here  an  authority  that  would 
lump  the  commonplace  devices  of  the  mid-fifteen- 
hundreds,  when  heraldry  was  dead  as  stockfish, 
with  all  the  live  and  brave  fancies  of  the  middle 
ages. 

Not  a  Jack  o'  lantern  flits  but  Mr.  Eve  follows 
it.  The  curious  belief  that  heraldic  charges  began 
in  some  fashion  as  symbols  of  virtues  or  qualities 
has  seized  him.  '  Not  heraldry  alone,  but  every 
part  of  a  knight's  armour  has  a  mystic  meaning, 
the  knowledge  of  which  was  an  important  part  of 
a  knight's  education.'  In  support  of  this  fantasy 
we   are    referred    to   passages   in    the   'Order   of 

172 


Chivalry.'  Long  before  Caxton's  day,  a  Roman 
citizen  explained  the  symbolism  of  the  breastplate 
of  righteousness  and  the  helmet  of  salvation,  but  a 
knowledge  of  his  explanation  was  not,  we  take  it, 
an  essential  part  of  the  education  of  a  Roman 
centurion.  When  we  have  said  that  heraldry 
begins  as  a  system  of  arbitrarily  chosen  devices  to 
be  worn  on  coat  and  shield  we  have  said  all  that 
we  know.  Putting  aside  charges  that  pun  upon 
the  bearer's  name,  the  most  are  barren  of  significa- 
tion. Red  chevrons  on  an  earl  of  Gloucester's 
shield  and  the  red  triangle  on  a  bottle  of  pale  ale 
have  the  same  idea  behind  them  ;  they  are  there 
that  you  should  know  the  great  chief  of  Clare  in 
the  press  of  knights  and  Bass  amongst  strange 
beers.  Yet  another  and  a  persistent  legend  is 
handed  on  by  Mr.  Eve  from  his  masters,  the  belief 
that  'many  mediaeval  bearings' commemorate  some 
deed  of  renown.  So  rare  are  such  cases  that  Mr. 
Eve  cannot  cite  a  mediaeval  example,  although  he 
tells  us  of  '  the  belts  and  buckles  of  Pelham,  which 
commemorate  the  capture  of  the  French  king  at 
Poitiers.'  But  although  a  buckle  is  an  old  Pelham 
badge  of  unknown  origin,  the  shield  or  quartering 
with  '  the  belts  and  buckles  '  is  a  herald's  invention 
several  hundred  years  later  than  the  fight  at  Poitiers. 
Beside  this  legend  we  may  place  Mr.  Eve's 
opinion  that  'chiefs,  like  cantons,  were  at  first 
honorific  additions  to  pre-existing  arms.'  It  would 
be  difficult  to  wrap  up  more  misapprehension  of 
early  heraldry  in  so  short  a  sentence.  Shields 
having  a  chief  without  other  charge  are  found  in 
the  earliest  arms ;  '  cantons,'  as  distinguished  by 
Mr.  Eve  from  quarters,  belong  to  post-mediaeval 
armory  ;  and  '  honorific  additions  '  are  far  from  a 
primitive  development. 

It  does  not  profit  us  to  follow  Mr.  Eve's  specu- 
lations further.  A  glance  at  his  '  heraldic  rules ' 
shows  the  mis-named  charges  in  the  broken 
English  and  crazy  French  beloved  of  the  anti- 
quarian vulgar,  the  '  crosses  patonee '  and  the 
"  crosses  furchee,'  the  '  bordures  counter-com- 
pony,'  the  furs  of  '  counter-vair  and  counter 
potent,'  the  '  unicorns  crined '  and  the  '  lions 
salient.'  '  When  the  hind  legs  are  placed  together 
the  position  is  called  salient,'  says  Mr.  Eve.  Had 
he  seen  a  mediaeval  representation  of  the  shield  of 
any  one  of  the  two  or  three  houses  which  bore 
leaping  lions  he  could  alter  the  sentence.  Since 
we  are  among  his  lions,  let  us  remark  that 
a  beast  drawn  from  the  well-known  Percy  seal,  in 
use  during  the  early  fourteenth  century,  can  hardly 
be  a  useful  example  of  heraldic  art  at  the  '  end  of 
the  twelfth  century.'  And  before  leaving  the 
quaint  French,  scattered  so  freely  through  the 
book,  we  may  suggest  that,  before  sending  out  a 
second  edition  of  what  will  probably  remain  as  a 
standard  popular  manual,  Mr.  Eve  would  do  well 
to  persuade  some  one  familiar  with  that  language 
to  correct  for  him  such  names  as 'Violet-le-duc,' 


Miscellaneous 


'J.  R.  Planche,'  '  Grielly,'  'Amadee,'  and  'Cham- 
bery,'  and  such  words  as  '  gouttes,'  '  cabuchon  ' 
and  '  plique-a-jour.' 

Of  the  three  hundred  illustrations  too  few  deal 
with  the  fine  armory  of  the  gothic  period,  but  of 
these  there  are  enough  to  save  any  reader  from  nam- 
ing the  sixteenth  century  as  an  age  of  strength  and 
beauty,  and  beside  them  Mr.  Eve's  own  neat  designs 
of  armorial  ornament  in  copperplate  or  gesso  have  a 
Bond  Street  air.  Pugin  and  Powell's  cartoons  for 
Westminster  Palace  windows  are  curious  and 
most  interesting  examples  by  men  whose  work 
was  in  advance  of  the  taste  of  their  time,  a  Han- 
over white  horse  by  John  Powell  being  a  little 
wonder  of  vigorous  expression  simply  achieved. 
The  illustrations  from  needlework  are,  as  a  rule, 
interesting  rather  as  decoration  of  textiles  than  as 
examples  of  heraldry,  and  Mr.  Eve  is  mistaken 
in  believing  that  the  roses,  pomegranates  and 
fleurs-de-lys  covering  an  embroidered  cap  in  the 
South  Kensington  Museum  have  any  armorial 
character.  O.  B. 

D.AS  Abendmahl  des  Leonardo  da  Vinci. 
Ein  Beitrag  zur  Frage  seiner  kiinstlerischen 
Rekonstruktion.  By  Otto  Hoerth.  Leipzig  : 
Hiersemann.     1907.     M.  20. 

Upwards  of  a  century  ago  Carlo  Amoretti  laid  the 
foundations  of  the  exact  study  of  Leonardo,  and 
his  example  was  soon  followed.  The  painter 
Guiseppe  Bossi  in  '  Del  Cenacolo,'  published  in 
1810,  collected  the  records  of  his  greatest  creation, 
and  added  a  detailed  description  of  the  painting 
and  an  account  of  the  various  copies.  Bossi's 
work  served  as  the  occasion  for  Goethe's  treatise, 
which  is  the  most  noteworthy  interpretation  of  the 
artist's  thought,  and  the  two  have  been  the  starting 
points  for  subsequent  criticism.  Researches  among 
contemporary  documents  have  failed  to  yield  any 
additional  facts  of  importance.  The  raison  d'etre 
of  future  work  is  that  it  concern  itself  with  the 
mental  history,  with  the  conception  and  progress 
of  the  idea. 

This  is  the  scope  of  the  first  half  of  Herr 
Hoerth's  compendious  work.  He  has  used  the 
artistic  material  available  more  thoroughly  than 
any  preceding  writer,  and  the  result  is  to  enhance 
our  knowledge  of  the  original.  Whatever  view 
may  be  held  as  to  some  of  his  conclusions,  there 
can  be  no  difiference  of  opinion  as  to  the  zeal  and 
scholarly  conscientiousness  which  characterize  his 
work. 

The  comparison  of  preparatory  drawings  renders 
it  possible  to  trace  the  gradual  growth  of  the  con- 
ception in  Leonardo's  mind.  That  it  originated 
during  his  first  period  of  residence  in  Florence 
is  shown  by  a  drawing  in  the  Louvre  of  the  figure 
of  Christ  pointing  to  the  dish,  on  the  same  sheet 
as  various  studies  for  the  Adoration.    This  sketch 


and  the  two  studies  at  Windsor  and  Venice,  in 
each  of  which  the  hands  of  both  Christ  and  Judas 
are  stretched  out  towards  the  disii,  show  that 
Leonardo's  first  conception  was  of  the  moment 
immediately  following  the  words  of  Christ,  '  He 
that  dippeth  with  Me  in  the  dish.'  In  the  painting 
Judas  is  no  longer  isolated  as  in  the  earlier 
representations  of  the  subject.  What  then  is  the 
moment  of  action  ?  Goethe,  following  Fra  Luca 
Pacioli,  who  was  Leonardo's  companion  when  he 
left  Milan  for  Venice  in  1499,  places  it  immediately 
after  the  earlier  speech  of  Christ,  '  One  of  you  shall 
betray  Me.' 

Professor  Josef  Strz^^gowski,  in  the  'Goethe- 
Jahrbuch  '  (Bd.  17,  1896),  put  forward  the  theory 
that  the  moment  represented  is  the  same  as  in  the 
Windsor  and  Venice  sketches,  but  there  is  a  greater 
weight  of  evidence  in  support  of  Goethe's  inter- 
pretation. It  rests  on  the  statement  of  a  personal 
friend  of  the  artist  who  was  closely  associated  with 
him  soon  after  the  date  of  the  painting.  It  finds 
the  fullest  support  from  the  painting  itself.  The 
disciples  are  not  represented  as  spectators.  They 
are  all  concerned  in  the  action.  The  speech 
of  Christ  afifects  them  personally,  and  the  attitude 
of  some  of  them  is  one  of  emphatic  asseveration. 
The  attention  of  none  is  directed  to  Judas. 
The  identity  of  the  betrayer  has  not  been  revealed. 
His  left  hand  is  not  advancing  towards  the  dish 
as  the  later  theory  presupposes  ;  and  the  attitude 
of  Christ  is  inconsistent  with  the  supposition  of 
the  right  hand  being  in  movement. 

The  figure  which  Professor  Strzygowski  relies 
on  as  affording  primary  support  to  his  theory,  that 
sitting  immediately  to  the  right  of  Christ  and 
starting  back  with  hands  thrown  out  in  horror, 
does  not  seem  inconsistent  with  either  interpre- 
tation. There  is  a  preliminary  study  for  this 
figure  at  Windsor,  the  red  chalk  drawing  of  a 
head  which  is  sometimes  believed  to  be  for  a 
combatant  in  the  Anghiari  picture  but  which  a 
comparison  with  the  original  shows  to  be  a  study 
for  this  disciple. 

The  purpose  of  Herr  Hoerth's  book  is  to  inter- 
pret and  to  reconstruct — the  latter  terra  being 
applied  to  conjectures  founded  upon  the  evidence 
afforded  by  copies  and  studies  of  parts  of  the 
original.  Here  criticism  must  concern  itself 
primarily  with  the  nature  of  the  material,  and 
must  decide  whether  it  illustrates  the  progress  of 
the  artist's  conception  or  is  the  work  of  later  hands 
which  may  yet  throw  light  on  the  former  condition 
of  the  original.  The  materials  for  judgment  are 
too  intangible  for  unity  of  opinion. 

The  history  of  the  cartoons  of  separate  figures 
at  Strassburg  and  Weimar  is  admirably  told,  but 
zeal  outruns  discretion  in  the  estimate  of  the 
former.  To  regard  any  of  the  heads  at  Strassburg 
as  the  work  of  Leonardo,  if  the  claim  be  not  sub- 
stantiated, causes  their  contribution  to  an  exacter 


^73 


Miscellaneous 

knowledge  of  the  original  to  seem  less  valuable. 
These  drawings  do  not  seem  to  possess  the  quality 
of  original  work.  They  lack  altogether  the  fire, 
the  nervous  energy,  the  free,  supple  touch,  which 
characterize  undoubted  original  studies  such  as 
the  Philip  and  the  Judas  at'Windsor.  The  com- 
parative smoothness  of  execution  suggests  the 
work  of  a  copyist,  and  the  recurrence  of  such 
subsidiary  details  as  the  folds  of  the  garments 
precisely  as  in  the  painting  points  to  a  later  date 
of  execution.  It  is  improbable  that  such  details 
would  have  been  settled  before  Leonardo  was  at 
work  upon  the  painting  itself.  The  significance 
of  the  latter  fact  was  shown  by  Herr  Dehio  in  the 
Prussian  Jahrbuch  (Bd.  17,  1896).  He  believes 
that  the  drawings  were  made  by  some  immediate 
follower  of  Leonardo  in  preparation  for  a  copy, 
and  are  probably  the  earliest  reproductions  which 
exist.  As  their  author,  Herr  Dehio  suggests,  ten- 
tatively the  name  of  Boltraffio,  and  the  conjecture 
seems  a  reasonable  one.  (There  is  a  general 
similarity  of  treatment  in  two  portrait  studies  in 
the  Ambrosiana  formerly  ascribed  to  Leonardo, 
but  now  believed  to  be  by  Boltraffio.) 

The  authorship  of  the  Weimar  cartoons  is  a 
matter  of  greater  uncertainty.  That  they  are  copies 
of  those  at  Strassburg,  and  not  derived  directly 
from  the  original  painting,  is  shown  indubitably 
by  the  comparison  of  pciiiiineiiii  made  by  Herr 
Dehio  and  Herr  Hoerth.  Their  date  is  of  small 
importance,  but  the  suggestion  of  Herr  Dehio 
that  they  were  made  at  the  beginning  of  last  cen- 
tury when  the  Strassburg  cartoons  were  in 
England  is  somewhat  fantastic.  They  seem 
earlier  in  date  and  Italian  in  character  and 
technique. 

Herr  Hoerth's  book  is  a  compendium  of  facts, 
and  as  such  it  must  be  of  service  to  all  future 
students  of  Leonardo's  work.  It  is  somewhat 
lacking  in  arrangement,  and  some  parts  of  it, 
particularly  the  detailed  examination  of  the 
attitudes  of  the  figures  in  criticism  of  Professor 
Strzygowski's  theory,  show  an  excess  of  thorough- 
ness which  verges  on  redundancy. 

The  charts  showing  the  results  of  a  comparison 
of  details  in  the  various  copies  are  important  as 
helping  to  decide  questions  of  colour  and  design  ; 
but  the  most  spirited  of  these  copies,  that  by 
Cesare  Magno  in  S.  Maria  delle  Grazie  and  that 
at  Ponte  Capriasca,  fall  short  of  the  original,  even 
in  its  present  condition,  in  depth  and  profundity, 
and  this  is  a  bar  to  attempts  at  reconstruction  from 
such  material. 

Two  mistakes  in  the  book  may  be  noticed. 
Leonardo's  drawing  of  hands,  mentioned  on  p. 
180  as  in  the  Uffizi,  is  in  the  Windsor  library,  and 
the  sheet  of  studies  for  the  Adoraiion,  said  to  be 
(p.  95)  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  John  Malcolm, 
has  been  for  a  long  time  in  the  British  Museum. 

E.  McC. 


Decorative  Heraldry.  By  G.  W.  Eve. 
London  :  Bell.     6s.  net. 

Mr.  Eve's  well  illustrated  book  evidently  fills  a 
popular  need,  for  it  has  reached  its  second  edition 
— a  success  which  must  in  no  small  measure  be 
attributed  to  the  author's  skill  and  taste  as  a  heraldic 
draughtsman.  Indeed,  the  artistic  side  of  the 
subject  is  so  pleasantly  handled  that  we  question 
whether  it  was  wise  in  a  popular  book  to  attempt 
any  explanation  of  the  technicalities  of  the  science 
Such  questions,  in  practice,  have  (or  ou4ht)  to  be 
determined  by  expert  heralds.  The  business  of 
the  artist  is  only  to  make  expert  decisions  beautiful; 
to  attempt  anything  more  is  to  court  danger,  if 
not  disaster. 

The  Greater  Abbeys  of  England.  By  the  Rt. 
Rev.  Abbot  Gasquet.  Illustrations  in  Colour 
after  Warwick  Goble.  Chatto  and  Windus. 
20S.  net. 

Those  who  were  present  on  the  first  day  of  a 
certain  pageant  last  year  will  remember  a  curious 
incident.  The  promoters  of  the  pageant  (the 
object  of  which  was  to  celebrate  the  departed 
glories  of  a  famous  convent)  engaged  a  "  special 
preacher,"  who  horrified  some  and  amused  many 
by  devoting  his  sermon  to  the  vices  and  idleness 
of  the  monastic  houses.  The  publishers  of  this 
volume  have  been  too  wise  to  commit  a  similar 
mistake.  For  the  textual  description  of  the  greater 
abbeys  of  England  they  have  gone  to  the  author 
who,  of  all  others  in  England,  is  most  widely 
known  for  his  knowledge  and  love  of  these  ancient 
fabrics  and  his  sympathetic  understanding  of  the 
work  that  was  done  there.  At  the  same  time, 
Abbot  Gasquet's  work  in  the  present  instance  is 
not  controversial  in  tone.  He  tells  the  stories  of 
these  abbeys,  of  course,  from  the  point  of  view  for 
which  he  has  won  such  wide  acceptance  ;  but  he 
tells  them  in  a  spirit  calculated  to  arouse  the  gen- 
eral reader's  appreciation  of  his  subject,  not  to  fan 
flames  of  disagreement.  His  chapters  are  at  once 
learned  and  humanly  interesting.  Mr.  Warwick 
Goble,  the  illustrator  of  the  volume,  lacks  much 
of  the  knowledge  and  security  shown  by  his  colla- 
borator. That'he  has  suffered  to  some  extent  from 
his  colour-printer  the  exhibition  of  the  original 
drawings  now  on  view  in  Brook  Street  \Vi\\  serve 
to  show  ;  but  he  alone  is  responsible  for  certain 
faults  in  architectural  drawing.  The  view  of  Torre 
Abbey  (of  which,  by  the  way,  he  has  chosen  a 
strangely  uninteresting  portion,where  several  better 
subjects  were  open  to  him)  is  a  striking  instance 
of  this  weakness.  Unequal  artist  as  he  is,  there 
are,  however,  some  extremely  charming  plates  m 
the  volume,  particularlv  those  of  the  Abbot's  Bridge 
at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,"and  the  views  of  Netleyand 
Tintern,  and  Rievaulx  in  the  early  morning. 
He  gives  with  much  beauty  the  colour  of  old  stone. 


174 


PRINTS 

We  have  received  from  Messrs.  Ciiatto  and 
Windus  tlie  latest  instalment  of  their  now  famous 
series  of  'Medici'  prints — a  reproduction  in 
colours  of  The  Virgin  adoring  the  Infant  Savionr 
by  Filippino  Lippi  in  the  Ui^zi.  In  point  of 
artistic  effect  the  coloured  reproduction  is  in  no 
way  inferior  to  the  previous  '  Medici'  publications, 
and  the  details  in  certain  of  the  more  delicate 
passages,  such  as  the  Virgin's  head  and  the  trans- 
lucent veil  thrown  over  her  hair,  could  hardly  be 
better.  The  tone  of  the  print  at  first  sight  looks 
slightly  heavy  by  contrast  with  the  broad  white 
mount,  but  the  moment  the  reproduction  is  given 
its  proper  setting  in  a  frame  this  heaviness  vanishes 
and  the  print  exhibits  the  warm  and  tender 
luminosity  of  the  original.  The  standard  of  these 
prints  has  been  so  uniformly  high  that  we  shall 
look  forward  with  the  greatest  possible  interest  to 
the  appearance  of  Botticelli's  Birth  of  ]'cniis, 
Titian's  Madonna  of  tlic  Clicrrics  and  the  famous 
picture  of  Giorgione  at  Vienna  commonly  known 
as  the  Three  Wise  Men,  which,  it  appears,  are  now 
in  preparation. 

From  the  same  publishers  we  have  received  the 
third  portfolio  of  their  series  of  colour  reproduc- 
tions of  the  early  painters  of  the  Netherlands, 
containing  facsimiles  of  several  most  interesting 
pictures,  among  them  the  Madonna  and  Child 
attributed  to  Hubert  Van  Eyck  in  the  Berlin 
Museum,  which  is  perhaps  as  severe  a  test  of  any 
reproductive  process  as  could  well  be  imagined. 
The  details,  the  surface  and  the  craqnelnre  are 
rendered  with  wonderful  fidelity.  The  same  high 
praise  must  be  accorded  to  the  other  four  plates  in 
the  number,  special  mention  being  made  of  the 
extraordinary  picture  by  Pieter  Brueghel  the  Elder 
in  the  Vienna  Gallery.  That  the  humorous 
grandeur  of  this  little  masterpiece  should  be 
caught  and  preserved  is  perhaps  not  wonderful, 
since  its  treatment  is  bold  and  massive  as  well  as 
minute  ;  but  the  reproduction  goes  much  farther, 
the  actual  texture,  substance  and  quality  of  the 
pigment  being  so  deceptively  imitated  that  it  is 
impossible,  except  by  touching  the  surface  of  the 
reproduction,  to  realize  that  the  pitting  and  corruga- 
tion of  the  original  surface  have  not  been  rendered 
by  actual  relief.  Nor  does  the  illusion  vanish 
under   a   strong   magnifying    glass  ;  in    fact,    no 


Trints  and  (Catalogues 

process  of  facsimile  reproduction  can  possibly  go 
further. 

The  second  part  of  the  similar  publication 
dealing  with  the  great  Italian  masters  also  contains 
several  reproductions  of  very  high  interest.  The 
minute  accuracy  of  the  colour  process  employed 
is  well  illustrated  by  the  Portrait  of  a  Young  Man, 
by  Antonello  da  Messina  in  the  Berlin  Museum, 
while  a  broader  style  of  Venetian  workmanship  is 
illustrated  in  the  reproduction  of  the  Portrait  of  a 
Canon  by  Catena  at  Vienna  ;  the  delicate  quality 
of  the  faded  pink  silk  hood  being  beyond  all  praise. 
The  charming  panel  in  the  Berlin  Museum  by 
Filippo  Lippi,  Scene  from  tlie  Cliildhood  of  a  Saint, 
is  also  excellent,  though,  while  the  details  of 
colour  and  treatment  are  perfectly  retained,  there 
seems  just  the  slightest  possible  loss  of  freshness 
in  the  general  effect.  The  Allegory  of  Music  by 
Filippino  and  the  small  Portrait  of  Rannccio 
Farnese  by  Francesco  Rossi  de'  Salviati  in  the 
same  collection  are  not  quite  so  good,  possibly 
because  they  were  taken  from  less  felicitous 
originals. 

CATALOGUES 

Of  the  catalogues  that  have  reached  us  the  most 
important  are  the  two  illustrated  ones  received 
from  Messrs.  Frederick  Miiller  and  Co.  of  Amster- 
dam. The  first  deals  with  the  Boreel  collection 
of  porcelain  and  furniture,  to  be  sold  on  i6th  and 
17th  June.  Though  the  collection  includes  good 
pieces  of  Delft  and  oriental  ware,  the  examples  of 
the  Dresden  factory  are  its  chief  feature,  and  the 
admirable  illustrations  enable  an  excellent  idea  to 
be  formed  of  their  importance.  The  same  remark 
applies  to  the  catalogue  of  drawings  by  old  masters 
from  various  collections  which  Messrs.  Miiller  will 
sell  on  I5th-i8th  June.  As  the  collection  includes 
examples  attributed  to  Diirer,  Schaiifelein,  Lucas 
van  Leyden  and  other  rare  masters  of  Germany 
and  the  Netherlands,  in  addition  to  several  speci- 
mens of  Rembrandt,  it  is  worthy  of  close  attention. 
The  illustrated  bulletins  of  the  New  York  and 
Boston  Museums  are,  as  usual,  interesting,  the 
Portrait  of  a  Man  by  the  elder  Cranach  acquired 
by  the  former  institution  beingspecially  noteworthy. 
]\Ir.  Ludwig  Rosenthal  of  Alunich  has  issued  two 
new  catalogues — the  one  dealing  with  manuscripts, 
the  other  with  almanacks  and  calendars. 


^    RECENT  ART   PUBLICATIONS  *  d^ 


ART  HISTORY 
GusMAM  (P.).   L'ait  decor.ilif  de  Rome,  de  la  fin  del.i  republique 
au  IVesiecle.  (15  x  11)    Paris  (Eggimann).    Ft.  I.  20  photo- 
types, sculpture  and  architectural  details. 

Della  Seta  (^..).  Le  genesi  dello  scorcio  nell'  a'te  grcca. 
(12x9)  Rome  (Tipogr.  della  R.  Accademia  dei  Liiicei). 
Illustrated. 

*  Si/es  (height  X  width)   in  inches. 


Kraus  (F.  X.).  Geschichte  der  Chrisllichen  Kunst.  Vol.  Ill 
pt.  II,  second  half.  Italicnische  Renaissance.  (11x8, 
Freiburg  im  I'rcisgau  (Herder),  19  m.  Concludes  the  work' 
niustrated. 

JusTi  (C).  Miscellanen  aus  drei  Jahrhunderlen  spaniichen 
Kunstlebens.  I  Band.  (II  xS)  Berlin  (Grote),  10  m. 
Illustrated. 

^7S 


Recent  Art  Publications 


TOPOGRAPHICAL  ANTIQUITIES 

MusiL  (A.).     Arabia    Petraca :   I,  Moab ;    II,  Edom.     (10x7) 

Vienna  (Holder),  45  m.     3  vols.     Illustrations,  plans,  etc. 
Dubois  (C).   Pouzzoles  antique  :  histoire  et  topographie.  (9x6) 

Paris  (Fonteinoing).     450pp.     Text  illus.  and  map. 
Erder.a    (C).     L'Ossola.     (11x7)      Bergamo   (Istituto    d'Arti 

grafiche),  1.  3.50.     151  illustration'. 
Brixhet  (M.).     Le  chateau  de  Ripaille.     (11  xS)     Paris  (Dela- 

grave),  60  fr.     15  plates. 
Fossa  (F.  de).     Le  chateau  historique  de  Vincenncs.     Vol.  I. 

(11x9)     Paris  (Daragon),  25s.     Illustrated. 
Bes.-vnt  (->ir  \V.).     Early  London  :  Prehistoric,  Roman,  Saxon 

and  Norman.     (12x9)     London  (Black),  30s. 
Renwick  (R.).     Glasgow  memorials.     (9x7)     Glasgow  (Macle- 

hose),  21S.     100  illustrations. 

BIOGRAPHICAL  WORKS  AND  MONOGRAPHS 

SiEVERs(J.).     Pieter  Aertsen.     (10x7)     Leipzig  (Hiersemann), 

18  m.     32  phototypes. 
FoRATTi  ( A.).     Giovanni  Bonconsigli,  pittore  vicentino.     (9x6) 

Padua,  Verona  (Drucker).    48  pp. 
CoNTARiNi  (E.).     Nascimbene  Bjltrani,  pittore  bagnacavallese 

del  quattrocento.   (10x6)    Faenza  (Tipogr.  sociale).     16  pp. 
Kristeller  (P.).   Giulio  Campagnola.    Kupferstiche  und  Zeich- 

nungen.    (15x11)     Berlin  ( Jassirer,  for  tlie  '  Graph ische 

Gesellschaft ').     27  plates. 
Glaser  (C).     Hans   Holbein   der   Aellere.     (11x8)     Leipzig 

(Hiersemann),  20  ni.     Phototypes. 
MicHEEET  (V.  E.).    Maufra,  peintre  et  graveur.    (11x8)     Paris 

(F'loury),     6  etchings  and  process  illus. 
GiLBEY  (Sir  \V.)  and  Cumixg  (E.  D.).     George  Morland,  his  life 

and  works.  (9x6)  London  (Black),  20s.  50  coloured  plates. 
Bernardini  (G.).     Sebastiano  del  Piombo.     (11x7)     Bergamo 

(Istituto  ital.  d'Arti  grafiche),  1.  15.     Illustrated. 
OsBORN  (.VI.).     Joshua  Reynolds.     (10x7)     Leipzig  (Velhagen 

S:  Klasing),  4  m.     115  illustrations. 
Fletcher    (B.).       Richard    Wilson,    R.A,      (7x5)      London 

(VV.  Scott  Publishing  Co.),  New  York  (Scribne'-),  3s.  6d. 

net.     21  plates. 

ARCHITECTURE 
Hogarth  (D.  G.).     British  Museum  excavations  at   Ephesus. 

The  archaic  Artemisia.   (12x9)    London  (British  .Museum), 

50s.     With  atlas  of  plates  (22  x  15). 
Zanca   (A.).      La   cattedrale    di    Palermo,   rilievi   e   restaiiri. 

(28x24)  Bergamo  (Istituto  d'Arte  grafiche),  Pts.  1-3  (photo- 
type plates),  each  61. 
Avexa    (A.).     II  re^tauro   dell'   arco  d'Alfonso   d'Aragona   in 

Napoli.     (13x9)     Rome  (Danesi),  20I.     138  illustrations. 
Haupt  (A.).     Palast-Architektur  von  Ober-Italien  und  Toscana 

vom  xiii  bis  xviii  Jahrhundert :  Verona,  Vicenza,  Mantua, 

Padua,  Udine.     Pt.  I.     (21x14)     Berlin  (VVasmuth),  m.  28. 

To  be  completed  in  5  parts,  each  containing  20  plates. 
Watson  (VV.  C).     Portuguese  Architecture.     (11x7)     London 

(Constable),  25s.  net.     lOi  process  illustrations. 
Feilchenkeld  (F.  W.j.     Die  Meisterwerke  der  Baukunst    in 

Portugal.     (17x12)     Vienna,   Leipzig   (Stern),  25  m.      30 

phototypes. 
ScHi'LZ  (F,  T.).     Die  Rundkapelle  zu  Altenfurt  bei  Niirnberg. 

Ein   Bauwerk  des    xii   Jahrhunderts.    (10x7)     Strasburg 

(Heitz),  5  m.     S  plates. 
Garner  (T.)  and  Stratton  (A.).     The  domestic  architecture 

of   England  during   the  Tudor   period.     Pt,    I.     (20 x  15) 

London  (Batsford),  42s.     Plates. 
Kloeppel  ( — ).     Friedericianisches  Barock  :  fiirstliche,  kirch- 

liche  und  hiirgerliche  Baukunst  vom  Ende  des  xvii  bis  zum 

Ausgang  des  xviii  Jahihundtrts.    (14x10)    Berlin  (Weise), 

30  ni.     80  phototypes. 
Exterieurs  et   interieurs  du   XVIIIe  siecle.     Architecture    et 

decoration  des  edifices  les  plus  remarquables  de  I'epoque 

Louis  XVI  a  Bordeaux.     (18x13)     Paris  (Schmid),  50  fr. 

44  phototypes. 
Gallee  (f.  H.).    Das  niederliindische  Bauernhaus  und  seine 

Bewohner.     Pts.  \  and  2.     (20  x  14)     Utrecht  (Oosthoek), 

subscription  price  50  m. ;  after  publication  60  m.     In  4  pts. 

70  pl.ites,  with  text. 
Bl'Mpus  (T.  F.).  London  Churches, ancient  and  modern.  2  vols. 

(8x5)     London  (Laurie),     lllnslraled. 
Hutton  (Rev.  A.  W.).   A  short  history  and  description  of  Bow 

Church,  Cheapside.     (10x7)     London  (Stock),  is.  net. 


PAINTING 

MALAGfZZi  Valeri  (Count  F.).  Catalogo  della  R.  Pinac->teca 
di  Brera.  (7x5)  Bergamo  (Istituto  d'Arti  gratichc),  1.  5, 
46  plates. 

Lemberger  (E.).  Beitriige  zur  Geschichte  der  Miniaturmalerei. 
Ein  Handbuch  liir  Sammler,  etc.  (7X4)  Berlin  (Bernstein), 
20  m.  A  dictionary  of  miniaturists  :  2,500  names,  with 
introduction  and  an  essay  on  forgeries. 

National  Gallery  of  British  Art,  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum. 
Part  II.  Catalogue  of  water-colour  paintings  by  British 
artists  and  foreigners  working  in  Great  Britain.  London 
(VVeyman),  9d. ;  in  cloth  covers,  is.  6d. 

Martin  (H  ).  Le  Terence  des  dues.  (15x11)  Paris  (Plon- 
Nourrit),  i2ofr.     37  photogravure  plates. 

DRAWINGS 
II  libro  di  Jacopo  Bellini.    Con  prefazionc  di  Corrado  Ricci.    I. 

Disegni  conservatial  Museodel  Louvre.  Florence  (Alinari), 

130 1.  facsimile  of  original  leather  bindmg  ;  100  I.  cloth. 

The  illustrations  include  94  collotype  plates. 
Les  dessins  de  D.  Francisco  de  Goya  y  Lucientes  au  Musee  du 

Pradoa  Madrid.  Preface  et  texte  explicatif  de  P.  d'Achiardi. 

(15x11)      Rome   (.Vnderson),   30  fr.      Livraison   I.    (Les 

Caprices).    44  phototype  plates, 

ENGRAVING 

Leidinger  (G.).     Vierzig  Metallschnitte  des  xv  (ahrhunderts 

aus  Munchener  Privatbesitz.     (10x6)     Strasburg  (Heitz), 

8  in.     20  plates. 
Singer  (H.  W.).     Die  Kleinmeister.    (10x7)    Leipzig  (Knack- 

luss),  3  m.     114  illustrations. 
Hymans  (H.).      Catalogue  des   Estampes    d'Ornement  faisant 

partie  des  collections  de  la  Bibliothequeroyale  de  Belgique. 

(10x7)    Brussels  (Lamertin).     8  plates. 

CERAMICS    AND    GLASS 

Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club.  Exhibition  of  faience  of  Persia  and 
the  Nearer  East.  Illustrated  catalogue.  (16x12)  London 
(privately  printed).    26  plates,  some  in  colour. 

QuEiROZ  (J.).  Ceramica  Portugueza.  (13x9)  Lisbon  (Typo- 
graphia  do  Annuario  Commercial),  45  fr.  Cop'ously  illus- 
trated, facsimiles  of  ii.arks,  etc. 

DoENGEs  (W.).  Meissner  Porzellan,  seine  Geschichte  und 
Kunstlerische  Entwicklung.  (9x6)  Berlin  (Marquardt), 
12  m.     Plates,  some  chromo. 

Sherrill  (C.  H.).  Stained  glass  tours  in  France.  (8x5) 
London,  New  York  (Lane),  6s.  net.     Illustrated. 

OiDT.MANN  (H.).  Die  Glasmalerei  im  altcn  Frankenlande. 
(9x6)     Leipzig  (Duncker),  6  m. 

PLATE 

EVANS  (Rev.  J.  T.).  The  church  plate  of  Carmarthenshire,  with 
chantry  certificates,  extracts  from  returns  of  church  goods, 
and  addenda  and  corrigenda  to  '  The  Church  Plate  of 
Pembrokeshire.'  (10x7)  East  Acton  (H.  Gray),  21s.  14 
plates. 

Jones  (E.  A.).  The  old  church  plate  of  the  Isle  of  Man.  (10x7) 
London  (Bemrose),  los.  6d.  net. 

Forrer  (k.).  Zinn-Cimelien  der  Sammlung  Ho'rat  Kahlbau. 
(13  X  9)     Strasburg  (privately  printed).     20  phototypes. 

TEXTILES  AND  LACE 

La  collection  Kelekian.  Etoffes  et  tapis  d'Orient  et  de  Venise. 
Notice  de  J.  Guiffrey.  Cent  planches  reproduisant  les  pieces 
les  plus  remarquable  de  cette  coU-'ction.  (16x12)  Paris 
(Levy),  200  fr.  Phototypes  and  process  reproductions  in 
colour. 

Marquet  de  Vasselot  (I.  J.).  Catalogue  raisonne  de  la  col. 
lection  Martin  Le  Roy,  IV:  Tapisseries  et  broderie. 
(16x12)     Paris  (privately  printed).     17  photogravures. 

Astier  (Col.  d').  La  Belle  Tapisserye  du  Roy  (1532-1797)  et 
les  tenlures  de  Scipion  I'Africain.  (11x9)  Paris  (Cham- 
pion), 30  fr.    37  phototypes. 

Ricci  (E ).  Antiche  trine  italiane:  trine  ad  ago.  2  vols. 
(14x11)  Bergamo  (Istituto  d'Arti  grafiche),  73s.  6d. 
Copiously  illustrated. 

Collection  J.  G.  Camerino,  Paris.  Les  Points  de  Venise. 
(22  X  15)  Paris  (Lib.  des  Arts  decoratifs),  65  fr,  40  photo- 
types. 


176 


cA.  ART  IN   FRANCE  a^ 


THE  SALONS 
The  Salon  of  the  Societe  Nationale  des  Beaux- 
Arts,  which  we  still  agree  to  call  the  Salon  du 
Champ  de  Mars,  reaches  a  rather  higher  level,  and 
is  certainly  more  interesting  than  that  of  last  year. 
Its  failing  is  that  of  so  many  modern  exhibitions — 
namely,  that,  while  the  average  is  high,  there  is  so 
very  little  that  is  above  the  average.  This  year's 
Salon  shows  that  French  painters  are  more  than 
ever  attached  to  brilliant  colouring.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  Salon  is  singularly  free  from  eccentricity 
and  from  pictures  of  the  type  to  which  one  may 
take  exception  without  being  a  Puritan.  Since  its 
migration  from  the  Champ  de  Mars  to  the  more 
fashionable  environment  of  the  Champs-Elys^es 
the  '  New  Salon  '  has  become  quite  respectable, 
and  this  year  it  can  hardly  be  said  to  have  any 
marked  characteristic  as  a  whole  that  distinguishes 
it  from  its  older  rival. 

As  one  enters,  from  the  Avenue  d'Antin,  the 
great  hall  where  the  sculpture  is  exhibited,  the 
thought  strikes  one  that  M.  Rodin's  studio  must 
have  been  wrecked  by  a  mob  of  disappointed  rivals  ; 
for  there,  right  in  front  of  the  door,  are  three 
enormous  pieces  of  the  clibris.  The  catalogue  in- 
forms us  that  one  was  once  an  Orphce,  the  second 
a  Triton  et  Xeiitlc  and  that  the  third  is  the  truncated 
remains  of  a  Muse.  M.  Rodin  is  one  of  the  great- 
est of  living  artists ;  it  is  deeply  to  be  regretted 
that  he  does  not  realize  the  responsibility  of  his 
position.  He  has  only  to  visit  the  Salon  des 
Independants  to  see  what  his  example  has  led  to. 
The  sculpture  as  a  whole  is  not  especially  remark- 
able. Perhaps  the  bust  of  Ingres,  by  M.  Bourdelle, 
is  one  of  the  most  striking  pieces  ;  it  is  a  splendid 
head  full  of  life  and  character.  The  Hiver  of 
M.  Desbois  is  a  fine  piece  of  work,  and  M.  Pierre 
Roche's  plaster  model  for  the  monument  pf  Dalou 
has  excellent  qualities,  but  is  not  great  enough  in 
conception  for  its  scale.  A  large  design  for  a 
monument  called  Z-n(te///iJd//(/;;7rt//;t',  by  M.Lagare, 
will  attract  attention.  A  charming  nude  figure  by 
M.  Jose  Clara  is  extremely  promising  ;  this  sculptor 
is,  if  I  mistake  not,  a  new  comer. 

The  three  pictures  by  which  M.  Zuloaga  signal- 
izes his  return  to  the  Salon  after  several  years' 
absence  show  what  great  progress  he  has  made  in 
the  inter\'al.  M.  Zuloaga  has  inherited  the  great 
Spanish  tradition.  I  recognize  all  that  may  be 
said  as  to  the  ugliness,  even  the  brutality,  of  the 
picture  of  a  repulsive  dwarf,  with  the  carcases  of 
the  bears  in  which  he  deals  slung  over  his  shoulders, 
or  that  of  the  witches  of  San-Millan  ;  but  what 
strength,  what  mastery  both  of  composition  and 
colour  they  show  !  Only  a  superficial  observer 
would  call  this  group  of  hideous  old  women  ugly  ; 
it  is  extraordinarily  attractive.  And,  to  show  that 
he  can  paint  other  than  types  of  ugliness,  M. 
Zuloaga  gives  us  a  brilliant  portrait  of  that  most 
charming  of  Carmens,  Mile.  Lucienne  Breval,  a 
marvellous  effect  of  light  and  shade.     Close  by 


M.  Zuloaga's  pictures  hangs  a  large  canvas  of  M. 
Leon  Lhermitte,  Ln  Faviillc,  a  group  of  peasants 
in  a  cornfield  ;  it  is  a  characteristic  work  of  an 
accomplished  artist,  but  it  suffers  by  the  proximity. 

The  Ccniiioiiic  RcUgiciise  of  M.  Lucien  Simon  is 
perhaps  even  a  finer  piece  of  work  than  his  Rccollc 
iics  Ponimcs  de  terre,  recently  exhibited  at  George 
Petit's.  In  this  picture  of  the  censing  at  the 
Magnificat  in  the  basilica  of  Assisi,  M.  Simon  has 
set  himself  a  difficult  task  and  has  overcome 
the  diiftculties.  In  the  same  room  are  Mr.  Charles 
Shannon's  portraits  of  himself  (if  iorse  en  niarbre) 
and  of  Miss  Kathleen  Bruce  {La  robe  rose),  two 
of  the  best  portraits  in  the  exhibition,  and  a  portrait 
of  Bracquemont  and  of  the  artist,  by  M.  Gaston  La 
Touche  {Bracquemont  et  son  disciple);  the  last  is 
less  hot  in  colour  than  most  of  M.  La  Touche's 
work  (though  still  a  little  too  hot)  and  has  many 
good  qualities. 

M.  Jacques  Blanche  sends  two  of  the  pictures 
which  he  showed  recently  in  the  Georges  Petit 
Galleries  and  four  others,  of  which  the  portrait  of 
Mesdenioisclles  G.L....  should  be  specially  noticed, 
although  it  is  perhaps  too  conscious  a  following  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  A  fine  portrait  of  Mr. 
Conder  hangs  as  a  pendant  to  that  of  Sir  Coleridge 
Kennard,  and  between  them  is  a  group  of 
the  children  of  Mr.  Saxton  Noble.  M.  Cottet 
shows  only  one  picture,  a  modern  Pietd  :  a 
drowned  Breton  sailor  lies  on  his  bier  in  the  fore- 
ground, behind  him  kneels  his  mother  surrounded 
by  a  group  of  sorrowing  women;  in  the  background 
is  the  harbour  with  its  red-brown  sails.  The  picture, 
which  is  treated  in  a  decorative  manner,  is  certainly 
one  of  the  most  personal  and  interesting  of  the 
year.  M.  Le  Sidaner  shows  four  pictures  of 
Hampton  Court  and  two  of  London  which  all 
deserve  notice ;  that  of  the  fountain  court  at 
Hampton  Court  is  particularly  attractive.  M. 
Lobre,  M.  RaoulUllmann  and  M.  Zakarian  are  all 
well  represented  here.  The  Plage  Lointaiue  of  Mr. 
Rupert  Bunny,  an  artist  of  Australian  birth,  is  one 
of  the  pictures  to  be  noticed  ;  it  is  a  group  of 
four  girls,  one  of  whom  has  just  been  bathing. 

Among  the  best  of  the  many  decorative  panels  in 
the  exhibition  are  those  which  M.  Maurice  Denis 
has  painted  for  a  private  house,  and  which  he  calls 
L'eternel  priutenips.  The  influence  of  Puvis  de 
Chavannes  is  sufficiently  obvious,  but  M.  Denis 
has  at  any  rate  chosen  a  good  model,  and  he  is 
far  from  being  a  mere  imitator.  The  great  merit 
of  these  panels  is  that  they  are  really  decorative. 
One  cannot  say  the  same  either  of  the  great  panel 
which  M.Roll  haspaintedfortheSorbonne  or  of  the 
Paradis  Perdu  which  M.  Gustave  Courtois  designs 
— with  a  certain  irony — for  the  Salle  des  Mariages 
in  the  Hotel  de  Ville  of  Neuilly.  This  huge  and 
glaring  canvas  is  everything  that  a  decorative  panel 
should  not  be,  and  has  not  even  technical  qualities 
to  recommend  it ;  it  is  a  corrupt  following  of  the 
late    M.    Bouguereau.     M.   Roll's   panel.    Vers   la 


177 


Art  in  France 


Nainre,  pour  I'HmunnHc,  is  far  superior  as  a  piece 
of  painting,  but  it  is  not  decoration,  and  its  mean- 
ing is  obscure.  Perhaps  the  intellects  of  the 
Sorbonne  will  be  able  to  solve  the  elaborate  riddle, 
but  is  this  decorative  art  ?  As  decoration,  the 
charming  if  frivolous  panel  of  M.  Aubertin,  I'Aiihc 
lies  Cygnes,  is  far  more  satisfactory,  though  both 
its  subject  and  its  colour  suggest  a  bathroom  as  its 
appropriate  destination. 

There  remain  to  be  noticed  several  portraits  ; 
two  by  M.  Boldini  are  as  clever  and  as  brilliant  as 
usual.  M.  de  La  Gandara  is  less  satisfactory  than 
he  was  the  other  day  at  Georges  Petit's.  M.  Boutet 
de  Monvel  sends  an  enormous  canvas,  a  portrait 
of  himself,  with  two  dogs,  standing  on  a  vast 
plain  ;  it  is  fine  in  composition,  but  the  quality  of 
the  paint  is  execrable.  La  vie  pensive  of  Mile. 
Louise  Breslau — a  portrait  of  herself  and  her 
companion — is  among  the  best  in  the  exhibition  ; 
it  is  really  a  picture.  M.  G.  W.  Lambert's  portrait 
group,  exhibited  in  last  year's  Academy,  has  been 
much  admired  by  most  of  the  French  critics  ;  it 
has  an  excellent  place  in  the  first  room.  In  spite 
of  an  over-elaboration  of  detail,  M.  Prinet's  Portraits 
must  be  given  a  higii  place.  It  shows  insight  into 
character  as  well  as  technical  ability. 

The  humour  of  the  Salon  is  supplied  by  M.  jean 
Veber,  whose  decorative  panel,  La  Giiiiiguette,  is 
rather  brutally  clever  and  extremely  amusing.  It 
is  said  to  be  intended  for  the  Hotel  de  Ville  ;  one 
could  hardly  imagine  the  City  Fathers  selecting 
sucli  a  piece  of  decoration  for  the  Guildhall,  though 
they  might  like  it  for  a  smoking-room.  It  is 
perhaps  too  much  like  an  enlarged  picture  from 
Le  Rire.  The  story  of  the  removal  of  M.  Veber's 
other  exhibit,  ]'isioii  d'Alletuagiie,  is  generally 
known.  Another  picture  temporarily  removed  was 
La  Vision  {Rennes,  Aont  1899)  by  M.  Paul  Renouard; 
this,  however,  was  restored  to  the  walls  after  the 
removal  of  the  offending  inscription. 

The  Salon  of  the  Societe  des  Artistes  fran^ais 
confirms  one's  opinion  that  its  rival  has  hardly 
any  longer  a  raison  d'etre;  there  is,  it  is  true,  a 
larger  expanse  of  nullity  than  in  the  New  Salon, 
and  the  exhibition  as  a  whole  is  this  year  the  less 
interesting  of  the  two,  but  there  is  no  sign  that 
any  one  has  been  excluded  for  offence  against 
academic  principles.  The  real  justification  of  the 
division  is  that,  if  the  two  Salons  were  combined  in 
one  exhibition,  it  would  require  superhuman 
courage  to  enter  it. 

The  Old  Salon  has,  however,  certain  notes  of 
its  own.  One  knows  that  one  will  encounter  M. 
Falli^res  visiting  everywhere  and  opening  every- 
thing. This  year  one  or  two  of  these  official 
pictures,  notably  that  of  M.  Abel  Boyi^,  are  much 
above  the  average  of  such  things.  Then  there  is 
sure  to  be  the  Breton  sailor  going  away  or  coming 
back,  or  his  wife  mourning  because  he  is  never 
coming  back ;  I  wish  he  would  stay  away  for  at 

17B 


least  three  salons.  Lastly  there  must  be  Jeanne 
d'Arc  to  make  the  Salon  complete  ;  this  year  we 
have  her  talking  to  an  angel,  by  M.  Gaston 
Bussiere,  to  whom  the  jury  has  patriotically 
awarded  a  medal.  A  protest  must  really  be  made 
against  the  absurd  practice,  not  entirely  new  but 
very  prevalent  in  the  present  Salon,  of  cutting  a 
picture  into  three  and  calling  it  a  triptych,  as  if  a 
triptych  were  a  mere  affair  of  framing. 

The  arrangement  of  the  beautiful  sculpture  hall 
(or  rather  winter  garden)  is  this  year  more  attractive 
than  ever  ;  it  would  be  impossible  to  show  sculp- 
ture to  greater  advantage.  But  unfortunately  the 
sculpture  as  a  whole  is  less  interesting  than  it  has 
been  for  a  long  time.  The  work  of  M.  Fernand 
David  deserves  special  notice  ;  his  Feninie  an  bain 
in  particular  is  an  admirable  study  of  the  nude. 
IM.  Sicard's  monument  to  Edouard  Barbey  is 
another  of  the  best  pieces.  There  are  many 
excellent  busts. 

In  the  section  of  painting  English  and  American 
artists  make  a  most  creditable  show.  An  admirable 
portrait  of  a  girl  reading  by  Mr.  G.  S.  Watson  has 
a  place  of  honour  in  the  first  room  ;  in  the  same 
room  is  Mr.  J.  H.  F.  Bacon's  accomplished  picture 
of  the  Boyd  Harvey  family,  and  an  excellent 
picture  by  an  American  painter,  Mr.  Joseph  Raphael 
(Bohbncs  et  paysannes),  which  is  unfortunately  too 
high  up  to  enable  it  to  be  seen  properly.  Among 
other  pictures  by  Englishmen  and  Americans 
which  deserve  special  mention  are  Mr.  John  da 
Costa's  Pierrette,  Mr.  P.  W.  Gibbs's  La  Civilisation 
(perhaps  showing  rather  too  much  the  influence 
of  Mr.  Brangwyn),  Mr.  Hughes-Stanton's  Caniiers 
(one  of  the  best  landscapes  in  the  Salon),  Mrs. 
Maclane-Johansen's  Sur  le  haul  de  la  colline,  Mr. 
Richard  Miller's  Marchand  de  jonets,  Mr.^Tom 
Mostyn's  An  refuge,  Mr.  Charles  Sims's  La  fete  stir 
Vile,  Mr.  Lionel'  Smyth's  Les  Glaueurs  and  Mr. 
Robert  Vonnoh's  two  excellent  portraits,  especially 
Bessie  Potter  Vonuoh.  It  is  an  American  painter, 
Mr.  Robert  MacCameron,  who  sends  one  of  the 
most  striking  pictures  in  the  whole  exhibition,  the 
Gronpe  d'aniis,  a  powerful  study,  admirably  painted, 
of  three  human  wrecks  seated  at  an  estaniinet  table. 
Artistically,  like  most  of  the  Americans,  Mr.  Mac- 
Cameron  belongs  to  the  French  school. 

There  are  also  several  good  pictures  by  Spanish 
artists,  notably  La  Revanche  oi  M.  Bermejo-Sobera, 
the  Assez,  nioii  pere.'oi  M.  Jose  Malhao,  the  'Jaleo' 
en  Andalousie  of  M.  Tito  Salas  (a  South-American 
Spaniard),  and  the  very  strong  and  brilliant  Belle- 
mere  of  M.  Carlos  Vazquez.  An  Italian  painter, 
M.  Ulysse  Caputo,  sends  two  very  good  genre 
pictures.  Indeed  a  large  share  of  the  honours  of 
this  year's  Salon  belongs  to  foreigners,  many  of 
whom,  of  course,  have  been  trained  in  France. 
The  pictures  just  mentioned  show  that  M.  Zuloaga 
is  not  alone  in  Spain,  and  that  there  is  promise  in 
modern  Spanish  art. 


Art  in  France 


In  any  case  the  pictures  which  bear  the  label 
'  H.C  are  very  far  from  being  among  the  best  as 
a  whole  ;  I  do  not  remember  a  Salon  in  which 
the  Societaires  hors  coucoiirs  showed  up  so  badly. 
M.  Bail  paints  as  carefully  as  usual,  and  he  always 
has  quality,  but  how  much  more  interesting  work 
he  has  done  in  the  past !  M.  Alexis  Vollon,  as 
usual,  takes  a  high  place  ;  his  success  last  year 
with  a  brilliant  portrait  of  a  Parisian  woman  in  a 
very  different  style  from  that  to  which  we  had 
been  accustomed  has  led  him  to  send  a  portrait 
group  in  the  same  bright  and  clear  tone ; 
although  not  perhaps  quite  equal  to  its  prede- 
cessor, it  is  admirably  composed  and  painted.  M. 
Henri  Martin  sends  a  decorative  panel  for  the 
Sorbonne,  L' Etude,  and  a  portrait.  Of  course  the 
panel  shows  some  sense  of  decoration,  which  is 
more  than  can  be  said  for  most  modern  decorative 
work,  but  it  is  terribly  uninteresting  and  the  spots 
are  larger  than  ever.  It  represents  M.  Anatole 
France  conversing  with  a  group  of  disciples 
whose  appearance  suggests  that  his  conversation 
is  less  interesting  than  his  books.  A  much  more 
satisfactory  decoration,  also  for  the  Sorbonne,  is 
sent  by  Mademoiselle  Dufau ;  her  two  panels 
symbolizing  Astronomy,  Mathematics,  Radio- 
activity and  Magnetism  are  really  decorative, 
attractive  in  colour  and  composition,  and  very 
well  painted.  M.  Desire-Lucas  is  a  member  whose 
work  is  always  to  be  noticed  ;  Lc  pardon  dc  Saiiit- 
Cado  is  a  strong  and  attractive  picture.  It  is  with 
some  alarm  that  one  observes  the  energy  displayed 
by  M.  Dujardin-Beaumetz  in  the  decoration  of 
public  buildings  ;  his  energy  is  also  demonstrated 
by  the  unusually  large  number  of  pictures  and 
statues  bearing  labels  which  indicate  that  they 
were  ordered  in  advance  by  the  State. 

The  retrospective  section  of  the  Salon  is  devoted 
to  the  sculpture  of  Ernest  Barrias,  which  is  very 
interesting,  and  the  paintings  of  Alexandre 
Cabanel,  which  are  much  less  so. 

The  Socicte  Nationale  holds  its  retrospective 
exhibition,  as  usual,  at  Bagatelle.  This  year  it 
consists  of  portraits  of  celebrated  men  and  women, 
1830-1900.  The  two  hundred  portraits  have 
naturally  been  chosen  chiefly  from  the  point  of 
view  of  the  celebrity  of  their  subjects,  and  the 
artistic  level  of  the  exhibition  is  not  very  high. 
The  only  living  painters  admitted  are  socictnircs 
of  at  least  six  years'  standing,  who  are  permitted 
only  one  work  each.  It  is  pleasant  to  see  again 
M.  Boldini's  wonderful  portrait  of  Whistler  ;  M. 
Aman-jean's  portrait  of  Verlaine  is  also  very  inter- 
esting, as  are  three  little  portraits  by  M.  Rafaelli  of 
M.  Clemenceau,  M.  Pichon  and  M.  Millerand — the 
first  two  painted  in  1883,  and  the  last  in  1885.  M. 
de  La  Gandara's  extremely  unpleasant  portrait 
of  Jean  Lorraine  is  much  stronger  than  the  fashion 
plates  which  he  is  now  too  fond  of  giving  us. 
There   are   several   very    interesting   portraits    by 


Ingres,  including  those  of  himself,  Gounod, 
Rossini  and  Mnie.  d'Agoult ;  the  three  first  are 
drawings.  Isabey's  portrait  of  his  niece,  Chas- 
seriau's  of  his  daughter,  Delaroche's  portrait  of 
Emile  Pereire,  Carriere's  sketch  of  Edmond  de 
Goncourt,  Friant's  little  picture  of  M.  Jules 
Claretie  in  his  study,  the  three  portraits  by  Ricard 
and  the  three  by  Baudry  are  among  the  best  from 
the  artistic  standpoint.  The  numerous  portraits 
of  the  deposed  royal  family  illustrate  the  fate 
which  ordains  that  royal  personages  should  be 
painted  by  any  one  but  an  artist.  The  one  excep- 
tion is  the  unfinished  sketch  of  Queen  Amelie  by 
Ary  Scheft'er  ;  there  is  also,  by  the  way,  an  admir- 
able portrait  by  Henry  Scheffer  of  his  wife. 

OTHER  EXHIBITIONS 
One  of  the  most  interesting  of  the  exhibitions 
now  open  is  that  of  the  drawings  and  etchings  of 
Rembrandt  at  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale.  It 
could  be  dealt  with  adequately  only  in  an  article 
by  an  expert  student  of  Rembrandt,  and  I  can 
only  call  attention  to  it  for  the  benefit  of  visitors 
to  Paris.  The  prints,  275  in  number,  all  belong 
to  the  library,  with  the  exception  of  seven  magni- 
ficent proofs  lent  by  Baron  Edmond  de  Roth- 
schild ;  they  represent  nearly  the  whole  of  the 
engraved  work  of  Rembrandt  and  include  most 
of  the  rarest  states  and  the  finest  impressions. 
There  are  about  three  hundred  drawings  lent  by 
private  collectors,  among  whom  are  included  Mr. 
Fairfax  Murray  and  Mr.  Heseltine.  The  excellent 
and  very  complete  catalogue,  to  which  M.  G. 
Courboin  has  contributed  an  introduction  on  the 
history  of  the  collection  in  the  Bibliotheque 
Nationale  and  M.  J.  Guibert  a  bibliography,  will 
be  permanently  valuable  as  a  work  of  reference. 

The  Marquise  de  Ganay  has  organized  on  behalf 
of  the  Croix  Roitgc  a  loan  exhibition  of  one  hundred 
pastels  of  the  eighteenth  century,  which  was  opened 
at  the  Georges"  Petit  galleries  on  May  i8th  and 
will  remain  open  until  June  loth.  M.  Durand- 
Ruel  is  holding  an  exhibition  of  early  landscapes 
by  Monet  and  Renoir  which  will  continue  until 
June  20th.  It  need  hardly  be  said  that  it  is  worth 
a  visit. 

With  the  theatrical  exhibition  at  the  Mus^e  des 
Arts  Decoratifs  we  propose  to  deal  next  month. 

SALES 
The  month  of  May  has  given  us  the  first  sales 
of  importance  this  season.  The  most  interesting 
were  those  of  the  collections  of  objcis  d'art 
belonging  to  M.  Zelikine  and  the  late  M.  Homberg ; 
the  collection  of  M.  Jules  Gcrbeau,  which  was 
very  varied,  and  the  well-known  collection  of 
M.  Cheramy.  Thirty-one  oil  sketches  left  by 
Cazin  were  sold  at  the  beginning  of  the  month 
and  produced  a  total  of  frs.  78,810.  The  sale  of 
the  Clieramy  collection  excited  immense  interest, 
and  the  prices  paid  wjre  on  the  whole  very  high. 

179 


Art  in  France 

The  total  amount  fetched  by  the  collection  was 
frs.  1,242,287,  pins  the  usual  10  per  cent.  One  of 
the  most  ardent  buyers  was  a  M.  Simon  Oppen- 
heimer,  said  to  be  a  German  collector,  who 
certainly  had  the  courage  of  his  convictions.  He 
paid  no  less  than  85,800  frs.  (for  the  sake  of  exacti- 
tude I  include  the  10  per  cent,  in  quoting  the 
prices)  for  an  old  copy  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci's 
Vicrgc  aiix  Rockers  (105),  which  the  catalogue, 
with  natural  optimism,  declared  to  be  finer  than 
the  picture  in  the  National  Gallery,  an  opinion  not 
shared  by  amateurs  generally.  The  collection,  as 
a  whole,  was  perhaps  disappointing,  after  all  that 
one  had  heard  about  it  :  the  Italian  pictures  were 
very  poor  indeed,  and  the  other  schools,  except 
the  French,  were  less  strongly  represented  than 
one  had  been  led  to  believe  ;  but  the  French 
pictures  alone  made  the  collection  a  notable  one. 
M.  Cheramy  had  some  of  the  finest  examples  of 
David  in  existence,  examples  which  showed  that 
that  artist  is  at  present  very  much  underrated. 
His  collection  of  paintings  and  drawings  by 
Delacroix  was  unique,  and  there  were  beautiful 
examples  of  Corot,  Ingres,  Gericault  and  Prudhon. 
The  collection  of  pastels,  water  colours  and 
drawings  also  bore  witness  to  M.  Cheramy's  taste 
and  judgment.  An  exquisite  drawing  by  Millet, 
Soiiis  Maicrnds  (393),  fetched  frs.  6,600,  and  was 
well  worth  the  price.  Another  by  the  same  artist, 
La  BaigncHse  (394),  fetched  frs.  2,640.  To  my 
mind  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  at  the  same 
time  one  of  the  cheapest  things  in  the  collection 
was  a  pastel  by  Degas,  Le  Mod'clc  an  repos  (292)  (a 
portrait  of  Mile.  Daubigny,  daughter  of  the  artist), 
which  M.  Simon  Oppen'heimer  bought  for  frs. 
19,800.  Several  water  colours  and  drawings  by  Barye, 
Corot,  Delacroix  and  Ingres  fetched  high  prices. 
M.  Haro  paid  no  less  than  frs.  10,450  for  a  pen 
drawing  by  Delacroix,  Lion  cf  lionne  (230),  and  M. 
Simon  Oppenheimer  gave  frs.  6,150  each  for  two 
water  colours  by  the  same  artist,  the  former  a  scene 
in  Tangiers  (293)  and  the  latter  a  military  subject, 
Marocainspadant  pour  le  combat  (304).  The  very 
fine  wash-drawing  by  Daumier,  l Artiste  cu  face  de 
son  cciivre  (291),  fetched  frs.  3,355. 

Among  the  pictures  by  David,  the  Portrait 
de  la  Marquise  de  Pastoret  (44)  fetched  the  highest 
price,  frs.  45,100;  ihe.  Po)trait  du  Marechal  Mac- 
donald  (45)  by  the  same  artist  was  bought  by 
M.  Jules  Gallet  for  frs.  20,460,  and  M.  Kelikian  paid 
frs.  18,150  for  another  portrait,  that  of  Mnie.  de 
Morel  de  Tangry  (47).  These  prices  suggest  a 
revival  of  interest  in  David  ;  I\I.  Cheramy  gave 
frs.  19,690  for  No.  44  in  1897  ^^  ^^^  Plessis-Bel- 
liere  sale  and  only  frs.  2,970  for  No.  45  at  the 
Rottan  sale  in  1890.  A  very  fine  picture  by  Prud- 
hon, Trioinphe  de  Bonaparte  (94),  formerly  in  the 
Viot  collection,  was  bought  by  the  Lyons 
museum  for  frs.  24,200.  The  more  important 
pictures  by  Gericault  also  fetched  high  prices  :  frs. 

180 


25,410  for  the  Lanciet  rouge  (55)  and  frs.  20,900 
for  Officier  de  la  Garde  luiperiale  chargcant  (56). 
Perhaps  one  of  the  best  in  quality  of  the  Geri- 
caults  was  a  small  picture,  Le  Fon  assassin  (57), 
which  the  Ghent  museum  brought  for  the  low 
price  of  frs.  1,155. 

The  forty  pictures  by  Delacroix  sold  extremely 
well.  The  famous  picture,  Hercule  et  Alceste  (151), 
fetched  frs.  35,700 — nearly  double  the  price  that 
M.  Cheramy  paid  for  it  at  the  Cronier  sale  three 
years  ago.  Handel  et  le  cadavre  de  Polonins  (154)1 
formerly  in  the  Edwards  collection,  fetched  frs. 
22,000  and  the  Conite  Palatiano  (159)  went  up  to 
frs.  19,910  ;  the  same  price  was  paid  for  Tobie  el 
I'Aiigc  (169),  which  fetched  frs.  3,900  at  the  Dutil- 
leux  sale  in  1874.  The  prices  of  the  Corots  were 
much  lower  ;  but  the  beautiful  Terrasse  du  Palais 
Doria  a  Genes  (127),  painted  in  1834,  was  very 
cheap  at  frs.  5,830  ;  the  Venise  (132),  a  picture  of 
the  same  year,  fetched  frs.  12,100  and  was  also 
far  from  dear,  although  the  Terrasse  seemed  to  me 
the  best  example  of  Corot  in  the  collection.  A 
poor  example  of  Puvis  de  Chavannes,  Madeleine 
(227),  fetched  frs.  6,820  and  the  Oedipe  etle  Sphinx 
of  Ingres  (208)  frs.  16,610. 

The  pictures  of  other  schools  in  this  collection 
were  by  no  means  chosen  with  the  same  judg- 
ment. Of  the  thirty-five  pictures  which  bore 
Constable's  name  there  were  not  more  than  six- 
teen which  it  was  possible  to  attribute  to  him,  and 
even  of  these  half  a  dozen  were  doubtful.  More- 
over, none  of  them  were  pictures  of  first-rate  im- 
portance. One  of  the  best  was  the  small  Hanip- 
stead  Heath  (12),  for  which  M.  Oppenheimer  paid 
frs.  2^,100.  The  same  collector  paid  frs.  27,500 
for  Malvern  Hall  (8),  a  characteristic  work  of  about 
1818.  A  brilliant  sketch  of  the  celebration  of 
Waterloo  at  East  Bergholt  was  sold  for  frs.  5,747, 
and  the  other  pictures  that  were  certainly  the  work 
of  Constable  all  fetched  quite  moderate  prices, 
but  they  were  all  small  and  unimportant.  On  the 
other  hand,  La  charctte  de  Join  (13),  a  strange 
pastiche  of  the  Hay-Wain  in  the  National  Gallery, 
which  appeared  to  be  a  work  of  the  late  nineteenth 
century,  was  acquired  by  the  indefatigable  M. 
Oppenheimer  for  frs.  24,200  ;  it  would  have  been 
cheap,  had  it  been  a  work  of  Constable.  A  pic- 
ture strangely  described  as  Le  pare  de  I'Archeveche 
de  Salisbury  (6),  a  not  unpleasing  work  by  an 
unknown  artist,  who  would  have  been  surprised 
had  he  known  that  the  name  of  Constable  would 
become  attached  to  it,  fetched  frs.  7,150,  and  no 
less  than  frs.  1 1,000  was  paid  (by  M.  Oppenheimer) 
for  a  picture  of  Preston  tower  near  Ipswich  (7), 
described  in  the  catalogue  as  Freeton  Tower  pres 
Ipsifick,  which  certainly  did  not  come  from  Con- 
stable's brush.  One  of  the  most  extraordinary  attri- 
butions in  the  catalogue  was  that  of  No.  97,  a  female 
portrait  attributed  to  Raeburn  ;  it  was  dear  at  frs. 
2,530.  A  good  portrait  of  Garrick,by  Reynolds,  was. 


Art  in  France 


on  the  contrary,  very  cheap  at  frs.  14,080  ;  it  would 
probably  have  fetched  ;^i,ooo  at  Christie's.  A  por- 
trait of  a  woman  attributed  to  Hoppner  but  pro- 
bably by  Lawrence  (82)  fetched  frs.  6,600  and  a 
perfectly  genuine  sketch  by  Lawrence  frs.  4,290. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  so-called  Romney  (99),  of 
course  a  LrtJy  Hamilton,  was  very  dear  indeed  at 
frs.  13,3 10.  A  comparison  of  these  prices  will  show 
what  a  lack  there  still  is  in  France  of  real  know- 
ledge of  the  English  school. 

Among  other  very  high  prices  in  the  collection 
were  those  of  frs.  61,600  for  a  portrait  of  Sedainc 
(5),  catalogued  as  by  Chardin,  but  much  more  like 
the  work  of  Lcpicie  ;  frs.  80,300  for  a  portrait  of 
Lola  Zimeucs  (71),  catalogued  as  by  Goya,  which,  in 
spite  of  its  signature,  was  not  entirely  convincing  ; 
frs.  30,800  for  a  St.  Dominic  (76),  catalogued  as  by 
Greco  but  even  more  doubtful ;  frs.  22,220  for 
another  picture  (77),  Lepartagc  dc  la  Sainte  Tuniqnc, 
which  was  described  in  the  catalogue  as  a  reduced 
replica,  by  the  master  himself,  of  the  well-known 
picture  in  Toledo  Cathedral,  but  which  had  all 
the  appearance  of  being  a  copy. 

The  collection  of  the  late  M.  Gerbeau  was 
divided  into  four  separate  sales.  The  first  section, 
which  consisted  of  porcelain,  objcts  d'art,  furniture 
and  tapestries,  produced  frs.  356,370  (not  including 
the  commission).  The  old  prints,  which  were  next 
sold,  made  a  total  of  frs.  320,413.  Some  of  the 
prices  in  this  section  were  very  high  ;  a  set  of  three 
proofs  before  letters  in  different  states  of  J.  M. 
Moreau's  Conchcrdc  la  mariec  was  bought  by  Mme. 
Rousseau-Girard  for  frs.  13,310. 


The  Homberg  collection,  sold,  like  that  of  M. 
Cheramy,  at  the  Georges  Petit  galleries,  contained 
no  pictures,  but  was  one  of  the  finest  collections  in 
France  of  ivories,  enamels,  carved  wood,  sculpture 
and  objcts  d'art  of  the  middle  ages  and  the  Re- 
naissance. The  sale  took  six  days,  and  the  total 
amount  realized  (including  commission)  was  frs. 
902,563.  The  collection  included  a  fine  series  of 
oriental  faiences,  which  fetched  high  prices  ;  M. 
Kalebjian  paid  frs.  17,600  for  a  mosque  lamp  m 
Damascus  faience  with  blue  decoration  on  a  white 
ground.  The  oriental  bronzes  also  sold  extremely 
well,  as  did  the  Italian  faience  and  the  manuscripts. 
The  ivories  and  enamels  were  warmly  contested. 

The  Zclikine  collection  was  also  almost  entirely 
composed  of  objcts  d'art ;  there  were  some 
twenty  pictures,  all  of  very  small  importance.  For 
the  fine  pieces  in  the  collection  the  prices  were  good. 

GENERAL  NOTES 
M.  Armand  Dayot,  who  arranged  the  Chardin- 
Fragonard  exhibition  last  year,  has  a  still  more 
ambitious  scheme  for  1909.  He  proposes  to 
hold  an  Anglo-French  exhibition,  consisting  of  a 
hundred  of  the  most  beautiful  portraits  of  women 
of  the  eighteenth  century,  fifty  of  the  English 
school  and  fifty  of  the  French  school.  Such  an 
exhibition  would  be  extremely  interesting,  and  it 
may  be  hoped  that  M.  Dayot  will  be  assisted  by 
private  collectors  in  England  to  make  it  really 
representative.  It  is  suggested  that  the  English 
pictures    should    be    selected   by  an    mfluential 


English  committee. 


R.  E.  D. 


cA^ 


ART  IN  GERMANY,  AUSTRIA  AND    SWITZERLAND 


cK) 


'HE  40olh  anniversary  of 
Calvin's  birthday  is  to  be 
celebrated  at  Geneva  by  the 
erection  of  a  monument  sym- 
bolizing the  Reformation.  An 
international  competition  has 
been  opened  with  prizes  to 
the  amount  of  30,000  francs. 
Among  the  judges  are  to  be 
found  names  of  the  highest  standing,  such  as 
Bartholome  of  Paris,  Frampton  of  London  and 
Tuaillon  of  Berlin. 

A  number  of  mural  paintings  of  the  fourteenth 
century  have  been  discovered  in  the  choir  of  the 
Church  of  S.  Gallus  at  Muhlheim  on  the  Danube. 
They  represent  scenes  from  the  Passion,  the  wise 
and  foolish  virgins,  St.  George,  St.  Martin  and 
episodes  from  the  life  of  St.  Gallus.  The  work 
discovers  striking  resemblances  to  the  paintings  in 
the  former  Dominican  monastery  at  Constance. 

The  museum  at  Elberfeld  has  acquired  an  im- 
portant early  painting,  dated  1876,  by  Lieberminn, 
representing  a  Dutch  sewing  school,  while 
Uhde's  earliest  work  of  importance.  La  Chanlcusc, 
painted  when  he  was  still  influenced  by  Munldcsy 


at  Paris,  has  come  into  possession  of  the  Neue 
Pinakothek  at  Munich.  Another  Liebermann, 
Street  in  the  J  civs'  Quarter  at  Amsterdam,  has  been 
bought  by  the  museum  at  Magdeburg. 

Besides  several  paintings  of  minor  interest 
and  about  one  hundred  excellent  drawings,  the 
National  Galerie  at  Berlin  has  recently  acquired 
some  very  interesting  reliefs  and  a  bust  by  Gott- 
fried Schadow.  Of  the  reliefs  nothing  but  models 
existed  so  far,  and  these  have  only  now  been  cast 
into  bronze.  They  represent  simple  and  graceful 
studies  from  the  nude,  decoratively  handled  and 
rather  less  forcibly  naturalistic  than  Schadow's 
later  work.  The  original  models  were  used  by 
him  to  decorate  the  entrance  hall  of  his  own  house. 
Two  friezes  of  ancient  horse  and  chariot  races 
were,  strangely  enough,  copied  pretty  accurately 
from  repro^luctions  of  Etruscan  vases  (published 
in  i8o3byTischbein).  Thebustisoneof  Schadow's 
first  wife  :  it  too  is  archaic  rather  than  naturalistic. 

Among  the  recent  additions  to  the  Kaiser 
Friedrich  Museum  there  figure  ajacopo  Robusti,  a 
Tiepolo  and  a  Zoffany.  The  Robusti,  which  hails 
from  Budapest,  represents  the  portrait  of  an  old, 
white  bearded  and  almost  bald  man,  evidently  an 

181 


Art  in   Germany 

official  of  some  consequence  in  Venice  and  one 
who  was  used  to  command.  It  belongs  to  that 
class  of  warm-coloured  and  passionate  portraits 
of  which  it  is  occasionally  doubtful  whether  we 
do  best  to  attribute  them  to  Titian  or  Tintoretto. 
The  Kaiser  Friedrich  Museum  is  already  rich  in 
good  work  by  Tiepolo  ;  the  small  new  canvas, 
wliich  formerly  belonged  to  a  collector  in  St. 
Petersburg,  is  however,  upon  the  whole,  a  very 
welcome  addition.  It  represents  Taiicrcd  en- 
amoured of  Arinida  in  her  enchanted  garden — a 
simple  north  Italian  villegiatura — and  displays  to 
fine  advantage  the  elder  Tiepolo's  grasp  of  per- 
spective, his  piquant  and  joyous  coloration,  and  his 
free  and  spirited  technique.  Ever  since  the  famous 
recent  English  exhibition  at  Berlin,  the  public 
has  especially  felt  it  to  be  a  grievous  shortcoming 
that  Berlin's  great  gallery  does  not  contain  a 
room  of  English  paintings,  not  even  a  small 
cabinet  full,  but  for  the  present  only  an  English 
wall  in  one  of  the  rooms.  Considering  the  prices 
that  fine  Romneys,  Reynoldses  and  Gainsboroughs 
now  command,  there  is  unfortunately  much  more 
than  good  will  necessai-y  to  fill  up  the  lacunae. 
The  small  full-length  portrait  of  Dr.  Hanson  of 
Canterbury,  by  Zoitany,  seated,  in  a  landscape,  is 
only  a  slight  step  in  this  direction,  though  the  quali- 
ties of  the  work,  taken  by  itself,  are  quite  respectable. 
But  Zoffany  is  so  decidedly  second-rate  a  painter 
that  it  remains  a  matter  of  doubt  whether  it  be 
really  the  right  thing  to  buy  a  work  of  his  brush 
before  the  gallery  can  show  its  visitors  what 
English  art  at  its  best  is  like.  Such  acquisitions 
are  likely  to  be  misleading.  People  who  have 
heard   about   the   show  at   the    Berlin    Academy 


without  having  been  able  to  see  it  may  turn  to 
work  like  this,  and  be  at  a  loss  to  understand  why 
anybody  could  have  raved  about  English  eighteenth- 
century  art.  The  little  portrait,  by  the  way,  was 
on  view  in  this  year's  Winter  E.xhibition  at  Bur- 
lington House,  and  will  be  familiar  to  many  Lon- 
doners in  consequence. 

Berlin  boasts  of  so  few  old  buildings  that  the 
loss  of  the  Garnisons  Kirche,  which  was  burnt  down 
during  the  night  of  the  13th  to  14th  of  April,  is 
seriously  felt.  It  was  originally  built  in  172 1-2  by 
Gerlach,  and  rebuilt  by  Rabe  in  18 16.  The  facade 
was  simplicity  itself,  and  the  structure  had  little 
more  than  age  (or,  rather,  what  would  be  looked 
upon  as  old  age  at  Berlin)  to  recommend  it.  Owing 
to  a  thorough  restoration,  which  was  effected 
during  the  year  1900,  the  interior  did  not  even 
display  many  traces  of  that. 

Baden-Baden  is  to  have  a  new  ornamental 
fountain,  for  which  Mr.  H.  Sielcken  of  that  town 
has  given  ^^2,000.  The  arena  of  the  amphi- 
theatre at  Treves  is  going  to  be  restored  and,  in 
part  at  least,  accommodated  to  its  ancient  uses  as  a 
stadium  for  outdoor  sports. 

The  competition  opened  by  the  Bavarian 
Government  for  designs  for  new  postage  stamps 
has  proved  a  great  disappointment.  None  of  the 
1,100  designs  contributed  by  about  300  competitors 
seem  to  have  satisfied  the  judges  well  enough  to 
induce  them  to  propose  any  one  to  the  Govern- 
ment for  adoption.  The  prize-money  was  conse- 
quently divided  up  into  a  number  of  small  pre- 
miums. The  result  of  the  Leipzig  ornamental 
visiting-card  competition,  I  have  been  told,  is 
scarcely  more  promising.  H.  W.  S. 


cA.  ART  IN  AMERICA  ^ 


TWO   SPECIMENS   OF    LA    FARCE'S   ART 

IN  GLASS 
Mr.  John  La  Faroe  has  now  in  his  studio  two 
small  windows,  or  panels,  of  coloured  glass  which, 
apart  from  their  intrinsic  beauty,  are  of  great  in- 
terest as  exemplifying  almost  every  phase  of  those 
'  American  methods,'  in  the  invention  of  which  he 
has  played  so  important  and  preponderant  a  part. 
They  are  not  in  any  proper  sense 'stained' glass 
and  still  less  painted  glass,  and  one  of  them  is 
not  leaded  glass  :  they  are  examples  of  what 
may,  perhaps,  best  be  called  transparent  glass 
mosaic. 

One  of  them,  The  Peony  in  the  Wind,  is  a  trans- 
lation into  gla^s  of  an  ancient  Japanese  design, 
and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  borders,  with 
their  relations  of  width  to  each  other  and  to  the 
central  panel,  are  according  to  a  Japanese  rule  for 
the  borders  of  a  Kakemono.  In  its  structure  this 
panel  is  exceedingly  simple.  It  is  composed  of 
single  pieces  of  glass  leaded  together,  the  colour 
being  in  the  glass  itself.     There  is  absolutely  no 

182 


painting,  and,  apparently,  there  is  little  if  any 
'  plating,'  or  putting  one  piece  of  coloured  glass 
over  another,  as  a  printer  in  oils  '  glazes '  over  his 
underpainting.  It  relies,  primarily,  on  the  beauty 
of  the  material  itself — a  material  infinitely  varied 
and  rich,  which  has  little  in  common  with  the 
sheets  of  glass  of  one  united  hue  which  are  the 
foundation  of  glass  painting  in  the  English 
manner — and  upon  the  skill  of  the  artist  in  fitting 
together  these  beautiful  bits  of  coloured  glass  into 
a  beautiful  whole  while  making  of  his  lead  lines 
not  a  disagreeable  necessity  but  an  integral  and 
important  part  of  his  design.  Of  this  material, 
the  result  of  many  experiments  made  by  Mr.  La 
Farge  and  others,  with  its  opalescence,  its  const-ant 
gradation  of  tender  hues,  its  cloudings  and  veinings, 
it  is  as  impossible  to  convey  any  idea  as  of  the 
mastery  of  colour  harmonies  with  which  it  is 
assembled  ;  but  in  black  and  white  reproduction, 
where  the  splendour  of  the  colour  is  lost  and  even 
th-  composition  of  light  and  dirk  is  but  dimly  felt, 
the  iraoortance  of  the  lead  lines— the    backbone 


THE    PKACOCK.      I'ANKl.    IX    COLOUKKU 
GLASS,   BY   JOHN    LA    FARGE 


IHI      riuNY    IX    TlIK    WIND.       I'ANKL    IN 
COLUUULU   GLASS,    BY   JOHN    LA    LARGE 


ANT    IN    AMI-KICA 


Art  in  America 


of  the  design — is  even  more  clearly  seen  than 
in  the  original.  They  are  so  important — so  essen- 
tially the  design  itself — that  they  might  almost 
stand  alone  without  the  addition  of  colour,  and 
we  should  have  a  piece  of  leaded  glass  as  interest- 
ing in  its  linear  beauty  as  a  Japanese  woodcut. 

This  is  the  American  method  at  its  best,  free  of 
commercial  vulgarization  and  of  the  compromise 
with  paint  forced  by  the  necessity  of  figure  repre- 
sentation— a  method  entirely  logical  and  leased  on 
the  nature  of  the  material  and  tlie  processes  of 
manufacture,  and  using  them  in  the  simplest  and 
most  direct  way  with  splendid  results. 

The  other  panel.  The  Peacock,  is  a  much  more 
personal  thing,  produced  by  methods  of  great 
subtlety  and  difficulty  (most  of  them  of  Mr.  La 
Farge's  own  invention),  and  of  a  costliness  which 
must  render  their  employment  by  himself  or 
others  of  rare  occurrence.  There  are  a  few  leads 
here  and  there  in  this  panel,  where  the  emphasis 
of  a  firm  line  was  wanted,  but  the  greater  part  of 
it  is  put  together  without  leads.  Glass  is  fused  to 
glass  with  nothing  between  them,  and  glass  is 
joined  to  glass  by  a  fine  copper  wire  fused  to  the 
pieces  it  joins.  Glass  is  plated  over  glass,  enriching 
and  deepening  its  colour  or  uniting  many  separate 
pieces  with  a  glaze  of  one  predominant  tint,  and 
these  platings  are  again  fused  to  the  original 
pieces— finally  the  whole  delicate  structure  is 
encased  between  two  plain  sheets  of  glass,  back 
and  front,  which  bind  it  together  and  give  it  the 
necessary  rigidity,  while  they  soften  the  sharpness 
of  the  cutting  lines  where  these  appear.  The 
separate  pieces  of  glass  are  very  small  and  almost 
countless  in  number,  and  in  the  choice  of  these  is 
involved  not  only  taste  and  knowledge  of  the  laws 
of  colour,  but  a  knowledge  of  the  material  and  of 
the  change  in  its  colour  which  will  be  brought 
about  by  the  heat  to  which  it  must  be  sulojected. 
It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  this  panel  has 
been  years  in  attaining  completion. 

The  design  is  adapted  from  a  Chinese  ivory  of  the 
Ming  dynasty,  in  its  turn  copied  from  an  earlier 
work,  and  was  probably  chosen  by  Mr.  La  Farge 
for  its  adaptability  to  his  purpose  of  showing  all 
the  resources  of  the  art  of  glass  as  he  understands 
it.  The  line  has  been  deliberately  subordinated, 
or  eliminated,  and  the  attention  of  the  artist  has 
been  concentrated  on  obtaining  the  utmost  beauty 
and  fullness  of  colour — colour  glowing,  flushing, 
pulsating,  without  definite  edges  or  divisions — 
colour  almost  inconceivably  powerful,  yet  subtle 
and  delicate — colour  which  makes  that  of  the 
Peony  in  tlic  Wind,  beautiful  as  it  is,  seem  thin  by 
comparison — colour  such  as  is  obtainable  in  no 
other  material  and  in  that  material  by  no  other 
artist. 

Of  such  a  work  no  reproduction  can  give  any  con- 
ception— perhaps  a  reproduction  in  monochrome 
is  less  likely  to  give  a  false  conception  of  it  than 


would  be  any  attempt  at  colour-printing.  The 
plain  black  and  white  can  at  least  show  something 
of  the  fineness  of  the  workmanship — of  the  mere 
refinement  of  the  cutting  and  of  the  multitude  of 
small  separate  pieces  of  glass  employed.  For  any 
notion  of  its  glory  one  must  go  to  the  work  itself. 

Kenyon  Cox. 

CURRENT  NOTES 

The  Saint  Gaudens  Exhibition. — It  is  most 
gratifying  to  note  that  the  Saint  Gaudens  Memorial 
Exhibition  at  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art 
was  visited  by  tens  of  thousands  of  whose  sincere 
enthusiasm  there  can  be  no  doubt.  It  originally 
was  contemplated  to  have  it  last  a  month,  that  time 
had  to  lie  extended  one  month  and  again  another. 
The  organization  of  the  exhibition  was  admiiable, 
the  representation  of  the  master's  work  was 
extensive,  and  the  larger  reproductions  lost  little 
in  their  setting  within  the  great  entrance  hall  of 
the  museum. 

Many  to  whom  sculpture  in  its  purely  aesthetic 
appeal  is  dumb  can  understand  in  the  works  of 
Saint  Gaudens  certain  large  ideas  which  are  not 
for  art  alone.  The  embodiment  of  such  thoughts 
as  leadership  and  heroism  in  war  and  statesman- 
ship in  the  eager  Sherman  and  the  brooding 
Lincoln  ;  the  fateful  issues  of  slavery  and  freedom  ; 
the  ancestral  memories  of  pioneers  and  founders  ; 
the  acceptance  and  presentation  of  contemporary 
life  ;  the  shaiiiing  of  sordid  aims  ;  the  sense  of 
dignity  and  beauty  in  every  vision,  cannot  fail  of 
its  effect  upon  public  taste.  Now  that  we  have 
lost  him,  we  feel  all  the  more  that  he  has  done  a 
greater  thing  than  produce  a  series  of  works  of 
art.  He  has  helped  to  make  for  us  Americans  an 
ideal  actual.  And,  through  his  sense  for  the  value 
of  a  higher  tradition,  he  has  brought  our  deeper 
sentiments  in  touch  with  the  whole  imaginative 
world  of  the  past.  Essentially  conservative  and 
objective  in  temper,  the  work  of  Saint  Gaudens 
marks  an  era  in  American  sculpture.  That  the 
exhibition  has  been  a  great  public  success  is  most 
encouraging.  Those  who  despair  of  art  culture 
in  America  have  not  Saint  Gaudens's  faith  ;  tliose 
who  work  halfheartedly  towards  it  may  be 
inspired  by  his  tireless  energy. 

Whatever  final  place  among  the  great  sculptors 
of  the  world  will  be  given  to  Saint  Gaudens  by  the 
verdict  of  posterity  we  may  not  be  able  to  say, 
but  he  was  a  great  factor  in  our  national  life  and 
a  recognized  leader  in  our  fight  for  the  achievement 
and  recognition  of  beauty.  What  we  can  know 
securely  is  that  his  pre-eminence  was  achieved  by 
exceptional,  consistent  endeavour,  a  love  of  good 
craftsmanship,  an  indefatigable  search  for  higher 
truths  and  more  perfect  forms.  This  Memorial 
Exhibition  revealed  the  range  of  Saint  Gaudens's 
art,  from  the  little  portraits  in  relief,  as  fine  in 
sentiment    as    in    execution,   to   the    imaginative 

185 


Art  in  America 


utterance  and  noble  design  of  liis  big  things.  It 
contained  no  hasty  workmanship,  no  extreme  or 
eccentric  experimentation.  He  'nothing  common 
did  or  mean.'  Saint  Gaudens  was  never,  Hke 
Donatello  at  times,  regardless  of  beauty.  He  was 
never,  like  Michelangelo  at  times,  impatient  or 
untender  ;  and  he  never  exploited  a  manner  or 
obscured  a  meaning.  His  genius  was  indeed  of 
the  classic  type  and  in  no  way  revolutionary — a 
constructive  perfectibility  seems  to  have  been  his 
guiding  ambition  in  botli  thought  and  craft.  And 
above  all  we  honour  him  for  the  large  and  noble 
part  that  he  played  in  our  national  development 
because  of  his  loyalty  and  devotion  to  high  artistic 
ideals. 

The  Spring  Academy. — I  must  limit  a  belated 
report  on  the  Spring  Academy  to  a  few  general 
aspects— and  to  painting  only,  as  no  fully  repre- 
sentative exhibition  of  sculpture  was  attempted  for 
want  of  space.  The  bringing  together  of  conser- 
vatives and  radicals  under  one  roof  did  not  dis- 
close any  such  schism  in  the  aims  of  our  artists  as 
might  have  been  expected.  The  result  was  quite 
harmonious  ;  for  the  general  effect  of  the  exhibi- 
tion was  at  once  modern  and  conservative.  A 
brilliant  wall  of  the  younger  men,  who  follow  Manet 
in  an  ideal  of  simplification,  did  not  break  the 
rank.  Their  work  was  rich  in  native  themes  and 
full  of  human  interest,  if  without  high  stylistic 
achievement  in  any  instance.  A  portrait  by  Mr. 
Sloan  deserved  mention  for  its  dash  and  character. 
But  we  are  most  of  us  busied  more  with  ends  than 
means.  We  have  found  ourselves,  more  or  less, 
technically ;  and,  while  the  European  oracles  are 
not  dumb,  style  for  style's  sake  no  longer  satisfies 
our  ambition.  Who,  for  instance,  has  more  style, 
has  learned  more  from  European  art,  and  yet  is  more 
native  and  less  conventional,  than  Mr.  Alden  Weir  ? 
We  feel,  rather  than  recognize,  a  tradition  here. 
The  Laurel,  a  blithe  and  exquisite  piece,  which 
must  rank  high  among  Mr.  Weir's  ever  original 
and  various  works,  and  a  sylph  of  a  Ballet  Girl 
were  secure  and  complete  examples.  And  who, 
again,  conforms  more  to  a  classic  canon,  and  yet 
is  less  derivative,  than  Mr.  Tarbell  ?  The  President 
Seeley  was  beautiful  as  art,  and  a  monumental 
portrait  in  intention  if  not  in  absolute  achieve- 
ment, since  the  hands  were  so  insistent  as  some- 
what to  mar  the  ensemble. 

On  a  lower  aesthetic  level,  Mr.  Smedley  seemed 
like  an  American  Ghirlandajo :  a  wholesome 
average.  He  sets  up  a  standard  for  himself,  and 
carries  it  out.  In  a  very  serious  and  able  image 
of  child  life  Mr.  Kendal  repeated  a  familiar  motive 
with  his  usual  authority  and  competence.  Mr. 
Isham,  with  his  frankly  decorative  pastoral,  con- 
trived an  eighteenth-century  effect  in  modern 
dress.  A  charming  figurative  landscape,  or  out- 
of-door  genre  piece  rather,  by  Miss  Genth,  had 
portrait  quality  and  a  real  physical  presence  in  the 

i86 


figure,  and  in  its  vivid  light  and  colour  was  worthy 
of  comparison  with  Renoir  and  Mme.  Morisot. 
The  Lark,  a  captivating  nude  by  the  same  artist, 
was  a  success  in  feeling  and  style  and  workmanlike 
execution.  The  contribution  of  Mr.  Thayer  was 
most  attractive,  if  unsatisfactory,  which  did  not 
achieve  beauty  of  form  in  this  image  ;  we  cannot 
forget  that  we  owe  him  the  debt  of  his  priceless 
attitude,  his  sense  for  ideal  beauty. 

Mr.  Sargent's  four  portraits,  of  which  the  Mr. 
Robinson  was  the  most  studied  and  the  Mr.  Henry  A. 
Crane  perhaps  the  most  characteristic,  brought 
his  peculiar  note  into  the  assembly.  Miss  Beaux 
and  Mr.  J.  J.  Shannon  were  well  represented  in 
single  examples,  and  Mr.  Wiles's  Paul  Cornoyer, 
Esq.,  had  direct  purpose  and  character.  The 
Miss  Uliarton,  by  the  late  John  Lambert,  in  its 
quiet  refinement  and  distinction,  gave  witness  to 
the  loss  which  our  painting  has  sustained  in  the 
death  of  this  simple  and  lovable  artist.  Among 
other  works  in  this  field  may  be  mentioned  those 
by  Mr.  Eakins,  Mr.  Nicmeyer  and  Mr.  Hopkinson. 

The  exhibition  was  rich  in  more  or  less  objective 
landscape.  The  effect  of  this  art  is  cumulative, 
and  selection  is  difficult.  Mr.  Ochtman,  Mr. 
Tryon  and  Mr.  Lathrop  exhibited  characteristic 
work  in  a  very  native  tradition,  and  various  shades 
of  contemplative  observation  of  nature  in  its  more 
external  aspects  were  expressed  by  Mr.  W.  S. 
Robinson,  Mr.  Nettleton,  Mr.  Eaton  and  Mr.  Van 
Laer.  The  brilliant  Moonlight  of  Mr.  Benson 
and  Mr.  Carlsen's  sensitive  treatment  of  a  similar 
theme  were  honoured  in  the  hanging.  A  theme 
that  can  never  grow  old,  the  Venice  of  Mr.  Bunce, 
expressed  tenderly  and  finely  a  more  subjective 
mood.  In  this  romantic  category  were  examples 
from  Mr.  Bruce  Crane  and  Mr.  Ballard  Williams. 
More  modern  and  more  searching  compositions, 
in  the  region  of  colour  at  least,  were  offered  by 
Mr.  Lawson,  who  has  a  distinctive  individual  style 
of  great  power  and  refinement,  and  by  Mr.  Childe 
Hassan,  who  having  long  achieved  success  keeps 
growing  in  mastery.  Mr.  Rook's  Laurel  made 
an  interesting  colour  essay  of  bold  execution. 
Realistic  works  by  Mr.  Redfield  and  Mr.  Rosen 
commanded  attention.  Mr.  Redfield  has  colour 
and  Mr.  Rosen  temperament. 

That  our  landscape  generally  needs  the  tone  of 
a  larger  mood  is  proved  by  the  exceptional  power 
of  Mr.  Winslow  Homer's  art  as  represented  by 
two  characteristic  works  painted  some  years  ago. 
The  imaginative  vision  of  Mr.  La  Farge  in  his 
Wolf  Charmer  also  transcends  the  normal  activity 
and  tendency  of  American  painting.  Art  of  this 
kind,  like  the  sculpture  of  the  late  Saint  Gaudens, 
belongs  to  the  future,  for  it  means  more  than  its 
concrete  issues,  and  carries  with  it  a  spiritual 
leadership  and  influence,  the  effect  of  which  we 
can  in  no  way  at  present  estimate. 

W.  Rankin. 


,s9 


Sm^V^M^P*-  ^ 


EDITORIAL 
^  THE  AFFAIRS  O^    ^^^«^' 

'  HE    high    a  I 
recently  accej 
T.  D.Gibson- > 
does  more  than  create  a 
vacancy  in  the  ranksof  the 
trustees  of  the  National 
Gallery.    It  deprives  that  small  portion  of 
the  nation  which  is  seriously  interested  in 
,  of  the   help   of.  one  whose   fine 
ui,5ur  ,.i)d  wide   s"'.      '  '       '      e  done  u> 
invaluable  if  uhj 

The   filr 
departure  : 
ma 

i " 


'  its  lofty  place 

)rld — a  period 

i;iC   directorship  ot 

.. — the  part  played  by 

■at  of  htlpers  and  advisers, 

control  and  the  ultimate 

ior   purchases  rested  solely 

'     ■'■'■''•'-•"■     '  se  manage- 

c    and    Sir 

Frederick  Burton  this  plan  had  resulted  in 

almost  un.  '  success.  A  few  mistakes, 

indeed,  wtic  Uiude,  hut  by  trusting  to  thr 

judgment  of  a  sir.  -Ir    c-Krt-n   the    nation 

acquired    a    ser!  '.erpieces  long 

before    the  rest   of   the  world  awoke    to 

theii  importance. 

When   Sir  Edward   Poynter  succeeded 
Sir  Frederick  Burton  the  results  were  not 
so    happy,   and    finally    Lord    Rosebr 
Government  by  a  Treasury  minute  reve 
the  whole  arrangement.     The  directoi 
still  a  director  in  name,  but  he  could  ni.i..- 
no  purchase  for  the  gallery  without  obtain- 
ing the   consent  of  the  trustees.    He  was 

THE  B(ilU.lvar<»II    llMAtlNS,  No,  64.     Vm  XIII— jlli},  l»Oll 


ARTICLES 

^'^^lONAL  GALLERY  fK> 

..:         '     ^all  overt  •   -       ■        ;. 

w.*; —      -prived  of  ai.  ^  - ;...,....,.. ^^ 

master  i)e  bank  at  once  to  the  position  of 
servant. 

ht     still     h 

more  than  averai't- 
whose  contributi 
gallery  would  be  mamly  th( 
tU'  U  a  cri? 

si'  „.t    in    : ■■.... 

world,  and  of  that  large  com- 
ition  sciK.e  in  dealing  with  people  and 
th'.ngs  that  comes  of  high  station  and  long 
cxpCi  lence  of  affairs.  Such  a  board  would 
have  been  of  invaluable  assistance  to  a 
clever  judge  of  pictures,  while  he,  on  the 
other  hand,  would  have  possessed  just  the 
wide  and  precise  technical  knowledge  in 
respect  of  which  his  trustees  wtvit  at  rhe 
best  no  more  than  amateur^ 

The  actual  conditions  have  proved  very 
different,  and  probably  could  not  exist 
outside  England.  The  majority  of  the 
present  trustees  of  the  National  Gallery 
cannot  be  called  amateurs  at  all  except 
by  courtesy.  They  are  distinguished  col- 
lectors who  have  ■  -"i.  their  hobby  with 
the  keenness  and  g  of  professional  art 

critics  ;  in  fact  are  themselves  really  art 
critics  except  in  so  far  as  neither  poverty 

i  \'anity  has  driven  them  to  writi.ig. 

What  must  be  the  inevitable  result  : 
However  distinguished  an  expert  the 
director  may  be,  he  is  only  one  expert 
among  many,  and  the  one  with  the  least 
real  power.  Pie  may  recommend  again 
and  again,  but  if  there  be  one  dissentient 
voice  among  the  trustees  his  recommenda- 
tions are  made  useless. 

."^V  '  '  '  "  virihus  ruit!  Haa  11 
:.;!-...,  :  uc  :  Li.-d  with  subtle  and  deli- 
berate malice,  that  Treasury  minute  could 
not  have  been  more  disastrous  and  fatal  to 

189 


'Tint 


EDITORIAL 
^  THE  AFFAIRS  OF  THE 

HE  high  appointment 
recently  accepted  by  Sir 
T.  D.  Gibson-Carmichael 
does  more  than  create  a 
vacancy  in  the  ranksofthe 
trustees  of  the  National 
Gallery.  It  deprives  that  small  portion  of 
the  nation  which  is  seriously  interested  in 
the  arts  of  the  help  of  one  whose  fine 
taste  and  w^ide  sympathies  have  done  us 
invaluable  if  unadvertised  service. 

The  filling  of  the  gap  caused  by  his 
departure  to  Australia  will  thus  be  no  light 
matter,  and  we  trust  that  the  Government, 
in  making  the  new  appointment,  will  in- 
clude in  its  purview  the  whole  question  of 
the  administration  at  Trafalgar  Square. 

At  present  the  position  of  the  trustees 
of  the  National  Gallery  is  peculiar,  if  not 
unique.  In  the  period  when  the  gallery 
was  laying  the  foundations  of  its  lofty  place 
among  the  museums  of  the  world — a  period 
which  culminated  in  the  directorship  of 
Sir  Frederick  Burton — the  part  played  by 
the  trustees  was  that  of  helpers  and  advisers, 
but  the  supreme  control  and  the  ultimate 
responsibility  for  purchases  rested  solely 
with  the  director.  Under  the  wise  manage- 
ment of  Sir  Charles  Eastlake  and  Sir 
Frederick  Burton  this  plan  had  resulted  in 
almost  unqualified  success,  A  few  mistakes, 
indeed,  were  made,  but  by  trusting  to  the 
judgment  of  a  single  expert  the  nation 
acquired  a  series  of  masterpieces  long 
before  the  rest  of  the  world  awoke  to 
their  importance. 

When  Sir  Edward  Poynter  succeeded 
Sir  Frederick  Burton  the  results  were  not 
so  happy,  and  finally  Lord  Rosebery's 
Government  by  a  Treasury  minute  reversed 
the  whole  arrangement.  The  director  was 
still  a  director  in  name,  but  he  could  make 
no  purchase  for  the  gallery  without  obtain- 
ing the   consent  of  the  trustees.     He  was 

THS  BURUNQTOS   MAGAZINE,  No.  64.     Vul  .Xlli— July,  190S. 


ARTICLES 

NATIONAL  GALLERY  cK> 

relieved  of  all  overt  responsibility,  but  he 
was  also  deprived  of  all  power.  From  being 
master  he  sank  at  once  to  the  position  of 
servant. 

This  arrangement  might  still  have 
worked  well  had  the  trustees  been  no 
more  than  average  men  of  high  position 
whose  contributions  to  the  working  of  the 
gallery  would  be  mainly  those  of  an  oppor- 
tune cheque  at  a  critical  moment,  of  occa- 
sional support  in  Parliament  or  in  the 
diplomatic  world,  and  of  that  large  com- 
mon sense  in  dealing  with  people  and 
things  that  comes  of  high  station  and  long 
experience  of  affairs.  Such  a  board  would 
have  been  of  invaluable  assistance  to  a 
clever  judge  of  pictures,  while  he,  on  the 
other  hand,  would  have  possessed  just  the 
wide  and  precise  technical  knowledge  in 
respect  of  which  his  trustees  were  at  the 
best  no  more  than  amateurs. 

The  actual  conditions  have  proved  very 
different,  and  probably  could  not  exist 
outside  England.  The  majority  of  the 
present  trustees  of  the  National  Gallery 
cannot  be  called  amateurs  at  all  except 
by  courtesy.  They  are  distinguished  col- 
lectors who  have  pursued  their  hobby  with 
the  keenness  and  learning  of  professional  art 
critics  ;  in  fact  are  themselves  really  art 
critics  except  in  so  far  as  neither  poverty 
nor  vanity  has  driven  them  to  writing. 

What  must  be  the  inevitable  result  .? 
However  distinguished  an  expert  the 
director  may  be,  he  is  only  one  expert 
among  many,  and  the  one  with  the  least 
real  power.  He  may  recommend  again 
and  again,  but  if  there  be  one  dissentient 
voice  among  the  trustees  his  recommenda- 
tions are  made  useless. 

Sii/'s  et  ipsa  Roma  viribus  ritit!  Had  it 
indeed  been  designed  with  subtle  and  deli- 
berate malice,  that  Treasury  minute  could 
not  have  been  more  disastrous  and  fatal  to 

R  I  89 


The  Affairs  of  the  National  Gallery 


effective  action.  To  expect  unanimity  from 
a  committee  of  more  than  two  or  three 
average  men  is  optimistic  ;  to  expect  it 
from  nine  experienced  art  critics  is  insane. 
Let  the  reader  think  of  the  first  half-dozen 
famous  art  authorities  whose  names  he 
remembers,  and  then  imagine  what  his 
difficulty  would  be  in  bringing  them 
to  agreement  on  any  delicate  problem! 
The  best  he  could  hope  for  would  be 
compromise,  and  compromise  in  buying 
pictures  means  buying  second-rate  pictures. 

Such  is  the  position  towards  which  we 
are  inevitably  drifting,  even  if  our  national 
good  sense  may  have  saved  us  so  far  from 
actual  catastrophe.  Meanwhile  the  great 
galleries  of  Germany  and  America  compete 
with  our  unwieldy  arrangements  through 
trained  experts  who  take  full  responsibility 
for  their  acts,  and  in  return  are  entrusted 
with  full  powers.  They  can  seize  the 
chances  of  the  moment,  those  chances  that 
never  can  return  ;  while  we  have  to  stand 
by  with  our  hands  tied. 

That  the  handicap  is  too  heavy  for  us 
has  been  proved  time  after  time  of  recent 
years.  Masterpiece  upon  masterpiece  has 
gone  to  Berlin  or  to  America  which 
might  under  a  more  practical  system  have 
been  retained  in  England ;  while  the  uni- 
versal outcry  in  Germany  over  official 
interference  with  the  judgment  of  Dr.  von 
Tschudi  is  a  present  proof  of  the  impor- 
tance which  that  country  attaches  to  the 
independence  of  her  experts. 

All  this  is  a  commonplace  to  those  who 
have  studied  the  subject  ;  yet  it  is  also  a 
most  unsatisfactory  state  of  things,  and 
one  for  which  some  remedy  (if  a  positive 
cure  is  too  much  to  hope  for)  ought  to  be 
found  as  soon  as  possible.  The  appoint- 
ment of  a  new  trustee  would  give  the 
Government  a  chance  of  doing  something 
to  help  this  good  work,  could  the  question 
once  be  put  before  it  fairly. 

190 


The  crux  of  the  problem  lies  in  the 
fact  that  the  critical  knowledge  of  the 
trustees  may  at  any  moment  become  an 
active  source  of  peril  instead  of  being  a 
tower  of  strength.  Its  intrinsic  value  to 
the  nation,  however,  is  so  considerable  that 
we  cannot  afford  to  do  without  it,  and  we 
trust  the  Government,  in  filling  the  vacancy 
left  by  Sir  T.  D.  Gibson-Carmichael's 
retirement,  will  not  hesitate  to  select  one  of 
the  three  or  four  gentlemen  who  are 
peculiarly  fitted  for  the  post  by  their 
critical  knowledge  as  well  as  by  their  posi- 
tion and  experience.  If  the  new  trustee 
could  be  one  intimately  connected  with  the 
National  Art  Collections  Fund,  so  much 
the  better.  It  is  pre-eminently  desirable 
that  the  Fund  and  the  trustees  should  be 
as  closely  connected  as  possible,  so  that 
there  may  be  no  clashing  of  aims  and 
ideals  when  any  great  crisis  arises. 

We  not  only  need  all  our  best  talent 
just  now  ;  we  also  require  that  it  should 
co-operate  harmoniously,  if  as  a  nation 
we  are  to  hold  our  own  in  the  future. 

Assuming,  then,  the  vacant  trusteeship  is 
filled  by  one  as  gifted  as  its  late  holder, 
how  can  we  make  the  best  use  of  his  tal- 
ents and  those  of  his  colleagues  ?  Some 
change  at  least  from  the  existing  con- 
ditions is  imperatively  needed.  In  a 
previous  article,^  when  discussing  the  larger 
question  of  our  general  art  policy,  w^e 
advocated  the  restoration  of  independence 
to  the  director.  That  plan  still  appears  to 
us  to  be  the  ideal  one  ;  if  a  director  cannot 
be  trusted  he  is  not  fit  to  be  appointed. 

The  suggestion  is  far  from  novel.  It 
has  been  generally  voiced  in  the  press,  but 
the  fact  that  no  action  has  been  taken 
seems  to  show  that  there  are  difficulties 
in  the  way  which  are  not  apparent  to 
outside  spectators. 

In    default  of  this  complete   and    ideal 

'  See   The  Birlington    Magazine,  vol.  viii.   p.  225   (Jan. 
1906),  'The  Lesson  of  the  Rokeby  Velazquez.' 


The  Affairs  of    the  National  Gallery 


independence,  we  feel  convinced  that  two 
slight  modifications  of  the  present  system 
would  at  least  enable  the  director  and  the 
trustees  to  develop  their  respective  powers 
to  much  greater  benefit  than  at  present. 

(i)  To  enable  the  director  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  the  opportunities  of  the  sale- 
room, and  of  purchases  involving  instanta- 
neous decision,  a  definite  proportion  (say, 
j^i,ooo)  of  the  total  sum  available  for 
purchases  should  be  allowed  to  him 
annually  to  use  at  his  sole  discretion. 

(ii)  More  important  purchases  might 
be  made  by  the  director  if  his  recommen- 
dation were  backed  by  the  formal  approval 
of  not  less  than  two  of  the  trustees. 

By  this  provision  we  should  avoid  all 
risk  of  failure  owing  either  to  a  difference 
of  opinion  on  the  part  of  a  single  trustee 
or  to  the  delay  necessitated  by  having  to 
collect  eight  highly  placed  and  busy  men. 
Even  trustees,  too,  must  sometimes  take 
holidays,  and  what  is  the  poor  director  to 
do  then  ?  It  must  never  be  forgotten  that 
important  works  do  not  usually  remain  in 
the  market  for  long.  With  them  it  is  a 
case  of  '  now  or  never,'  and  the  director 
who  has  to  wait  three  weeks  or  a  month 
before  he  can  come  to  a  decision  cannot 
possibly  hold  his  own  against  men  who 
can  complete  a  bargain  on  the  spot. 

By  this  arrangement  the  director  would 
be  able   to   avail   himself  of    the  special 


knowledge  of  each  of  the  trustees,  as  occa- 
sion demanded.  If  he  wanted  to  buy  a 
Flemish  picture  he  would  naturally  go  to 
those  trustees  whose  knowledge  of  the 
Flemish  school  was  most  profound  ;  for  an 
Italian  picture  he  would  turn  to  the  ap- 
proval of  those  best  acquainted  with  Italian 
art,  and  for  a  French  picture  to  those  most 
interested  in  France.  The  arrangement, 
after  all,  is  like  that  of  an  ordinary  business 
firm,  whose  cheques  for  safety's  sake  have 
to  be  signed  by  two  directors,  as  well  as 
by  a  responsible  officer  of  the  company. 
But  what  should  we  think  of  a  business 
whose  every  cheque  needed  nine  signatures  ? 
We  have  the  less  hesitation  in  discussing 
this  delicate  problem  openly  because  the 
change  in  the  director's  status  made  by  the 
Treasury  in  Lord  Rosebery's  time  was 
designed  to  meet  an  exceptional  and  tem- 
porary difficulty.  To  exalt  it  to  the  dignity 
of  a  perpetual  rule  was  not,  we  believe,  con- 
templated by  those  who  introduced  it  ; 
yet  if  it  be  not  reconsidered  soon  it  will 
acquire  respectability  from  mere  acquie- 
scence. Time  and  experience  have  proved 
its  inherent  defects;  its  advantage  we  see  in 
the  keen  interest  which  the  trustees  now 
take  it  all  that  concerns  the  National 
Gallery.  The  suggestion  we  have  ventured 
to  put  forward,  though  no  more  than  a 
compromise,  appears  to  minimise  those 
defects  without  sacrificing  that  advantage. 


^  MR.  EPSTEIN'S  SCULPTURE  IN  THE  STRAND  r*^ 


HE  outcry  against  the 
building  of  the  British 
Medical  Association  was 
even  less  well  informed 
than  such  outcries  usually 
are,  yet  it  might  have 
been  serious  but  for  the  good  sense  and 
firmness  of  '  The  Times.'     It   is    curious 


that  these  violent  outbursts  should  almost 
invariably  select  really  original  and  first- 
rate  work  for  their  object  ;  still  more 
curious  perhaps  that  the  accusation  of 
indecency  should  have  been  levelled  in 
this  case  against  sculpture  of  which  the 
distinctive  characteristic  is  its  monume  ntal 
austerity. 


191 


^  THE  FRANCO-BRITISH     EXHIBITION  c*^ 


THE     FRENCH     SECTION 

POPULAR  venture  intermit- 
tently backed  by  tiie  official 
world  of  two  nations,  important 
I  owing  to  the  chance  of  politics, 
'at  once  reactionary  in  aim,  yet 
'  in  part  admirable  :  such  is  the 
character  of  the  Franco-British 
.Exhibition  at  Shepherd's  Bush 
— I  had  almost  said  Earl's  Court.  At  first  one  feels 
that  the  management  which  is  answerable  for  the 
Turco- Austrian  architecture  can  claim  part  author- 
ship in  some  of  the'  sculpture  represented,  that 
decorations  intendedifor  the  buildings  have  found 
a  place  in  the  galleries,  where  the  energetic  impres- 
arios of  the  exhibition  may  be  detected  in  works 
disguised  under  very  French  and  English  names  ; 
but  this  impression  passes,  and  we  find  among  the 
litter  of  exhibition  art  some  masterpieces  by  the 
giants  who  have  illustrated  the  nineteenth  century. 
My  business  is  with  the  French  section.  Unlike 
the  English  one,  this  is  confined  to  a  period  of 
production  which  excludes  even  the  survivors  from 
the  eighteenth  century  who  lived  into  the  nine- 
teenth, such  as  Prudhon,  Fragonard,  Houdon  and 
Clodion.  France,  however,  has  strengthened  her 
exhibit  by  a  group  of  monuments  by  her  great  sculp- 
tors, Barye,  Rude,  Carpeaux  and  Dalou  ;  whilst 
England,  forgetful  of  the  monumental  work  of  her 
one  great  sculptor,  Alfred  Stevens,  benefits  only 
by  one  work  (Watts's  Clytc),  which  is  not  of  recent 
production.  In  the  English  section  the  younger 
masters  have  been  practically  extinguished  by  bad 
placing ;  if  in  the  French  section  there  is  also  a 
predominance  of  work  which  has  lost  its  hold  even 
upon  the  market,  there  are  several  examples  by  the 
more  prominent  masters  of  the  New  Salon,  even 
the  reluctant  Monsieur  Rodin  being  present  with 
two  marvellous  busts.  With  the  works  of  the 
French  members  of  the  International  Society,  such 
as  A.  Besnard,  J.  E.  Blanche,  Cottet,  E.  Carriere, 
Bartolome,  I  have  no  space  to  deal  adequately  ;  it 
would  also  be  difficult  for  a  contemporary  to  write 
with  that  generosity  which  the  importance  of  their 
art  commands,  and  their  work  is  not  unfamiliar 
to  London.  The  bulk  of  this  article  must  of 
necessity  concern  itself  with  the  masterpieces 
done  some  years  ago,  though  no  system  has 
been  observed  in  the  arrangement  of  the  French 
section,  and  works  done  yesterday  are  placed  next 
to  those  of  the  past. 

Some  acknowledged  masterpieces  stand  in  the 
centre  of  the  Sculpture  Hall  ;  foremost  among  them 
is  the  Ugolino  by  Carpeaux.  We  have  to  revert  to 
The  Deposition  by  Michelangelo  to  find  a  design 
at  once  so  central  and  significant  as  this.  We  have 
but  to  think  of  the  wriggling  Laocoon  and  his 
Sons,  with  their  academic  anatomies,  meaningless 
hands,  and  the  lack  of  relation  of  the  figures  to 
each  other,  to  realize  the  beauty  of  this  tragic  work, 
which  stands  beyond  the  habit  and  range  of  Car- 

192 


peaux  as  the  Colhoni  stands  beyond   the  range  of 
Verrocchio.' 

I  have  to  confess  to  a  great  disappointment  in 
the  sketch  for  Carpeaux's  Flora  ;  it  shows  signs  of 
physical  fatigue  which  are  absent  from  the  final 
version.  The  Dead  Cavaignac  by  Rude  is  one  of 
the  great  triumphs  of  French  sculpture,  which  was 
so  fertile  in  masterpieces  during  the  nineteenth 
century.  The  current  estimate  of  modern  art 
tends  to  exaggerate  the  significance  of  modern 
landscape  painting  ;  it  is  in  sculpture,  in  the 
masterpieces  of  Barye,  Carpeaux  and  Rodin,  that 
the  highest  level  of  success  has  been  achieved.  They 
can  challenge  comparison  with  the  masters  of  the 
Renaissance.  But  the  study  of  art  is  ever  fertile 
in  surprises,  and  leads  constantly  to  unexpected 
'  transvaluations '  of  the  work  of  a  period.  We 
overrate  the  painting  of  the  eighteenth  centurv, 
hardly  as  yet  appreciate  its  sculpture  to  the  full, 
whilst  its  beautiful  architecture  remains  for  another 
.ceneration  to  understand.  How  shall  I  convey 
the  austere  tenderness,  the  dignity  and  realism 
which  characterize  the  effigy  of  G.  Cavaignac  ?  The 
rendering  of  the  head,  the  humble  anatomy,  the 
clinging  draperies,  each  and  all  are  beyond  praise  ; 
I  prize  this  noble  work  beyond  Holbein's  tragic 
Dead  Christ,  or  that  haunting  effigy  of  a  dead  man 
with  a  wreath  of  roses  by  that  great  modern 
Italian  sculptor  Bastianini,  to  whom  we  owe  three 
masterpieces  and  one  of  the  great  scandals  or 
bankruptcies  of  criticism  in  the  history  of  art." 

The  famous  statue  by  L.  Brian  is  half  lost 
against  a  wall  ;  close  to  it  is  a  tired  and  dirty  cast  of 
Falguere's  Martyr.  Falguere,  at  one  time  over- 
praised and  now  underrated,  is  represented  again 
by  an  enchanting  little  bronze  bas-relief  hung  in 
the  picture  gallery,  which  holds  also  Barye's 
fascinating  Tliesens  and  Minotaur  and  a  case  of 
small  bronzes  by  Dalou,  three  out  of  these  last 
having  been  seen  recently  in  London.  One  feels 
before  these  masterly  works  that  one  is  face  to 
face  with  some  priceless  addition  presented  to  the 
museum  of  some  impoverished  or  stingy  nation 
by  some  prince  of  finance,  and  not  before  the 
modern  work  of  a  man  who  once  counted 
like  Rodin  only  as  a  skilful  workman.  Paul 
Dubois's  famous  Et'e  and  bust  of  Paul  Baudry  have 
not  stood  too  well  the  test  of  time  ;  after  Rodin's 
busts  the  portrait  of  Baudry,  which  seemed  at  the 
time  of  its  production  an  epoch-making  work,  has 
lost  force  and  power.  If  the  sculpture  department 
holds  several  admirable  works  by  Carpeaux  and 
Rude,  there  are  disappointments,  notably  with 
Fremiet,  who  seems  too  tight  and  too  anecdotic  in 
aim  ;  there  are  also  countless  pretentious  and 
meaningless  female  nudes  flaunting  the  curves  of 
professional  hips  before  the  more  modest  male 
academics  of  the  British  sculptors,  who  face  them 

'The  sum  of  X^.ooo  would  secure  this  priceless  work  for  the 
nation. 
'  Rude  was  assisted  in  the  work  by  Christophe. 


The  Franco- British  Exhibition 


in  bashful  poses  suited  for  instant  purchase  by  the 
Chantrey  Bequest. 

Ingres  is  represented  by  a  masterpiece,  this  alone 
is  an  artistic  event ! — Ingres  who  still  remains  unin- 
telligible to  most  Englishmen.  Unlike  David,  who 
really  focused  the  reactionary  temper  of  an  epoch 
in  the  commonplace  terms  of  that  period,  Ingres 
is  no  mere  contemporary  of  Canova  and  Vigee- 
Lebrun.  Like  his  contemporary,  the  Englishman 
Blake,  Ingres  held  tenaciously  to  an  ideal  which 
ignored  the  limitations  of  his  time.  Something  of 
the  pontiff  or  prophet  characterized  both.  Blake 
thundered  to  a  chapel  audience  about  original 
innocence  and  about  the  might  in  the  Holy  Ghost 
of  Michelangelo  ;  there  was  a  chapel  fervour  in 
the  art  of  this  man  who  might  have  been  also  the 
founder  of  a  pre-Mormon  sect.  To  Ingres  be- 
longed the  culture  and  obstinacy  of  a  great  tradition : 
he  thundered  also  to  his  disciples  and  enemies, 
doubtless  explaining  to  Madame  Ingres  that  he, 
she  and  art  lived  in  an  '  ^poque  apostat '  !  But 
he  loved  art  only,  and  with  his  pencil  and  brush 
he  tracked  down  that  which  he  wished  to  see 
with  something  of  that  instinctive  grip  upon 
delicate  form  which  characterizes  Holbein  and 
Raphael.  If  Blake  despised  the  beauties  of  the 
noblest  painting  to  evolve  at  times  a  curious  and 
not  unlovely  workmanship  of  his  own,  leaving 
form,  which  he  worshipped,  to  the  chances  of  a 
'provincial'  practice,  Ingres  knew  his  qualities 
and  persisted  in  them  till  drawing  acquired  with 
him  a  new  quality  of  its  own,  unlike  the  balanced 
design  of  Raphael,  unlike  the  delicate  precision  of 
Holbein,  yet  allied  to  each — at  times  more  realistic, 
at  times  more  abstract,  but  rarely  failing  in  some 
strange  quality  of  emphasis  which  constitutes  the 
essence  of  art.  Baudelaire,  in  one  of  the  most 
searching  pieces  of  criticism  ever  penned,  analyzes 
the  extraordinary  quality  of  exaggeration  in 
Ingres's  drawing,  the  profound  sensuousness  which 
underlies  it,  and  its  freedom  from  academic 
vacancy.  Was  this  draughtsman's  quality  always 
present  in  his  subject  pieces  as  it  is  in  his  direct 
transcripts  from  nature  ?  It  is  often  there,  but  not 
always  ;  it  is  present  in  the  Sfratuiiice  at  Chantilly 
and  in  the  ]lrgi!  at  Brussels.  In  the  work  of  this 
arch-priest  of  perfection  we  shall  find  anticipations 
of  the  voluptuous  and  melancholy  figures  of  his 
pupil  Chasserieau,  represented  in  the  exhibition  by 
a  small  pensive  I'eiiits  rising  from  a  silent  sea 
under  the  grey  of  the  dawn. 

The  colour  and  pigment  of  Ingres's  portrait  of 
Bartolini  are  sober  and  fine  ;  the  painting  of  the 
left  hand  has  the  quality  of  some  masterpiece  of 
the  Renaissance.  The  drawing  of  the  coat  is 
worthy  of  Holbein,  the  painting  being  on  a  par 
with  that  of  Velazquez  when  a  young  man  or 
Courbet  at  his  best. 

Delacroix  fares  less  well  ;  he  is  represented  by  a 
superb  sketch  for  the  Louvre  ceiling,  but  the  ugly 


little  picture  of  Mivabcaii,  if  intelligent  in  concep- 
tion, lacks  the  pictorial  substance  or  the  emotional 
range  that  would  allow  full  scope  to  the  master's 
hand,  which  became  chilled,  outside  tasks 
not  calling  for  the  utmost  effort  and  emotion. 
To  Delacroix  belonged  an  astonishing  gift  of 
expressive  draughtsmanship  ;  to  a  great  plastic 
sense  he  has  added  a  sense  of  emotional  move- 
ment which  is  unparalleled  in  art  and  different 
in  kind  from  that  of  any  other  master.  His 
strange  and  emotional  sense  of  colour  was  often 
marred  by  the  uncertainties  of  his  practice  as  a 
painter.  If  the  very  size  of  his  designs  excludes 
the  beauties  of  iine  pigment,  in  his  sketches  we 
recognize  the  born  painter.  In  his  large  and 
noblest  work  Delacroix  is  one  of  the  great 
draughtsmen  of  the  century  ;  in  some  small  pic- 
tures, like  the  Mirabcau,  for  instance,  his  drawing 
becomes  cramped  and  the  colour  uncertain — even 
his  powers  as  a  designer  have  forsaken  him  here, 
and  we  long  in  its  place  for  some  masterpiece  like 
the  Combat  de  Chevaiix  dans  tine  Eciirie  or  the 
Hamlet.  Fortunately,  he  is  present  in  the  Wallace 
Collection  by  a  masterpiece,  the  Marino  Faliero, 
with  its  marvellously  painted  banners  and  columns, 
and  its  nobly  designed  Doge  in  white  on  the 
black  velvet  carpet.  I  would  hasten  past  Courbet's 
superb  La  Sieste,  the  adequate  but  not  supremely 
representative  pictures  by  Corot,  since  these 
painters  are  well  known  in  England.  The  small, 
sombre  and  laboured  little  Millet  is  a  masterpiece  ; 
it  is  dull  and  dingy  only  at  first  sight,  in  conception 
and  design  it  is  worthy  of  the  Louvre. ' 

I  have  hastened  past  Courbet,  yet  the  most 
fertile  and  sequent  efforts  in  French  painting  since 
i860  owe  their  impulse  to  him.  Manet,  Whistler, 
each  and  all  the  Impressionists,  have  at  some  time 
painted  in  his  dark  massive  manner,  whilst  the 
early  work  of  Legros  and  Carolus  Duran  reflects 
his  influence,  three  notable  pictures  by  the  latter 
being  one  of  the  pleasant  surprises  of  the  exhibi- 
tion. To  Courbet's  example,  modified  by  Impres- 
sionism and  the  influence  of  the  Ecole  des  Beaux- 
Arts,  we  may  ascribe  the  now  underrated  painting 
of  Bastien  Lepage,  represented  by  his  best  work, 
Les  Fains,  and  a  small  portrait  of  his  brother. 
Many  painters  of  uncertain  artistic  achievement, 
such  as  Butin,  Roll  and  Duez,  owe  the  salt  in  their 
better  work  to  the  example  of  Courbet,  modified 
by  the  developments  of  Impressionism.  To 
Courbet  belongs  the  largest  share  in  influencing 
French  painting  in  the  channel  of  direct  painting 
from  nature.  I  am  aware  of  a  side  influence 
from  Corot,  and  even  Millet,  but  this  has  been 
less  certain  and  less  constant,  and  has  to  be 
sought  for  more  in  Holland.  Another  cur- 
rent in  French  painting  may  be  said  to  start  with 
Chasserieau,  and  to  have  been  modified   by  the 

3  When  this  article  was  written  the  famous  drawings  by 
Ingres  and  Millet  were  not  on  view. 


The  Franco-British   Exhibition 

example  of  Ricard.  Each  artist  influenced  by  it 
developed  in  isolation,  and  none  have  achieved  as 
yet  their  full  meed  of  praise.  If  we  might  de- 
scribe Courbet's  naturalistic  movement  as  a  sort  of 
assertion  of  middle-class  feeling  for  substance  and 
fact,  the  stylists  about  whom  I  am  about  lo  write 
tended  towards  a  decorative  or  a  more  expressive 
or  intimate  type  of  art. 

In  a  former  number  of  this  magazine*  I  have 
warned  the  reader  not  to  overestimate  the  influ- 
ence of  Chass^rieau  upon  Puvis  de  Chavannes, 
represented  here  by  one  of  his  earliest  and  noblest 
works,  the  Decapitation  of  St.  John.  In  this 
synthetic  design,  in  the  rendering  of  the  draperies, 
rudimentary  tree  and  the  formal  rendering  of 
accessories,  we  recognize  the  unique  aspect  and 
temper  common  to  the  work  of  this  great  master  ; 
the  charming  and  singular  colour  unusual  in 
Puvis  can  be  ascribed  to  no  known  influence  ;  in 
the  exotic  perfume  which  envelops  the  Salome, 
however,  there  remains  an  indefinable  trace  of 
Chasserieau.^ 

Not  far  from  this  noble  picture  hangs  an  admir- 
able work,  The  Plague  in  Rome,  by  Delaunay, 
an  unequal  artist,  admirable  in  this  one  work, 
which  shows  the  influence  of  Chass^rieau,  whilst 
his  conscientious  portraits  reflect  a  remote  in- 
fluence of  Ricard.  Ricard,  the  magician,  the 
supreme  painter  of  women  in  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury, whom  I  should  have  mentioned  earlier  in 
this  article,  is  represented  in  the  next  room  by  a 
thoughtful  portrait  of  a  man,  skied  to  make  room 
for  some  nondescript  modern  work,  and  by  a 
study  of  a  woman  who  waits  and  watches  in  the 
golden  twilight  of  the  picture  with  haunting  eyes 
and  lips  like  some  pensive  flower. 

Perhaps  another  generation  may  recognize  quite 
readily  that  in  expression,  variety  and  delicacy 
Turner,  Ricard  and  Watts  are  the  original  and 
subtle  technicians  of  the  century,  and  not  Courbet 
or  Corot  and  Manet.  Perhaps  it  is  unwise  to 
prophesy,  since  all  great  emotional  or  thoughtful 
work  requires  emotion  and  thought  in  the  spec- 
tator. Our  civilization  has  witnessed  the  indiffer- 
ence of  three  centuries  to  the  noble  primitives  ; 
Tiepolo,  Watteau  and  Houdon  have  each  at  one 
time  been  forgotten  ;  Alfred  Stevens  is  still  unfa- 
miliar to  English  sculptors  ;  while  France  has  for- 
gotten the  marvellous  art  of  Paul  Baudry,  who 
died  little  more  than  twenty  years  ago. 

A  profound  study  of  the  great  Italians  resulted 
in  one  of  the  most  astonishing  and  daring  creations 
in  the  history  of  painting— namely,  Baudry's  cycle 
of  decorations  in  the  foyer  of  the  Paris  Opera. 
The  sudden  fame  of  these  works  can  be  estimated 

*  See  The  Burlington  Magazine,  vol.xiii,  pp  9,  ff.;  (April, 
1908), 

0  Would  that  this  rare  picture  could  be  secured  for  the  nation 
for  ;£i,ooo  before  it  is  too  late,  for  the  pictures  by  this  master  are 
as  rare  in  number  as  the  now  unobtainable  work  of  some 
Italian  masters  of  the  past. 


in  contemporary  writing  ;  then  followed  a  period 
of  eclipse  as  sudden  and  absolute  as  that  which 
overlook  Tiepolo  a  few  years  after  his  death. 

Baudry's  famous  portrait  of  Madeleine  Brohan 
here  exhibited  counts  among  the  portraits  of  the 
century.  The  painting  of  the  hands  and  mouth 
is  wonderful  ;  nothing  could  surpass  the  luminous 
tones  of  the  flesh  ;  as  yet  time  has  not  made  in- 
teresting to  us  the  ugly  but  beautifully  rendered 
dress  and  Castellani  jewels  or  some  of  the  acces- 
sories. I  had  imagined  that  Baudry's  elegant  and 
'militant'  portraits  might  interest  me  but  little; 
that  the  reverence  and  affection  with  which  I 
viewed  his  decorations  might  fail  me  in  his  rather 
restless  rendering  of  the  women  of  his  time  ;  but 
this  picture  enchants  me,  and  I  am  appalled  to 
think  that  this  great  artist  is  often  dismissed  among 
faded  academicians. 

It  is  well  known   that  Chass^rieau   influenced 
the  strange,  complex  art  of  Gustave  Moreau,  but 
this  can  be  overstated.     This  curious  and  unequal 
artist  is  represented  by  a  St.  George  and  the  Dragon 
which  expresses  only  one   side   of   the   painter's 
bent,  where  he  appears  as  a  sort  of  enameller  or 
weaver  of  strange  patterns  in  paint.     Capable  of 
amazing  intensity  of  expression  in  such  works  as 
the  Hercides  and  the  Hydra  ;  of  a  haunting  and 
musical  vein  of  invention  in  his  David,  exhibited 
many  years  ago  in  London,  or  in  that  early  and 
fascinating  picture  where  a  nymph  passes  holding 
the  head  of  Orpheus,  which  is  one  of  the  gems  of 
the    Luxembourg,    in  the   St.  George  he  aims  at 
the  effect  of  some  fairy  tale  in  a  picture  \vhich  is 
sudden  and  visionary  in  aspect,  but  not  sufficiently 
fused  or  melodious.  Compared  with  great  painting 
and  great   drawing,  Moreau's  work   is   thin  and 
feverish.     Compared  with  what  is  often  accepted  as 
good   painting   and   drawing — in   the    output   of 
Courbet  and  Manet,  for  instance— it  becomes  pro- 
foundly   sensitive    and   expressive.     I    owe   to  a 
malicious  friend  the  statement  that  Moreau's  later 
years  were  embittered    by  some  photographs  he 
saw  of  the  work  of    Burne-Jones,  in  which   he 
probably   divined   a   coherence   and    element   of 
fusion  in  which  his  work  is  lacking  ;  that  he  raged 
against  Whistler  and  the  Impressionists,  feeling  the 
vacancy  of  much  of  their  work  and  the  mental 
vulgarity   and     bigotry   which    characterize     the 
followers  of  their  cult.     Moreau,  Puvis  and  Degas 
once   were   friends ;    with   time   their   friendship 
wore  badly,  and  each  lived  to  deplore  the  blatancy 
of  much  contemporary  painting  without  realizing 
that  art  can  be  good  only  with  a  few  masters,  and 
that  the  average  tendencies  are  valueless  now,  as 
they  have  been  in  the  past. 

The  veteran  academician  Hebert  (a  pupil  of 
Ricard)  exhibits  three  pictures.  These  are  at  once 
interesting  and  unpleasant,  though  more  significant 
than  many  pictures  painted  almost  yesterday  by 
other  members  of  the  old  Salon.     Together  with 


194 


The  Franco-British  Exhibition 


such  veterans  as  J.  P.  Laurens  and  L.  Bonnat  (that 
noble  collector  of  old  and  modern  art)  he  stands 
far  above  the  exhibits  by  the  conservative  section 
of  the  Salon.  E.  Detaille,  with  The  Victims  of  Duty, 
achieves  a  triumph  in  all  that  art  should  not 
be.  In  vulgarity  of  conception,  ugly  colour  and 
paint  and  nerveless  drawing,  this  is  easily  the 
worst  picture  in  the  entire  exhibition.  I  believe 
that  no  royalty  in  Europe  has  missed  visiting 
this  painter's  studio.  One  feels  that  the  German 
Emperor  would  give  back  the  French  pro- 
vinces to  claim  the  art  of  Detaille  for  the 
Fatherland.  Nothing  in  the  English  section  shows 
so  profound  an  indifference  to  all  that  makes  for 
art.  It  is  with  a  sigh  of  relief  that  one  turns  from 
such  a  work  to  the  wall  given  over  to  the  Impres- 
sionists. The  great  quality  of  fresh  instinctive 
painting  in  the  work  of  Manet  was  revealed  to  the 
English  public  some  three  years  ago  at  the  Grafton 
Galleries  ;  two  important  paintings  of  his  (one  of 
them  a  masterpiece)  now  represent  him  at  Dublin. 
In  the  Franco-British  Exhibition  he  is  represented 
by  Le  Liseiir,  an  early  and  somewhat  lifeless  work, 
and  by  a  large  still-life,  La  Brioche,  which  is  inky 
in  tone — better,  but  not  greatly  so,  than  a  good 
Vollon.  The  Jeanne  represents  a  later  phase  of 
his  practice  which  has  influenced  countless  painters 
in  the  Salon.  At  his  best  Manet  has  painted  en- 
chanting pictures  ;  at  his  worst  his  work  merges 
into  the  output  of  a  period  which  he  helped  to 
influence.  Renoir  fares  better  ;  all  his  three  works 
are  typical,  one  of  them.  La  Loge,  counting  among 
his  best  pictures.  If  Renoir  is  the  most  unequal 
painter  of  the  nineteenth  century  he  is  at  his 
best  less  impersonal  in  his  outlook  than  his  fellow 
Impressionists.  If  Manet  saw  actual  local  colour 
in  broad  sudden  patches  with  something  of  the 
transposition  in  their  relation  which  characterizes 
the  vision  of  a  man  of  defective  eyesight,  Renoir 
broods  by  preference  over  bright  summer  colours 
and  sees  them  like  a  tangle  of  coloured  silks.  At 
the  start  his  work  was  influenced  by  Fantin  Latour. 
The  singularly  unequal  quality  of  his  output  may 
be  ascribed  not  merely  to  the  tyranny  of  an 
acquired  formula  which  has  burdened  most  Impres- 
sionists but  to  failing  health,  some  of  his  canvases 
having  been  painted  of  necessity  with  the  left  hand. 
The  absence  of  Degas  (probably  at  his  express 
wish)  renders  the  discussion  of  one  of  the  most 
complex  and  fascinating  personalities  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  beyond  the  scope  of  this  article. 
The  effect  of  the  Impressionistgroup  is  unforeseen  ; 
each  of  them,  Monet  even,  seems  tranquil  in 
aspect  when  compared  with  the  conventional  works 
of  the  old  Salon  hanging  by.  Whatever  may  be 
the  future  estimate  of  the  value  of  this  school,  both 
in  conscious  aim  and  in  result,  their  practice  shows 
always  a  genuine  love  of  their  profession  and  a 
genuine  love  of  nature.  The  space  at  my  disposal 
does   not  allow  me  to  analyze  and  praise  other 


quite  modern  works  by  friends  and  contemporaries. 
I  can  only  express  a  genuine  pleasure  in  seeing 
again  pictures  that  I  liked  in  my  youth,  such  as 
Cazin's  decoration  and  Besnard's  charming  por- 
trait group  of  his  children.  I  am  delighted  to 
praise  the  St.  John  of  Puvis  de  Chavannes  which 
I  admired  in  his  studio,  and  to  be  able  to  state  in 
print  that  it  is  time  to  do  justice  to  Baudry.  I  am 
pained  by  the  practical  absence  in  both  sections 
of  a  picture  by  a  master  and  friend,  A.  Legros. 

Despite  gaps  in  representation,  errors  in  prece- 
dence, and  the  atmosphere  of  jobbery  which  cha- 
racterizes all  universal  exhibitions,  there  remains  a 
fairly  sequent  series  of  representative  works  illus- 
trating the  art  of  France  in  the  nineteenth  century. 
These  are  shown  among  others  that  are  on  the 
mental  level  with  the  switchbacks  and  other 
popular  attractions  of  this  show  at  Shepherd's 
Bush. 

Charles  Ricketts. 

THE  BRITISH    SECTION 

The  British  Art  Committee  of  the  Franco-British 
Exhibition,  which  includes  so  many  presidents  of 
different  societies,  might  well  have  invited  the 
directors  of  our  permanent  galleries  to  their 
august  councils.  Mr.  Claude  Phillips  would 
surely  have  not  been  de  trap,  and  Sir  Charles 
Holroyd  and  Mr.  D.  S.  MacColl  with  their 
wonderful  and  recently  proved  capacity  for  hang- 
ing, apart  from  their  knowledge  and  sympathies 
in  English  art,  might  have  prevented  certain  errors 
of  omission  and  commission.  All  committees, 
especially  in  connexion  with  art,  are  of  course  a 
mistake.  An  ideal  committee  should  consist  of 
two  persons  with  power  to  reduce  their  number  ; 
Caesarism  is  the  only  possible  alternative.  Directors 
should  be  dictators.  The  great  European  collec- 
tions which  we  admire,  whether  in  a  municipal 
building  or  at  an  auction  room,  were  formed 
by  one  man's  taste  or  at  one  man's  discretion. 
Nearer  home,  in  a  city  seldom  held  up  for  a 
model,  the  admirable  tyranny  of  Mr.  Hugh  P. 
Lane  has  brought  together  the  finest  public 
collection  of  modern  pictures  in  existence,  with 
the  possible  exception  of  those  at  Birmingham 
and  Manchester.  But  the  English  rivals  devoted 
years  where  Mr.  Lane  has  given  months  to  his 
objective.  Even  at  Shepherd's  Bush  the  most 
happily  chosen  group  of  modern  pictures  is  to 
be  found,  not  in  the  British  Pavilion  at  all,  but 
in  the  remote  and  otherwise  foolish  Irish  Village. 
It  is  quite  worth  the  extra  sixpence,  however,  to 
see  what  the  persuasive  talent  of  Mr.  Lane  can 
achieve,  and  ethnologically  to  realise  the  un- 
expected Celtic  talent  in  our  midst. 

In  this  more  democratic  country  nothing  can 
be  done  without  a  committee  ;  else  the  public 
might  suspect  unfairness,  prejudice  and  jealousy, 
characteristically      un-English      faults     confined 


The   Franco-British   Exhibition 


entirely  to  other  nations.  The  significant  names  of 
Mr.  Francis  Bate,  of  the  New  English  Art  Club, 
and  Sir  Charles  Lawes-Wittewronge,  Bart.,  seem 
guarantees  that  any  mistakes  are  due  not  to 
insufficient  knowledge  of  contemporary  art,  to 
prejudice,  internal  dissensions,  lack  of  catholicity 
or  taste.  Wisely  perhaps,  it  has  been  assumed 
that  our  French  visitors  will  spend  their  Sundays, 
when  the  Exhibition  is  closed,  at  the  Burlington 
Fine  Arts  Club  (in  order  to  correct  preconceived 
ideas  of  English  pre-Reformation  Art)  or  at  the 
National  and  Tate  Galleries,  which  fill  up  fairly 
enough  the  lacunae  in  a  necessarily  exiguous 
display.  An  invitation  to  tea  with  Mr.  Herbert 
Trench  at  Richmond  is  the  easiest  way  to  become 
acquainted  with  the  art  of  Mr.  Wilson  Steer,  one 
of  our  leading  landscape  painters,  of  whom  the 
French  may  have  heard  more  than  some  of  the 
committee  seem  to  have  done.  Permission  to 
visit  the  wonderful  silk  paintings  of  Mr.  Charles 
Conder  belonging  to  Mr.  Edmund  Davis  will  be  a 
privilege  such  as  the  Exhibition  does  not  afford  : 
for  one  of  the  most  original  and  exquisite  English 
artists  is  unrepresented. 

English  painting  has  always  been  a  Cinderella 
among  the  schools  of  Europe.  Denied  or  neglected 
abroad,  her  treatment  at  home  has  hardly  been 
creditable  to  our  patriotism.  She  has  been  hustled 
by  her  older  and  plainer  sisters.  Religion  and 
Literature,  who  have  pulled  her  ball  dress  to  tatters 
in  trying  to  get  it  on  themselves,  and  have  en- 
larged the  glass  slippers  out  of  all  recognition  in 
order  to  fit  their  splay  extremities.  When  she  is 
allowed  to  be  seen,  she  has  always  been  arrayed  as 
the  handmaid  of  something.  She  has  been  a 
'tweeny'  in  the  House  of  Intellect,  the  victim  of 
kitchen  politics  below  stairs  ;  she  has  suffered 
from  a  want  of  unity  of  purpose  or  singleness  of 
aim  ;  she  has  had  to  please  too  many  masters  as 
well  as  herself — sometimes  the  public,  sometimes 
the  publican,  the  dealer, or  the  nonvcanx  riches.  She 
was  snubbed  by  the  church  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury and  rescued  by  the  moralitarian  in  the  nine- 
teenth ;  and  hers  is  the  head  on  which  all  the  odds 
and  ends  of  the  world  are  flung.  No  wonder  the 
French  critics  find  that  our  art  is  odd  when  it  is 
subjected  to  such  odd  treatment  by  those  at 
home. 

Who  does  not  remember  the  shocking  collection 
of  British  pictures  in  the  Paris  Exhibition  of  1900  ? 
The  impression  left  on  the  French  critics  was  only 
partly  modified  by  the  small  and  rare  collection  of 
deceased  masters  at  the  English  Pavilion  in  the  Rue 
des  Nations.  At  Shepherd's  Bush  we  have  risked 
a  similar  eventuality.  In  the  Old  Masters  section, 
inadequate  only  perhaps  owing  to  space,  there  is 
at  all  events  evidence  of  an  individual  taste  unrav- 
aged  by  the  dissensions  of  a  committee.  Here  are 
great  masterpieces  by  Gainsborough  :  The  Duchess 
of  Cumberland   and    The   Blue   Boy,  typical  with 

196 


others  of  English  painting  at  its  highest.  They 
illustrate  that  Gothic  element  which  Ruskin  subtly 
detected  in  the  most  Romanesque  of  our  portrait 
painters.  Ruskin  insists — and  the  point  is  not 
so  fantastic  as  you  would  suppose — that  Gains- 
borough is  more  interested  in  the  faces  of  his  sitters 
than  in  their  bodies,  in  expression  rather  than  form. 
This  is  true  even  of  modern  artists  furthest  re- 
moved from  any  Gothic  inspiration  ;  note  the 
portrait  of  Lord  Robeiis  by  Charles  Furse,  that  of 
a  beloved  servant  of  his  government  rather  than 
an  ideal  general.  How  true  even  is  it  of  Watts, 
the  torch-bearer  of  tradition,  the  Italian  tradition 
in  English  painting  !  This  was  apparent  at  the 
New  Gallery  recently,  where  his  picture  hung  be- 
side the  Latin  triumphs  of  France.  Here,  he  is  in 
an  entirely  Gothic  environment  and  seems  Latin 
enough  by  comparison.  It  is  easy  to  understand 
why  the  French  admire  Lawrence  so  much  more 
than  we  do  ourselves ;  why  we  underrate,  and  why 
they  possibly  overrate  him.  V'erlaine  once  ob- 
served in  the  course  of  a  lecture  that  we  were  still 
Gothic  in  our  art,  our  literature  and  our  life,  while 
France  had  put  the  Middle  Ages  away  tenderly  in 
a  museum.  Even  S.  Paul's — outwardly  a  Renais- 
sance building,  if  ever  there  was  one — is  con- 
structed on  Gothic  principles,  and  the  pediment  of 
the  facade  is,  I  am  assured,  only  a  gable. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  the  programme  for 
English  painting  promulgated  by  Reynolds  in  his 
'  Discourses  '  was  never  carried  out  seriously  ;  all 
his    recommendations    were   either    ignored    or 
actually  reversed  in  practice  ;  he  hardly  took  the 
trouble  to  carry  all  of  them  out  himself.     He  im- 
plored the  students  to  go  to   Italy  and  copy  Old 
Masters  ;  they  stayed  at   home  and  copied  him  ; 
or  they  took  Gainsborough  as  their  model  and 
studied  their  own  scenery  as  the  Norwich  painters 
did.     The  valuable  Latin  element  in  our  art,  such 
as  it  is,  comes  down,  however,  through  Reynolds ; 
but  it  is  a  Latinism  that  has  suffered  a  considerable 
sea  change.     It  must  be  accepted  that  the  English 
School  has  no  Ingres,  no  Andrea  del  Sarto.    Those 
conscientious  painters  who  tried  to  carry  out  the 
recommendations   of    the   great    President   failed 
dismally:  they  were  splendidly  null  without  being 
icily  regular  ;  of  them  there  are  happily  few  or  no 
examples  at  Shepherd's  Bush,  so  far  as  the  eigh- 
teenth century  is  concerned.     But  if  portraiture  is 
superbly     represented     by     Hogarth,    Reynolds, 
Hoppner  and  Rom'.ey,  and  other  painters,  the  by 
no   means   lesser  glory  of    English   landscape  is 
hardly   allowed   to   shine.      An    entirely   English 
landscape   by   Turner    would    have   been    more 
apposite  than  the  beautiful  Mercury  and  Herse  or 
even  than  the  noble  Quillebceuf.   The  large  picture 
ascribed  to  Cotman,  the  authenticity  of  which  was 
canvassed  when  it  was  shown  at  Burlington  House 
some  years  ago,  is  hung  too  high  for  examination. 
The  Moonlight  Scene  given  to  old  Crome  is  by  his 


The  FrancO'Eritish  Exhibition 


son,  John  Berney  Crome.*  There  is,  however,  a 
fine  Wilson  belonging  to  Mr.  Harhmd  Peck  and  a 
particularly  excellent  Ibbetson,  who,  in  the  absence 
of  striking  rivals,  assumes  greater  importance  than 
we  should  accord  him.  The  Barker  of  Bath  is 
unusually  poor  ;  an  opportunity  has  been  lost  for 
rehabilitating  an  undeservedly  neglected  Old 
Master.  Though  the  large  Dcdiiaiii  ]^a!e  will  have 
a  particular  interest  for  French  artists  (who  owe, 
traditionally,  so  much  to  a  painter  of  whose  tech- 
nique they  must  have  hazy  notions,  if  they  examine 
the  average  Paris  Constalsle),  it  was  a  pity  to  in- 
clude two  smaller  works  one  of  which  is  by  a  well- 
known  imitator,  and  the  other,  apparently,  by  a 
member  of  the  Norwich  School. 

If  the  Canlcibiiiy  Pilgrims,  by  William  Blake, 
was  going  to  be  hung  at  all,  it  should  not  have 
been  skied.  There  are  reasons,  indeed,  for  placing 
it  among  the  Preraphaelites  as  a  kind  of  link  or 
key  to  the  school  which  owed  something  to  the 
artist's  inspiration.  But  it  is,  after  all,  an  eighteenth- 
century  criticism  of  mediaevalism,  though  painted 
in  1 8  ID,  and  Blake  belongs  to  that  century  as  much 
as  the  poet  Gray.  He  was  simply  a  Goth  who 
woke  up  before  the  others  ;  and  his  was  not  a  run- 
away knock  at  Strawberry  Hill  in  the  sense  that 
Ciiatterton's  undoubtedly  was.  The  Pilgtiiiis  should 
have  been  hung  beside  the  Gainsboroughs  and 
Keynoldses  by  way  of  contrast,  in  order  to  empha- 
size the  important  circumstance  that  the  English 
School  is  ahvays  one  of  surprises  concerned  with 
side  issues  ;  anarchic,  individual,  and  attracting 
genius  into  by-paths  without  unity  of  aim. 

The  most  conspicuous  things  in  the  Pre- 
raphaelite  room  are,  symbolically  enough,  an 
emergency  exit  (occupying  the  place  of  honour) 
and  ihe.  Golden  Slain  o{  Burne-Jones,  which  seems 
a  gracious  and  gentle  ladder  by  which  we  can 
descend  into  the  arena  of  contemporary  art.  But 
before  we  clutch  the  bannister  let  us  pay  homage 
to  certain  works — Lc  Chant  d'Ainonr  of  Burne- 
Jones,  the  gorgeous  Autnnin  Leaves  of  Millais, 
the  radiant  YVoik  of  Madox  Brown,  and  (pretend- 
ing not  to  see  The  Blessed  Dainosel)  the  Mariana 
and  Bower  Meadow  of  Rossetti — though  neither  of 
them  can  be  reckoned  among  the  artist's  master- 
pieces.    The  rare  and  delightful  Queen  Gninevere 

•  Mr.  Ross's  conclusion  is  natural  enough,  for  the  open  texture 
of  the  piinting,  as  well  as  the  subject,  may  seem  at  first  sight 
to  be  more  in  (he  manner  of  John  Berney  Crome  than  of  his 
father.  Yet  many  of  those  who  have  followed  the  career  of  the 
father  and  son  with  attention  will  feel  that  the  superb  painting 
of  the  orb  of  the  moon  and  the  mills  in  front  of  il  has  just  that 
quality  which  the  older  man  obtains  in  his  happiest  moments, 
but  of  which  the  son  was  never  able  to  produce  more  than  a 
rough  imitation.  The  loose  handling  of  the  unfinished  trees 
and  foreground  illustrates  Crome's  study  of  Gainsborough, 
whose  influence  is  seen  in  Crome's  sketches  more  frequently 
than  in  his  pictures,  which  were  usually  worked  up  to  the  current 
ideals  of  finish.  It  may  be  permissible,  therefore,  to  see  in  this 
Moonlight  a  noble  unfinished  study  by  John  Crome,  in  spite  of 
its  external  resemblance  to  the  facile  night  pieces  of  his  far  less 
gifted  son. — Ed. 


of  William  Morris  is  shamefully  hung  too  high. 
It  is  one  of  the  few  pictures  Morris  ever  painted, 
and  technically  it  has  a  particular  interest  because 
the  handling  has  not  any  apparent  relation  to 
Rossetti  or  Madox  Brown.  In  its  very  dryness  it 
is  more  mediaeval  than  any  of  their  pictures,  or 
that  of  the  other  Preraphaelites,  save  the  early 
Magi  by  Burne-Jones.  Though  (to  use  a  hateful 
word  pregnant  with  possible  error)  it  is  entirely 
decorative,  it  has  none  of  the  falsehoods  with 
which  decoration,  in  its  proper  sense,  must  alone 
concern  itself.  Still,  it  is  perfectly  pictorial  with 
all  the  wealth  of  accessory  you  find  in  a  picture  by 
Carpaccio  or  some  Fleming. 

The  Greeks  very  nearly  solved  in  marble, 
assisted  with  colour,  the  problem  of  unifying 
truth  and  pattern  which  Morris  has  here 
attempted  in  oil  :  we  are  often  deceived  by 
the  verisimilitude  of  their  bas-relief ;  but  their 
sense  of  style  provoked  the  necessary  and  in- 
valuable lie  of  isocephaly,  by  which  even  the 
youths  and  the  horses  of  the  Parthenon  have  no 
actuality.  Pergamene  realism,  an  unconscious 
longing  for  photography,  brought  antique  art  to 
an  end  long  before  its  destruction  by  Roman 
connoisseurs.  Hence  the  errors  of  Renaissance 
sculptors,  who  were  deceived,  partly  by  the 
antiques  of  a  rather  late  date,  and  partly,  along 
with  the  painters,  by  the  still  dimly  understood 
aesthetics  of  Aristotle.  A  truth  in  decoration 
must  be  a  pictorial  fib ;  or  you  relapse  into 
admiration  of  views  of  towns  on  the  more 
atrocious  Worcester  ware,  Tintern  Abbey  on  the 
coal-scuttle,  and  other  examples  of  'nature  in  art.' 
Morris  came  to  believe  that  all  pictures  as  separate 
entities  were  a  mistake.  In  Queen  GnineTere  he 
seems  to  have  been  trying  to  effect  a  compromise 
by  painting  an  isolated  piece  of  decoration,  which 
in  another  sense  every  picture  becomes,  if  it  be  a 
good  one.  Yet  it  is  a  dangerous  experiment,  and 
its  repetition  became  later  on  a  stumbling  block  to 
the  English  School,  though  few  will  deny  that 
Morris  has  succeeded  delightfully.  So-called 
decorati\e  pictures  painted  without  any  relation 
to  some  definite  place  they  are  destined  to  occupy 
are  usually  dismal  performances,  even  when  tlie 
archaism  and  the  conventionalism  are  not  excuses 
for  incompetence.  Unusually  well  represented  is 
another  freak  of  the  English  School,  Simeon 
Solomon,  whom  Burne-Jones  is  said  to  have 
appraised  as  the  'greatest  artist  of  us  all.'  One  of 
his  best  pictures,  The  Mother  of  Moses  (badly 
hung),  belonging  to  Mr.  W.  G.  Rawlinson,  when 
exhibited  in  the  Academy  called  forth  in  the 
'Cornhiir  the  admiration  of  Thackeray,  a  surpris- 
ing champion.  The  Loi'e  in  U'inler,  though  weakly 
drawn,  is  also  a  beautiful  example.  Too  many 
people  only  know  of  Solomon's  hideous  chalk 
drawings,  which,  executed  when  he  was  simk  in 
the  lowest  depths  of  drink  and  misery,  have  no 

197 


The  Franco-British   Exhibition 

artistic  significance  or  interest.  His  early  pictures 
go  far  to  justify  Burne-]ones's  opinion  of  him. 
Though  conveniently  grouped  with  the  Pre- 
raphaelites  he  is  remote  from  the  principles  as 
practised  by  the  brothers  or  as  laid  down  for  them 
by  Ruskin  ;  nor  did  he  follow  the  advice  of  the 
poet  in  the  'Bab  Ballads'  who  took  'nature  for 
his  only  guide.' 

An  everyday  tragedy  in  England  is  that  other 
people  manage  your  business  better  than  you  can 
yourself.  That  is  why  we  are  a  God-fearing  and 
interfering  nation.  Even  the  Preraphaelite  man- 
ner was  carried  to  greater  perfection  by  those  who 
were  never  members  of  the  brotherhood.  You 
could  not  find  a  better  or  more  typical  portrait  of 
the  school  than  the  Mrs.  Stephen  Lewis  of  Frederick 
Sandys,  an  artist  who  must  be  seen  in  small  quan- 
tities. A  number  of  his  works  recently  brought 
together  showed  that  he  never  fulfilled  his  early 
promise  ;  and  his  recent  work,  like  Solomon's,  was 
detestable  :  he  is  seemingly  ill  at  ease  with  his  pig- 
ment, though  his  pen  drawings  are  unsurpassable. 
That  he  was  a  Norwich  painter  gives  him  an 
historical  importance  of  peculiar  interest. 

The  marvellous  Val  d'Aosta  of  Brett  is  in  some 
ways  the  most  remarkable  picture  in  the  room. 
Hardly  with  exaggeration  it  may  be  called  the 
most  astonishing  landscape  in  the  English  School. 
It  violates  with  breezy  vigour  every  canon  of  land- 
scape, and  was  obviously  painted  on  the  eloquent 
prescription  of  Ruskin.  Everything  is  there : 
nothing  is  suggested,  nothing  but  the  sleeping 
child  in  the  foreground  is  composed.  It 
treats  the  spectacle  of  mountain  and  meadow 
like  a  section  of  the  human  frame  in  a  book 
on  anatomy ;  it  might  be  a  surgeon's  note 
of  his  summer  holiday ;  or  the  frontispiece 
for  a  tract  on  the  prevention  of  cruelty  to 
landscape.  Human  ingenuity  in  paint  could 
hardly  go  any  further  ;  though  art  has  often  done 
so.  At  the  same  time,  if  we  cannot  accept  it  as  a 
model  of  what  landscape  oughtto  be,  let  us  recognize 
its  beauty  and  pay  a  tribute  to  the  painter  for  his 
perfect  success  in  what  he  attempted.  He  has 
tried  what  primitives  tried  charmingly  enough 
in  the  backgrounds  of  their  pictures  —  more 
especially  the  Flemings.  But  Brett's  success 
seems  to  show  the  futility  of  the  emprise  ;  he 
does  not  give  us  the  same  aesthetic  pleasure 
that  we  derive  from  the  stammering  failures  of 
the  Old  Masters  ;  this  is  art  in  \{s  second  childhood. 
Moreover,  Brett,  it  must  be  noted,  never  followed 
up  this  daring  tour  dc  force  ;  or  that  of  the  more 
beautiful  Stotiebreaker,  or  the  only  less  clever  sea- 
scape, Britannia's  Realm,  neither  of  which  are 
shown  here.  He  became  the  commonplace  deli- 
neator of  sham  realistic  sea  views.  Truth,  how- 
ever, he  undoubtedly  achieved,  coming  nearer  to 
that  combination  of  a  truth  in  art  and  a  truth  in 
nature  than  almost  any  other  English  landscape 

198 


painter.  The  great  landscape  painters  willingly  or 
unwillingly  adjust  the  balance,  faking  one  or  the 
other  scale.  Wilson,  Turner,  Cotman  and  Crome 
and  Constable  selected,  suppressed  or  emphasized. 
The  artist's  unalterable  prerogative,  of  which  Brett 
refused  to  avail  himself,  must  not  be  confused 
with  the  doctrine  of  the  Impressionists  :  the  error 
of  their  critics,  who  complain  of  their  lack  of  finish, 
or  the  error  of  their  defenders  who,  maintain  that 
there  is  nothing  more  to  see  or  to  be  recorded. 
When  a  youthful  enthusiast  confessed  to  Ruskin 
that  he  thought  the  Val  d'Aosta  was  better  than 
Titian  he  was  corrected  by  the  sage,  who  replied, 
'  Different  from  Titian.'  We  should  compare  it 
with  such  pictures  as  Crossing  the  Brook,  by  Turner, 
and  others,  where  great  distances  are  superbly 
rendered,  or  with  such  miserable  productions  as 
Over  the  Hills  and  Far  Aicay  (hung  where  Walker's 
Plough  ought  to  have  been).  It  is  undoubtedly  as 
different  from  them  as  from  Titian. 

William  Dyce's  George  Herbert  at  Beinerton  is 
another  interesting  work  by  an  unassociated  Pre- 
raphaelite,  wrought  with  greater  skill  than  the 
originators  sometimes  commanded,  always  except- 
ing Millais,  that  great  amphibian,  who  was  half 
artist,  half  academician  from  his  birth. 

No  example  of  Edward  Calvert — like  his  master 
Blake,  a  side  issue  in  the  English  school — is  to  be 
found  at  Shepherd's  Bush.  One  of  his  largest 
and  most  important  pictures  is  at  the  Luxembourg, 
but  he  is  unknown  at  the  Tate  or  the  National 
Gallery.  French  critics  see  in  him,  with  all  his 
defects  of  draughtsmanship,  an  interesting  mani- 
festation of  English  art  synchronizing  with  their 
own— Fantin  Latour  and  Puvis,  whose  work  he 
could  never  have  seen.  He  is  more  Graeco-Latin 
than  any  Englishman.  Again  you  lament  the 
absence  of  George  Richmond,  the  first  English- 
man who  could  handle  religious  and  historical  sub- 
jects in  oil  (Blake  never  succeeded  in  that  medium) 
without  the  insipidity  characteristic  of  post-Refor- 
mation art.  Alfred  Stevens,  our  great,  perhaps  our 
only  great,  draughtsman,  is  also  unrepresented. 
Since  Whistler  is  included  in  the  Black  and  White 
section  of  an  exhibition  where  Mr.  Pennell  and 
Mr.  Sargent  are  both  exhibitors,  why  are  there 
none  of  his  pictures,  which  liave  so  profoundly 
influenced  the  younger  generation  ?  This  parti- 
cular omission  is  inexcusable. 

In  the  water-colour  rooms,  where  you  would 
have  thought  the  committee  might  have  roused 
itself  to  justify  almost  the  only  artistic  reputa- 
tion we  have  in  France,  the  display  is  quite 
deplorable.  Some  brilliant  Rossettis  (notably 
Ophelia's  Madness  and  the  superb  Paolo  and 
Francesca),  The  Green  Summer  and  Backgammon 
by  Burne-Jones  illuminate  one  wall ;  and  others 
by  J.  F.  Lewis  and  Ruskin  are  all  worth  careful 
study.  But  the  famous  early  English  water-colour 
school  to  which  Britons  are  patriotically  attached 


The  Franco-British  Exhibition 


Cand  generally  spoil  with  gold  mounts)  like  Uncle 
Adam  in  Stevenson's  story  make  'an  awful  poor 
appearance.'  There  is  nothing  absolutely  dazzling 
by  Turner  ;  the  John  Robert  Cozens  is  a  wretched 
specimen  ;  Cotman  is  absent ;  and  there  is  only 
one  Girtin.  We  can  only  goodhumouredly  echo 
the  hearty  laughter  of  the  French  visitors  over 
this  particular  section  on  a  day  when  there  was 
nothing  much  to  laugh  at.  How  much  better  if 
all  the  pictures  had  been  chosen  by  Mr.  Marion 
Spielmann,  whose  taste  is  obvious  in  such  excel- 
lent choice  as  there  is  ;  or  to  any  ONE  member  of 
the  committee,  however  much  you  might  have 
deprecated  his  selection. 

The  charming  Renaissance  of  Venus  by  Mr. 
Walter  Crane  is  a  fair  haven  from  which  to 
embark  on  a  rapid  survey  of  the  modern  section 
of  British  painting.  This  was  first  exhibited  in 
1877  and  became  the  property  of  Watts,  who 
particularly  admired  it.  The  year  was  an  event- 
ful one,  because  it  saw  the  opening  of  the  Gros- 
venor  Gallery,  which  was  destined  to  be  the  focus 
of  much  ridicule,  and  for  many  years  the  home  of 
pictures  condemned  bytheauthoritiesat  Burlington 
House,  although  the  Guelphs  often  hung  side  by 
side  with  Ghibellines,  and  the  wise  and  foolish 
virgins  lit  their  lamps  at  the  same  hospitable  shrine. 
The  Preraphaelites  were  settling  down  to  a  languid 
aestheticism  ;  Rossetti  was  never  an  exhibitor  ;  and 
the  Impressionists  were  making  their  first  public 
manifesto  in  London.  The  more  particularly 
esteemed  pictures  from  these  schools  belong  per- 
haps to  an  earlier  date  ;  but,  apart  from  this,  it  is 
informing  to  glance  at  the  catalogue  and  to  realize 
the  artists  whom  Sir  Coutts  Lindsay  on  his  own 
initiative  was  able  to  muster.  The  gallery  con- 
tained no  less  than  seven  Whistlers  (including  the 
Henry  living),  two  masterpieces  by  Watts  {The 
Hon.  Mrs.  Percy  Wytuihani  and  Love  and  Death), 
three  Albert  Moores,  eight  Burne-Joneses  (includ- 
ing Merlin,  The  Days  of  Creation,  and  I'enus's 
Mirror),  four  Holman  Hunts,  and  other  works  by 
artists  now  seen  in  Shepherd's  Bush.  And  this 
was  no  retrospective  exhibition  ;  Venus,  indeed, 
had  risen  from  the  sea  !  It  will,  of  course,  be 
urged  that  we  cannot  replace  the  immortal  dead. 
But  I  believe  that  it  would  have  been  perfectly 
possible  to  have  filled  the  galleries  at  Shepherd's 
Bush  with  an  exhibition  of  liz'ing  artists  quite  as 
remarkable  as  the  Grosvenor  of  1877. 

With  all  respect  to  a  much-advertised  tea,  I 
refuse  to  believe  that  the  leaves  of  thirty  years  ago 
are  more  delicious  than  those  of  to-day.  Only  the 
selection  must  not  be  made  by  a  committee,  or  art 
politics  will  interfere.  W^hy  has  Mr.  MacColl's 
only  water  colour  been  placed  on  a  level  with  the 
visitor's  boots  ?  Why  is  Professor  Tonks  repre- 
sented by  only  one  small  picture,  which  is  skied  ? 
As  an  official,  quite  apart  from  his  unique  position 
as  an  artist  whose  vigorous  influence  has  produced 


such  noble  results,  he  was  entitled  to  more  honour. 
Where  are  the  Strolling  Players  :ind  Rosamund  and 
the  Purple  Jar?  Where  'is  Mr.  W'ilson  Steer's 
Hydrangeas  and  Nidderdale  ?  and  where,  indeed, 
is  Mr.  Steer's  picture  at  all  ?  In  the  catalogue  it  is 
well  named  That's  for  Thoughts.  The  Doll's  House 
of  Mr.  Rothenstein  has  lost  none  of  its  sombre 
power,  and  is  one  of  the  fine  things  possible  to  see. 
Two  characteristic  and  beautiful  pictures,  the 
Delia  of  Mr.  Charles  Shannon  and  Supper  Time  of 
Mr.  Strang,  are  so  ingeniously  placed  as  to  be 
quite  invisible. 

Even  the  Academicians  are  not  too  well  repre- 
sented, with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Sargent,  Sir 
Laurence  Alma  Tadema,  Mr  Alfred  East  and  Sir 
Edward  Poynter.  From  the  President's  point  of 
view,  which  may  not  be  precisely  that  of  the 
advanced  critic  or  artist,  his  portrait  of  Mrs. 
Murray  Guthrie  is  a  singularly  beautiful  picture, 
to  which  the  model  has  contributed  no  small 
share.  The  accomplishment  of  the  painting 
is,  as  they  say,  a  lesson  for  all  of  us.  And  if 
Atalanta's  Race  be  a  trifle  empty  for  its  length, 
we  may  learn  from  it  why  the  Academy  has 
sometimes  lost  time  by  stopping  to  pick  up  the 
apples  discarded  by  those  who  are  making  for  the 
goal.  From  Sir  William  Richmond  should  have 
been  extracted  the  splendid  Bismarck,  or,  if  that 
was  inappropriate  for  an  exhibition  intended  to 
dazzle  the  French,  his  portrait  of  William  Morris 
and  A  Memory  of  Sparta,  the  most  poetical  of  all 
his  paintings.  Neither  the  Borgia  nor  any  others 
shown  by  Kir.  Orchardson  betray  his  power  for 
conjuring  incident  into  the  dimensions  of  paint ; 
they  would  hardly  explain  to  a  practical  French 
visitor  his  deseived  and  recent  triumphs  in  the 
auction  room.  The  wonderful  precision  of  Sir 
Alma  Tadema  is,  however,  admirably  presented, 
and  Mr.  Alfred  East,  who  never  seems  quite  satisfied 
with  his  academic  flag,  by  a  fascinating  landscape, 
The  Shepherd's  Walk  at  Windernicie.  It  is  pleasant 
to  see  the  Derby  Day  of  Mr.  Frith  in  its  present  sur- 
roundings. This  is  essentially  a  picture  for  a  popu- 
lar exhibition,  a  national  treasure  like  the  Crystal 
Palace  or  Osborne.  Among  artistsa  morbid  reaction 
in  its  favour  has  very  properly  begun.  Though  it  can 
never  occupy  the  same  position  in  the  heads  of  the 
English  critics  that  it  does  in  the  hearts  of  Eng- 
lish landladies,  it  is  impossible  not  to  admire  the 
invention  and  skill  of  a  painting  that  is  most 
certainly  a  document  in  the  social,  if  not  the  artistic 
history  of  England.  The  articulation  of  gesture, 
the  variety  of  attitude  in  the  figures,  the  absence 
of  monotony,  make  it  a  real  triumph,  not  exactly 
of  art  but  of  English  painting.  Intrinsically  how 
far  more  artistic  it  is  than  many  so-called  classic 
and  idealistic  pictures  of  the  nineteenth  century — 
those  of  Lcighton  for  example,  or  rather  not  for 
example  but  for  instance!  Mr.  Frith's  directness 
and  materialism  are  ever  so  much  more  valuable 


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The  Franco-British   Exhibition 

than  the  false  subtleties  of  fancy  painting  such  as 
you  get  in  Pinweil  and  Walker,  with  their  Evan- 
gelical aestheticism  and  wobbly   execution.     No 
wonder  some  of  the  younger  men,  such  as  Mr. 
Orpen  and  Mr.  McEvoy,  seem  to  derive  more  from 
Mr.  Frith  than  from  the  theatrical  properties   of 
the  pseudo-romantics,   the   heavy-weights  in    the 
English  School  of  signed  artist  proofs.  Mr. Orpen  is 
seen  to  advantage  in  The  Valuers  ;  though  his  work 
in  Mr.  Lane's  Irish  Gallery  ought  not  to  be  missed, 
where  may  also  be  seen  Mr.  Gerald  Kelly's  strik- 
ing portrait  of  the  dramatic  sensation,  Mr.  Somerset 
Maugham,  and  the  lovely  pictures  of  Mr.  Charles 
Shannon  (Mrs.  Patrick  Campbell  and  the  Hcnncs). 
Of  those  who  in  spite  of   all  temptations  remain 
English,  Mr.  Augustus  John  may  be  congratulated 
on   the  finest  portrait.  Professor  Mackay,  in    the 
whole  of  the  modern  section.     It  is  more  likely 
to  convert  waverers  to  a  belief  in  the  artist's  genius 
than  the  wilful  and  wayward  Seraphita,  who,  how- 
ever, should  have  been  here  because  of  the  interest 
she  would  have  had  for  our  French  critics  with 
their  stagey  ideas  of  the  English  'Miss'  and  the 
ordinary  Alpine  climber  en  route  for  Switzerland. 
Here   at    all    events   is    an   artist    to   whom   we 
may    point    when     foreigners     remind    us    that 
Mr.  Sargent  is  an  American  trained  in  Paris  and 
that   English  painters   cannot    draw.      However 
glad  we  may  be  to  see  Isabella  and  the  Pot  of  Basil 
by  Mr.  Holman  Hunt,Tlte  Strayed  Sheep  or  The  Hire- 
ling SJiepherd  should  have  been  secured  because  of 
their  importance  in  modern  English  landscape,  of 
which   they   were,  in    one   sense,  pioneers.     The 
treatment  of  shadow  in  The  Hireling  Shepherd  was 
without  precedent  in  English  painting.  Though  the 
Scotch  do  themselves  fairly  well,  Mr.  Hornel  has 
been  much  too  modest ;  it  would  have  been  agree- 
able to  see  again  Tlie  Druids  and  Among  the  Wild 
Hyacinths  shown  in  that  last  sensational  death-bed 
confession  of  the  Grosvenor  Gallery.     The  cor- 
poration  of     Liverpool    contributes   the   famous 
Idyll  of  Mr.  Greifenhagen  ;    and  another  picture 
which  ought   never   to   have   been  hung   in    the 
limited  space  at  the  disposal  of  the  committee ; 
it  is  a  monstrous  work  in  both  senses  of  the  word. 
The   section   devoted   to   modern    w-atercolour 
can  only   be   described   as   unrepresentative,  and 
that  to  black-and-white  as  ingeniously  misrepre- 
sentative.      There  are,  however,  good  things  by 
Mr.  Pennell,  Mr.  Muirhead   Bone,  Miss  Airy  and 
two  atrociously  framed  Aubrey  Beardsleys. 

If  English  artists  are  neglected  on  the  continent 
or  at  home,  they  always  take  it  out  of  sculpture,  on 
the  principle  of  the  child  who,  itself  in  disgrace, 
punishes  its  doll.  The  images  at  Shepherd's  Bush 
are  all  arran'ged  on  the  lines  of  Madame  Tussaud. 
French  and  American  visitors  will,  of  course, 
admire  Mr.  Harvard  Thomas's  Tencrnm  Lycidan 
quo  calet  juvcntus  nunc  omnis,  and  about  whom 
the  Academy  was  tepid.     The  strange,  archaistic 


beauty  of  this  work  cannot  be  seen  to  advantage 
in  its  present  position,  but  its  stylistic  qualities 
irresistibly  recall  the  great  pre-Pheidian  masters— 
the  body  and  shoulders  the  primitive  '  Strangford' 
or  '  Omphalos  '  Apollos.  There  are  several  delight- 
ful statues  by  Mr.  Gotto,  whose  Sliuger,  however, 
seems  to  have  borrowed  the  feet  of  a  Rodin  ; 
Tigers,  by  Mr.  Swan  ;  and  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Fagan 
there  is  a  pretty  little  head  (No.  1,274),  easy  to  find 
because  it  is  near  a  door.  With  few  exceptions, 
'degli  altri  fia  laudabile  il  tacerci '  in  the  words  of 
the  most  sculpturesque  of  poets. 

Robert  Ross. 

NOTES  ON   THE   APPLIED   ARTS 

Among  the  significant  events  which  remain  in  the 
popular  mind  as  landmarks,  the  Great  Exhibition  of 
1 85 1  has  secured  a  fame  comparable  to  that  of  the 
Battle  of  Waterloo  ;  nor  is  that  fame  undeserved. 
The  exhibition  was  a  real  landmark,  and  that  in 
more  worlds  than  one.  In  the  world  of  politics 
it  was  the  culminating  point  of  the  era  of  opti- 
mism which  grew  up  with  the  peace  of  Europe  after 
the  fall  of  the  first  Napoleon,  which  was  shaken  by 
three  great  Continental  wars,  and  which  only  the 
gloomy  close  of  the  nineteenth  century  could 
effectually  dissipate.  In  the  world  of  art  the 
exhibition  was  no  less  memorable.  It  marked 
the  climax  of  a  particular  phase  of  ostentatious 
vulgarity,  of  a  pride  in  mere  elaborate  mechan- 
isrn  that  brought  about  the  great  reaction  which 
in  painting  we  associate  with  the  Preraphaelites,  in 
criticism  with  Ruskin,  and  in  the  field  of  the 
applied  arts  with  William  Morris. 

The  development  of  the  applied  arts  in  France 
and  England  has,  however,  been  conducted  on 
separate  and  divergent  lines,  as  an  inspection  of 
the  '  Palaces  '  of  English  and  French  Applied  and 
Decorative  Arts  at  the  Franco-British  Exhibition 
will  prove.  It  may  be  said  at  once  that  the  display 
is  neither  as  fine  nor  as  striking  as  might  have 
been  expected,  and  that  it  is  almost  wholly 
commercial  in  character,  while  the  lateness  of  the 
date  at  which  the  French  sections  were  ready  for 
examination  put  a  serious  difficulty  in  the  way  of 
comparison.  Several  of  the  exhibitors,  especially 
among  the  goldsmiths  and  silversmiths,  have  made 
the  mistake  of  trying  to  show  too  much,  and 
loading  their  stalls  and  windows  with  a  mass  of 
unremarkable  objects,  where  one  or  two  interesting 
pieces  would  both  have  attracted  more  attention 
and  testified  more  eloquently  to  the  quality  of  the 
work  done  by  the  firms  in  question.  Amid  much 
that  is  uninteresting  and  some  things  that  are 
unworthy  of  a  place  in  anything  but  an  ordinary 
shop  window,  it  is  possible,  however,  to  form 
some  idea  of  the  condition  of  the  applied  arts  in 
the  two  countries,  and  to  trace  the  different 
influences  which  account  for  the  divergence. 
International  exhibitions  of   any  kind  do  not, 


200 


<;^« 


The  Franco-British  Exhibition 


perhaps,  offer  a  perfectly  fair  ground  of  com- 
parison between  nation  and  nation.  They  have 
always  to  be  organized  on  a  more  or  less  commercial 
basis,  and  it  is  inevitable,  therefore,  that  even  in 
exhibits  of  the  decorative  arts  the  influence  of  the 
man  of  business  should  often — perhaps  in  the 
majority  of  cases — somewhat  overshadow  the 
results  produced  by  the  artist  and  the  craftsman. 
In  this  respect  neither  the  French  nor  the  British 
section  can  claim  a  decisive  superiority.  The 
older  English  firms,  it  is  true,  make  no  very 
reprehensible  concessions  to  the  tourist  public,  and 
the  exhibits  of  Messrs.  Elkington,  Messrs.  Garrard, 
Messrs.  Mappin  and  Webb,  and  the  Goldsmiths 
and  Silversmiths  Company  are  as  free  from  the 
appearance  of  mere  window  display  as  are  the 
exliibits  of  two  or  three  of  their  important  French 
competitors  such  as  MM.  Christofle  or  Susse. 

A  comparison  of  the  two  sections  reveals  one 
radical  difference  between  the  products  of  the 
two  countries.  The  best  English  work  is  based 
entirely  upon  English  designs  of  the  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  centuries,  and  in  some  instances 
this  reliance  upon  past  designs  goes  so  far  that 
fine  pieces  of  old  plate  are  exhibited  side  by  side 
with  good  modern  facsimiles.  Where  our  plate 
is  not  based  upon  these  old  models  (as  in  the  case 
of  certain  exhibits  of  sporting  trophies  and  the 
like)  it  follows  the  base  examples  of  the  Victorian 
epoch,  and,  though  frequently  elaborate  in 
execution,  it  is  at  once  put  out  of  court  by  its 
meretricious  pomposity.  A  large  proportion  of  the 
pieces,  however,  are  reproductions  of  older  models, 
and,  since  most  of  those  models  were  in  one  way 
or  another  excellent  of  their  kind,  the  general 
effect  is  good,  even  if  it  be  somewhat  lacking  in 
originality.  It  was  perhaps  somewhat  unfortunate 
for  England  that  two  or  three  of  the  independent 
craftsmen,  whose  work  we  have  from  time  to  time 
admired  at  the  New  Gallery  and  elsewhere,  could 
not  have  been  given  a  prominent  place.  Such 
work  as  that  of  Mr.  Cooper,  for  example,  would 
have  strengthened  the  English  section  considerably, 
even  if  it  had  made  its  appearance  under  the  wing  of 
one  of  the  great  manufacturing  firms,  who  naturally 
command  the  most  prominent  positions. 

We  miss,  in  fact,  that  element  of  independent 
craftsmanship  which  the  Arts  and  Crafts  Society 
introduced  and  has  so  creditably  maintained,  and 
are  driven  to  recognize  that  a  large  majority  of 
our  designers  are  still  anonymous  workers  in  the 
employ  of  great  commercial  houses.  It  is  thus  as 
commercial  workers  that  they  have  to  be  noticed 
in  any  description  of  the  show  at  Shepherd's  Bush. 
Yet  if  their  woik  were  no  more  th.ui  mechanical 
manufacture  it  would  not  deserve  mention,  and  the 
mere  fact  that  it  is  mentioned,  even  under  a  trade 
description,  should  be  taken  to  imply  that  in  such 
cases  the  tradesman  has  not  quite  overwhelmed 
the  artist. 


When  we  turn  to  the  French  section  we  find  a 
somewhat  different  state  of  affairs.  Here  two 
tendencies  seem  to  be  at  work.  First  we  have  to 
face  an  old,  and  possibly  moribund,  ideal  of  minute, 
skilful  finish  applied  to  objects  of  no  artistic 
importance  (such  as  handles  for  ladies'  parasols 
and  small  trinkets),  yet  applied  to  them  with  a 
certain  conscientious  perfection  that  is  not  without 
merit  of  a  kind.  In  the  combination  of  pretty 
enamels  with  highly  wrought  goldsmiths'  work 
the  French  craftsnieii  show" undeniable  capacity. 
The  designs  may  not  be  of  a  very  high  order,  and 
the  work  may  be  no  more  than  rather  expensive 
shopwork,  but  still,  in  its  way,  it  has  a  daintiness 
and  appropriateness  to  feminine  uses  that  ought 
not  to  be  underestimated.  It  is  distinctly  ingenious 
and  pretty,  and  from  the  aesthetic  point  of  view  is 
perhaps  no  less  meritorious  than  that  rigid  absten- 
tion from  the  ornate  which,  combined  with  perfect 
workmanship,  is  its  Bond  Street  equivalent. 

This,  however,  appears  to  be  a  moribund  craft,  if 
we  may  judge  from  its  present  representation. 
The  more  elaborate  French  exhibits,  almost  without 
exception,  display  a  very  different  tendency.  '  L'art 
nouveau '  is  a  phrase  vulgarized  by  advertisement, 
discussion  and  abuse.  It  was  wholly  English  in 
its  origin.  William  Morris  was  its  grandfather,  the 
Arts  and  Crafts  Society  its  parent,  'The  Studio'  its 
foster-mother.  In  Great  Britain  its  influence  was 
on  the  whole  healthy  and  stimulating,  but  when  it 
once  started  its  career  on  the  continent  that  career 
speedily  became  one  of  riot.  Where  it  came  upon 
new  civilizations  the  results,  as  might  be  expected, 
were  disastrous,  and,  like  Frankenstein's  monster, 
it  now  threatens  to  overwhelm  central  Europe 
with  its  monstrous  progeny. 

In  France,  however,  it  met  with  a  stable  civiliza- 
tion and  an  organized  system  of  taste  just  on  the 
point  of  revoltmg  from  the  crude  display  of  the 
Third  Empire  inlfavour  of  the  barocco  elegance  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  That  reaction  was  so 
strong  that  the  Arts  and  Crafts  movement  could 
not  overwhelm  it.  It  was  driven  to  make  terms  of 
peace,  and  the  French  section  of  the  Exhibition 
is  everywhere  influenced  by  the  resulting  com- 
promise. The  sweeping  curves  that  in  Eastern 
Europe  either  run  wild  riot  or  are  contrasted  with 
solid  masses  of  Egyptian  severity,  in  France  take 
on  something  of  the  character  of  an  eighteenth- 
century  festoon,  and  burst  everywhere  into  artificial 
blossom.  The  result  is  ornate  and  sometimes 
extravagant ;  it  is  rarely  or  never  wholly  satisfying. 
The  easy  sweep  of  the  curvature,  the  skilful  work- 
manship  of  the  elaborate  leafage,  the  carefully 
'  matted  '  surfaces  have  a  mechanical  effect.  i"'-'y 
would  make  admirable  decoration  for  the  dinner 
table  of  an  expensive  hotel,  but  in  a  private  house 
they  would  be  tiresome. 

If  we  compare  them  with  fine  examples  of  b  rencU 
eighteenth-century  work  wc  shall  see  m  a  moment 

203 


The   Franco-British   Exhibition 


where  the  weakness  lies.  That  admirable  school 
of  craftsmanship  was  permeated  from  first  to  last 
by  a  very  real  feeling  for  design  and  proportion.  A 
mount  by  Caflieri,  for  example,  is  not  a  mere 
exuberant  flourish,  but  a  deliberate  construction 
carefully  calculated  to  serve  the  particular  end  in 
view.  In  the  modern  work  we  no  longer  see  the 
same  careful  foresight  to  preserve  a  just  relation 
between  plain  and  decorated  surfaces,  between 
large  curves  and  small,  between  the  rigid  lines 
which  make  for  architectural  stability  and  the 
flowing  lines  which  give  energy  and  life.  Every- 
thing has  been  sacrificed  either  to  exuberant  ease 
or  to  an  insensitive  simplicity  that  results  both 
in  stiffness  and  emptiness. 

Perhaps  the  most  instructive  of  all  the  exhibits 
in  this  section  is  that  contributed  liy  the  Adminis- 
tration des  Monnaieset  Medailles.  In  numismatics 
the  French,  for  a  century  or  more,  have  been 
immeasurably  our  superiors.  As  a  race  they  have 
a  certain  natural  aptitude  for  sculpture  which  we 
do  not  possess.  In  France  an  Alfred  Stevens 
would  be  no  solitary  phenomenon,  but  would 
appear  only  as  the  natural  culmination  of  a  wide- 
spread national  talent.  The  early  French  medals 
are  of  surpassing  interest,  whether  our  inclination 
lead  us  to  linger  over  the  terrible  indictment  of 
Charles  X,  over  Mary  Queen  of  Scots  as  wife  of 
the  Dauphin,  over  Louis  XIV  aping  Alexander  the 
Great,  or  over  the  wise  Colbert.  Later,  after  a 
period  of  florid  decadence,  excellent  work  is  done 
under  the  influence  of  classical  models,  and 
Euainetos  is  seen  to  be  the  true  originator  of  one 
of  the  most  successful  of  modern  coin  designs,  as 
well  as  of  what  is  perhaps  the  most  perfect 
Hellenic  example. 

Once  more,  however,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
decorative  metal  work,  '  L'art  nouveau '  steps  in  to 
modify  and  improve  with  the  most  deplorable 
results.  The  old  sense  of  refined  proportion  at 
once  vanishes  under  the  impulse  of  the  new 
movement,  and  in  no  art  is  refined  proportion  so 
vital  and  essential  as  in  that  of  the  numismatist. 
The  circular  medallic  form  is  discarded  for 
honorary  purposes  in  favour  of  a  rectangular 
plaque,  on  which  the  design  loses  all  the  signifi- 
cance it  might  have  secured  by  subtle  spacing, 
while  to  make  matters  worse  the  actual  surface  of 
the  metal,  to  which  the  medallist  looks  for  his 
most  delicate  gradations,  his  rarest  hints  and 
suggestions  of  modelling  or  character,  is  obscured 
by  a  uniform  artificial  dulling  or  roughening,  which 
makes  the  noblest  material  look  like  cheap  alloy 
or  coarse  electrotype.  The  art  that  could  with- 
stand such  ubiquitous  assaults  would  indeed  be  a 
great  art ;  and  nothing  proves  the  essential  vitality 
of  French  sculpture  more  conclusively  than  the 
fact  that  a  certain  remnant  of  grace  and  style 
survives  even  in  these  degraded  plaquettes.  Nor 
is  it  for  us  to  throw  stones.     Our  own  numismatic 

204 


art  hab  sunk  into  such  a  slough  of  hopeless  official 
and  commercial  conventionality  that  even  these 
misguided  French  examples  seem  by  comparison 
to  have  both  style  and  spirit. 

Had  the  sections  devoted  to  furniture  and  the 
allied  industries  in  France  been  in  a  more  forward 
state  of  preparation,  it  would  have  been  easier  to 
form  a  fair  estimate  of  their  importance.  When 
these  notes  were  made  it  was  difficult  to  see  any 
marked  indication  of  originality,  either  in  design 
or  manufacture,  the  principal  firms  being  appar- 
ently content  with  tolerably  skilful  reproductions 
of  eighteenth-century  patterns.  Nor  among  the 
minor  English  exhibits  was  there  much  that 
seemed  to  call  for  special  notice,  while  the  large 
English  manufacturers  of  furniture  do  not  seem 
to  have  patronized  the  Palaces  of  the  Applied  Arts. 

The  principal  interest  of  the  English  furniture 
section  was  thus  concentrated  upon  the  objects 
shown  by  the  chief  dealers  in  antique  furniture, 
and  upon  the  work  of  a  few  firms  of  decorators. 
The  foremost  place  was  undoubtedly  taken  by  a 
series  of  three  rooms,  representing  the  styles  of 
William  and  Mary,  of  George  I  and  George  III. 
These  rooms  were  the  joint  product  of  three 
firms,  Messrs.  Cardinal  and  Harford  supplying  the 
carpets,  and  Messrs.  Mallett  the  furniture,  while 
the  decoration  in  each  case  was  carried  out  by 
Messrs.  White  Allom.  All  did  their  work  well, 
but  a  word  of  special  praise  is  due  to  the  excellent 
taste  which  governed  the  decorative  schemes. 
The  peculiar  serenity  of  the  old  panelling  was 
most  happily  caught,  its  restful  quality  being 
made  doubly  pleasant  from  the  contrast  it 
provided  to  the  more  florid  style  of  eighteenth- 
century  France.  The  carpet  in  the  Chippendale 
room  was  also  attractive. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  gallery  Messrs. 
Hampton  showed  a  panelled  room  copied  to  scale 
from  one  at  Hatfield.  It  did  not,  however, 
show  quite  to  the  same  advantage  as  the  rooms 
previously  mentioned  ;  possibly  because  a  setting 
of  solid  oak  is  really  best  suited  to  the  country, 
to  rooms  often  flooded  with  sunlight,  and  to  an 
outlook  upon  green  lawns  and  bright  gardens,  or, 
in  the  evening,  to  the  cheerful  glow  of  a  log  fire 
upon  an  open  hearth.  In  the  glare  and  bustle  of 
an  exhibition  its  homeliness  is  out  of  place.  If 
the  panels  are  on  a  modest  scale  they  tend  to  look 
forlorn,  if  on  a  large  scale  they  may  seem  heavy 
and  pompous.  The  loan  collection  of  furniture 
arranged  close  by  contains  some  notable  pieces, 
among  them  one  of  the  sumptuous  chairs  from 
Knole,  and  an  exceedingly  curious  example  of 
Chippendale's  carving  in  the  Chinese  manner  ; 
but  its  usefulness  and  interest  would  be  greatly 
increased  if  the  specimens  had  been  properly 
described  and  catalogued.' 

^Tlie  so-called  Official  Guide  sold  in  the  exhibition  is  even 
more  comically  inadequate  in  its  treatment  of  the  sections  o£ 


The  Franco-British  Exhibition 


The  centre  of  the  gallery,  like  the  sides,  is  largely 
occupied  with  loans  ;  the  collection  of  Old  English 
glass  and  Worcester  china  being  specially  good, 
and  contrasting  strongly  with  the  modern  products 
of  the  same  kind  shown  elsewhere.  A  curious  set 
of  parcel  gilt  plates,  engraved  after  Aldegrever's 
prints  representing  The  Labours  of  Hercules,  also 
deserves  notice.  The  most  prominent  object  in 
this  section,  however,  was  the  large  satinwood 
cabinet  made  for  Charles  IV  of  Spain,  lent  by 
Mr.  R.  W.  Partridge.  Designed  by  Sir  William 
Chambers,  painted  by  Hamilton,  and  made  in 
1793  by  Seddon,  Sons,  and  Shackleton,  it  represents 
an  effort,  unusual  if  not  unique,  in  English  work, 
though  comparatively  common  among  the  French 
i'heiiistes,  to  raise  the  art  of  furniture-making  into 
the  regions  of  architecture.  Had  it  been  their 
national  intention  to  rival  the  French  cabinet- 
makers in  their  own  field,  the  English  could  have 
chosen  no  greater  designer  than  Sir  William 
Chambers,  and  something  of  the  massive  grandeur 
of  the  fafade  of  Somerset  House  is  evident  in  his 
design.  William  Hamilton,  too,  was  admirably 
fitted  to  second  Chambers,  and  his  panels  of  the 
Four  Seasons,  of  Fire  and  Water,  of  Night  and 
Morning,  of  Juno  and  of  Ceres,  are  as  fortunate 
specimens  of  decorative  work  as  eighteenth- 
century  England  could  show.  Like  some  of  its 
French  rivals,  the  piece  combines  the  functions 
of  a  bureau,  a  jewel-case  and  a  dressing-table. 
The  workmanship  without  and  within  is  of  extra- 
ordinary nicety  and  elaboration.  So  elaborate 
indeed  is  the  cabinet  that  it  is  only  on  detailed 
examination  that  its  merits  can  be  properly  judged, 
and  at  Shepherd's  Bush  it  suffers  for  want  of  an 
appropriate  background.  A  French  piece  of  the 
same  importance  would  suffer  less,  for  experience 
had  taught  the  French  designers  the  advantage  of 
making  cabinets  compact  like  a  decorated  chest. 
Chambers,  making  a  single  excursion  into  an 
unaccustomed  field,  relied  upon  his  architectural 
experience  and,  giving  free  play  to  his  fancy, 
designed  not  so  much  a  piece  of  furniture  for  a 
mansion  or  a  palace  as  a  wonderful  building  of 
carved  and  painted  wood,  unrelated  to  any  scheme 
of  interior  decoration. 

As  we  have  seen,  the  decorative  arts  in  England 
are  represented  chiefly  by  wise  reliance  upon  past 
models,  but  one  or  two  specimen  rooms  indicate 
other  tendencies  that  are  at  work  side  by  side  with 
this  skilful  antiquarianism.     The  famous  firm  of 

Applied  and  Decorative  Art  than  sucti  publications  are  wont  to 
be.  In  this  respect,  indeed,  the  whole  exhibiiion  compares 
most  unfavourably  with  its  primitive  fore  runners  in  Soutli 
Kensington.  There  the  official  catalogues  at  least  gave  a  more 
or  less  detailed  synopsis  of  the  principal  objects  on  view,  instead 
of  devoting  themselves  largely  to  what  may  he  termed  the  swing 
and  roundabout  departments  of  the  fair. 


Morris  &  Co.,  for  example,  contribute  some 
elaborate  specimens  of  their  craftsmanship,  which 
serve  alike  to  illustrate  the  development  of  the  Arts 
and  Crafts  movement  in  England  and  to  form  a 
link  with  the  kindred  work  tliat  is  being  dime  on 
the  continent.  The  exhibit  of  Messrs.  Godfrey 
Giles  suggests  a  possibility  of  development  in 
another  direction.  Here  the  scheme  of  decoration 
seems  to  be  controlled  by  very  practical  considera- 
tions, and  is  carried  out  with  attractive  wallpapers 
that  can  be  washed,  and  cushions  stuffed  with 
springs  instead  of  horsehair ;  in  fact  it  almost 
seems  as  if  the  increasing  strictness  of  our  views 
upon  sanitation  and  personal  cleanliness  might 
react  in  time  upon  the  decorative  arts  and  supply 
them  with  a  fresh  stimulus,  at  least  so  far  as 
dwellings  in  crowded  cities  are  concerned.  The 
word  '  sanitation '  does  not  naturally  suggest  things 
of  beauty,  and  customs  die  hard,  but  if  it  were 
possible  to  speculate  with  any  certainty  on  the 
tendencies  of  the  future,  it  would  not  be  unreason- 
able to  recognize  the  probability  that  the  next 
development  of  decorative  art  for  town  dwellings 
will  take  a  channel  more  consonant  with  the  laws  of 
healthy  life  than  several  past  fashions  have  followed. 
Yet  the  exhibition  as  a  whole  can  only  be 
described  as  disappointing  so  far  as  the  decorative 
arts  are  concerned.  It  is  not  that  things  rare, 
curious  and  beautiful  are  lacking,  but  rather  that 
the  good  things  appear  to  have  come  there  by 
chance,  and  not  as  the  outcome  of  any  reasonable 
organized  plan.  Valuable  objects  seem  to  have 
been  plumped  down  haphazard  in  the  middle  of  a 
cheap  bazaar  ;  sections  to  be  classified  without 
principle,  and  arranged  without  method.  So  far 
as  it  was  possible  to  judge  in  the  midst  of  this 
confusion,  certain  important  arts,  such  as  those 
connected  with  textiles,  were  not  represented  at  all 
in  any  serious  sense  of  the  word  ;  for  such  exhibits 
as  there  were  seemed  aimed  only  to  catch  the 
attention  of  the  people  who  crowd  to  'sales'  in 
Oxford  Street.  Possibly  the  organizers  of  these 
shows  know  their  public  ;  but  we  cannot  help 
thinking  that  if  they  had  tried  to  make  the  arts 
section  into  an  organized  and  representative  whole, 
instead  of  leaving  it  in  the  condition  of  a  slipshod 
emporium,  they  would  have  served  their  public 
just  as  well  and  the  exhibiting  firms  much  better. 
A  combined  show  of  the  industrial  arts  of  France 
and  England  would  have  been  an  immensely  inte- 
resting and  attractive  thing.  As  it  is,  this  section 
is  saved  from  being  a  fiasco  by  the  enterprise  of 
the  few  firms,  who  have  taken  matters  more  or  less 
seriously.  We  do  not  perhaps  realize  how  high  is 
the  average  of  their  taste,  till  we  light  upon  a 
certain  sideboard  of  specimen  woods  in  the  New 
Zealand  Palace. 


201 


A  RECENT  ADDITION  TO  THE  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT 

GALLERY 
cA.  BY  LIONEL  CUST  r*^ 


VALUABLE  additiun  to  the 

National    Portrait   Gallery  has 

recently  been  niade  by  the  pur- 

I  chrise  of  a  small  panel  portrait 

iof  the  Lady  Margaret  Beaufort, 

I  Countess    of    Richmond    and 

Derbv,   the    mother   of    King 

^______^_ .Henry  VII.     The  Lady  Mar- 

g'aret,  as  she  was  usually  styled,  was  the  only  child 
and  heiress  of  John  Beaufort,  Duke  of  Somerset, 
and  grandchild  of  John  Beaufort,  first  Duke  of 
Somerset,  the  eldest  of  the  three  legitimated  sons 
of  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  the  fourth 
son  of  King  Edward  III.  The  extinction  of  the 
House  of  Lancaster  in  the  male  line  at  the  death 
of  King  Henry  VI  left  the  Lady  Margaret  with  a 
claim  to  the  crown  of  England.  She  was  born  in 
1441,  and  at  the  age  of  fourteen  only  was  married 
to  King  Henry  Vl's  half-brother,  Edmund  Tudor, 
Earl  of  Richmond,  who  died  in  the  following 
year,  leaving  her  with  an  infant  son — Henry,  Earl 
of  Richmond,  afterwards  King  Henry  VII.  Three 
years  later  the  Lady  Margaret  was  re-married  to  Sir 
Henry  Stafford,  who  died  in  1472,  in  which  year 
she  was  married  for  the  third  time  to  Thomas 
Stanley,  second  Earl  of  Derby,  who  was  greatly 
instrumental  in  securing  the  crown  for  his  step-son, 
Henry  VII.  In  later  years  the  Lady  Margaret, 
who  was  devoted  to  works  of  piety  and  charity, 
took  religious  vows,  and  under  the  influence  of 
Bishop  Fisher  she  founded  the  colleges  of  St.  John's 
College  and  Christ's  College  at  Cambridge,  and 
professorships   of    divinity   at   both   Oxford   and 


Cambridge.     She  survived  her  son 


King 


Henry 


VII,  but  died  only  a  few  months  after  the  acces- 
sion of  her  grandson.  King  Henry  VIII,  in  1509, 
when,  as  Fisher  declared,  'all  England  for  her 
death  had  cause  of  weeping.' 

The  portraits  hitherto  known  of  the  Lady 
Margaret  appear  to  be  in  every  case  memorial 
portraits,  painted  for  her  numerous  charitable  or 
learned  foundations,  and  representing  her  in  a 
religious  habit,  with  an  austere  and  somewhat 
severe  expression.  The  portrait  recently  acquired 
for  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  shows  the 
Lady  Margaret  in  a  more  youthful  and  more  pleas- 
ing aspect.  She  is  seen  to  below  the  waist,  stand- 
ing or  kneeling,  in  a  conventional  attitude  of 
prayer.  She  wears  a  tight-fitting  chocolate-brown 
robe,  gathered  in  small  pleats  across  the  bosom  and 
cut  open  at  the  neck  withagrey  edging,  above  which 
is  a  black  wimple  entirely  covering  the  neck  and 
reaching  up  to  but  not  extending  over  the  chin. 
The  dress  has  grey  fur  cuffs  at  the  wrists.  Over  the 
head  she  wears  two  (or  possibly  three)  hoods.  The 
outer  hood  is  of  light  brown  brocade  patterned 
silk,  edged  with  a  broad  white  border  on  which  is 

206 


a  bold  floriated  pattern,  and  studded  with  rubies  and 
pale  blue  sapphires  along  the  outer  edge.  The  inner 
hood,  or  hoods,  consists  of  a  light  white  patterned 
hood,  surmounting,  or  bordered  by,  a  fine  white 
cambric  hood  or  veil,  which  falls  over  the  face,  and 
is  transparent  enough  to  enable  the  portion  of  the 
eye  and  eyelid  over  which  the  veil  falls  to  be  seen 
through  the  tissue  of  the  cambric.  The  delicate, 
ascetic  but  still  youthful  features  have  an  earnest 
look,  the  eyes  being  pale  grey,  and  the  well-shaped 
lips  slightly  tinted  with  pale  red.  The  outer  hood 
is  lined  with  a  dark  brown  material  covered  with 
a  criss-cross  pattern,  which  can  be  seen  in  the 
shadow  above  the  shoulder.  Her  hands  are  clasped 
in  prayer,  and  she  wears  rings  on  the  first,  third 
and  fourth  fingers.  The  knuckles  and  wrinkles  of 
the  skin  on  the  finger  are  carefully  drawn  in  a 
somewhat  mechanical  manner,  and  the  shape  of 
the  finger  nails  is  carefully  outlined.  The  back- 
ground is  dark  olive-green  with  a  diaper  pattern 
showing  the  portcullis,  the  badge  of  the  Beaufort 
family.  In  the  upper  left-hand  corner  are  the 
armorial  bearings  of  France  and  England  within 
a  borduregobonny,the  armsof  the  Beaufort  family, 
in  a  lozenge-shaped  shield  denoting  a  woman  and 
an  heiress.  Round  the  lozenge  has  been  added  at 
an  early  but  later  date  a  dark  escutcheon  made  out 
to  carry  the  inscription,  MARGARETA  MATER 
HENR7  COM'^  RICHMONDL^  &  DERBI^. 
The  painting,  which  is  in  excellent  preservation,  is 
painted  on  an  oaken  panel,  measuring  about 
17  by  12^  inches.  It  may  have  been  the  wing  of  a 
diptych,  the  dexter  wing  of  which  may  have  been 
destroyed  at  the  Reformation. 

A  special  interest  attaches  itself  to  this  portrait 
in  that  it  represents  a  lady  of  English  birth  painted 
some  time  before  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century. 
The  style  of  painting  separates  it  from  the  purely 
Flemish  school,  and  leads  one  to  think  that  the 
portrait  is  really  of  English  origin.  There  is  a 
directness,  a  matter-of-fact  look,  and  a  sobriety 
about  the  portrait  which  suggest  an  English,  as 
opposed  to  a  Flemish,  or  even  a  French  origin. 
There  is  no  trace,  again,  of  the  hand  of  a  miniature 
painter,  accustomed  to  paint  in  little — a  branch  of 
the  arts  which  was  up  to  a  certain  date  brought 
to  particular  excellence  by  artists  of  purely  Eng- 
lish origin.  Considering  the  quiet,  secluded  life 
which  the  Lady  Margaret  lived,  as  far  removed  as 
possible  from  the  turmoil  of  politics  and  warfare, 
her  mind  set  upon  religion,  charity,  learning,  and 
the  welfare  of  her  poorer  brethren,  it  would  not  be 
surprising  to  find  her  also  as  the  patron  of  artists, 
and  the  rival  therein  of  her  contemporary,  another 
Margaret,  the  famous  regent  of  the  Netherlands. 

The  picture  was  formerly  in  the  collection  of 
Viscount  Powerscourt,  and  was  purchased  in  1 883 


MARGARET    BEAVFORT,   COUNTESS    OP    RICHMOND   AND    DERIiY 
RECENTLY  ACQUIRED   BY  THE    NATIONAL   PORTRAIT   GALLERY 


^-n 


A  Recent  Addition  to  the  National  Portrait  Gallery 


by  Messrs.  H.  Graves  and  Co.,  who  resold  it 
immediately.  It  was  purchased  for  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery  at  Christie's  on  January,  27th. 1908, 


at  a  sale  of  pictures  belonging  to  the  late  Mr. 
Edward  J.  Stanley,  of  ^Quantock  Lodge,  Bridg- 
water. 


THE  PASSAGE  OF  THE  RAVINE  BY  GERICAULT 

^Jm  BY  C.  J.   HOLMES  c9^ 


LTHOUGH  in  England  of 
recent  years  we  have  become 
familiar  with  the  productions 
of  what  is  commonly  called 
I  the  Romantic  movement  on 
'  the  continent,  as  a  nation  we 
possess  hardly  any  pictorial 
.documents  that  bear  upon  its 
To  trace  the  process  of  transition  from 
the  art  of  the  eighteenth  century  to  the  art  of  the 
nineteenth  century  on  the  continent,  we  must  still 
turn  to  the  Louvre.  At  the  moment,  however,  there 
is  a  picture  on  exhibition  in  London  which  illus- 
trates so  aptly  the  great  period  of  transition  between 
the  past  and  the  present  that  it  calls  for  some 
notice  quite  apart  from  its  intrinsic  excellence.  The 
Passage  of  the  Ravine  by  Gericault,  which  was 
on  view  in  Messrs  Obach's  galleries  last  month 
and  is  reproduced  here  by  their  permission,  may 
indeed  be  regarded  as  a  typical  example  of  the 
spirit  in  which  arose  the  revolution  against  the 
classical  conventions  of  the  eighteenth  century 
and  all  the  limitations  of  artistic  enterprise  which 
those  conventions  implied. 

Not  that  Gericault  can  be  regarded  as  the 
first  revolutionary.  From  time  to  time  writers  on  the 
great  masters  of  the  eighteenth  century  have  dis- 
covered in  one  or  the  other  of  them  the  germ  of  the 
movement  which  was  to  be  the  predominating  fea- 
ture of  the  nineteenth  century.  Yet  even  Chardin 
— of  all  masters  perhaps  the  one  whose  detachment 
from  his  age  was  most  complete,  whose  freedom 
from  the  grandiose  or  luxurious  ideals  of  con- 
temporary patronage  was  most  conspicuous — even 
Chardin  was  not  a  revolutionary.  He  was  but  a 
gifted  successor  of  a  tradition,  less  highly  honoured 
perhaps,  but  in  its  degree  no  less  firmly  established 
than  the  traditions  on  which  the  other  painters 
of  his  age  composed  their  flamboyant  heroics, 
posed  their  self-conscious  portraits,  or  built  up 
their  enchanting  paste-board  Arcadias. 

The  art  of  the  nineteenth  century  was  also 
to  be  heroic,  but  its  heroics  were  the  heroics  of  a 
nation  still  living  and  fighting  the  world  for  its 
existence,  not  the  heroics  of  nations  that  had  fought 
for  existence  two  thousand  years  ago.  The  true 
beginning  of  the  change  was  made  by  Napoleon, 
when  he  employed  Gros,  the  pupil  of  David,  to 
celebrate  his  military  triumphs.  In  Gros's  return, 
after  the  fall  of  Napoleon,  to  the  rigid  classicism 
of  his  master,  and  in  the  tragedy  which  ended 
his  career,  we  seem  to  have  evidence  that  Gros 


was  a  revolutionary  malgre  liii.  With  all  his 
gifts — and  it  is  folly  not  to  recognize  that  they 
were  considerable — he  was  from  first  to  last  a 
follower  rather  than  a  leader.  Before  and  after 
his  connexion  with  Bonaparte  he  was  a  blind 
slave  of  David  :  in  the  interval  he  was  the  blind 
slave  of  the  Emperor. 

Much  as  Napoleon  may  have  desired  to  per- 
petuate his  personal  fame  through  the  grandiose 
formulae  by  which  the  triumphs  of  Alexander  or 
the  Horatii  had  been  introduced  to  the  national 
imagination,  his  own  dramatic  sense  constantly 
inclined  him  to  make  a  warmer  and  more  direct 
appeal  to  his  people.  This  human,  emotional 
element  underlies  all  the  dignified  phrasing  of  his 
pulilic  pronouncements,  and  is  the  inspiration  of 
the  great  series  of  pictures  which  Gros  executed 
for  him.  In  them  the  stiffness  of  the  old  formulae 
of  design  is  exchanged  for  life,  freedom  and  move- 
ment ;  the  colour  is  made  warm  and  glowing  ; 
while  the  figures  themselves  are  represented  in  the 
dresses  they  might  actually  be  supposed  to  have 
worn,  instead  of  in  the  togas  and  buskins  of  anti- 
quity. 

It  is  no  wonder  that  the  appeal  to  the  public 
was  immediate  and  forcible,  or  that,  when  with  the 
return  of  the  Bourbons  Gros  reverted  to  the 
manner  of  David,  the  reversion  was  regarded  by 
independent  minds  as  a  ridiculous  anachronism. 
He  had  opened  the  floodgates  of  freedom  and 
was  overwhelmed  by  the  torrent  that  poured 
through. 

Between  Delacroix,  the  chief  of  this  band  of 
liberators,  and  Gros,  the  unfortunate  pioneer  of 
freedom,  the  connecting  link  is  Gericault.  By 
the  time  he  was  twenty-one  Gericault  had  proved 
himself  not  only  the  foremost  of  Gros's  followers 
in  celebrating  the  military  spirit  of  the  Napoleonic 
epoch,  but  one  who  brought  to  the  work  a  fresh 
and  vigorous  dramatic  element,  of  which  the  great 
Radean  de  la  Medme,  exhibited  in  1819,  is  the 
most  important  example.  In  connexion  with  his 
influence  on  his  successors  it  must  be  admitted 
that  his  dramatic  feeling  found  vent  in  strong  con- 
trasts of  light  and  shade  rather  than  through  colour 
— and  colour  was  the  real  casus  belli  of  his  age. 
Gericault,  in  fact,  used  colour  perhaps  more  freely 
in  his  first  works  under  the  influence  of  Gros  than 
in  those  painted  after  the  year  1815,  when  a  visit 
to  Italy  had  given  him  additional  knowledge  both 
of  life  and  of  pictures.  Whether  his  visit  to  Eng- 
land and  the  deep  impression  made  upon  him  by 


209 


^TJie  T*assage  of  the  Ravine'* 

the  works  of  Lawrence,  Constable  and  Ward 
would  in  the  end  have  brought  him  to  a  point  of 
view  similar  to  that  of  Delacroix  we  cannot  guess. 
The  accident  which  brought  about  his  death  in 
January,  1824,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-two,  left 
Gericault  but  little  time  to  profit  by  his  new  experi- 
ences ;  and  the  task  of  carrying  on  the  torch  of 
artistic  vitality  fell  to  his  young  studio-companion, 
Delacroix. 

The  works  executed  by  Gericault  in  his  brief 
career  are  comparatively  few,  even  in  the  public 
galleries  of  France.  Outside  the  Louvre  there  are, 
I  believe,  only  some  fine  studies  at  Rouen  and  a 
portrait  at  Havre,  while  at  Avignon  there  is  a  copy 
of  Gros's  sketch  for  the  BatniUe  de  Nazareth,  and 
Gericault  is  said  to  have  paid  a  thousand  francs 
for  the  privilege  of  making  it.  The  appearance  in 
England  of  an  important  picture  by   so   rare  a 


master  is  thus  a  matter  of  some  artistic  interest, 
especially  since  The  Passage  of  ihe  Ravine,  dating 
from  about  the  year  18 16,  is  in  every  way  typical 
of  its  maker's  genius,  his  military  inclinations, 
his  love  of  horses,  his  forcible  but  somewhat 
gloomy  dramatic  feeling,  his  spirited  brush- 
work,  and,  above  all,  the  exuberant  vitality  and 
energy  of  the  piece,  well  worthy  of  a  cham- 
pion of  artistic  liberty,  even  though  fate  decided 
that  Gericault  was  not  himself  to  be  the  lilierator 
in  chief.  Yet,  standing  as  he  does  on  the  very 
borderline  between  the  art  of  the  past  and  of  the 
present,  he  is  a  figure  of  some  historical  importance, 
and  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  call  the  attention  of 
Londoners  to  The  Passage  of  ihe  Ravine,  while 
there  is  still  a  chance  of  seeing  it,  since  even  in  the 
Wallace  Collection  Gericault  is  represented  only 
by  one  small  oil  study  and  a  water  colour. 


JACOPO  DEL  SELLAIO 
^  BY  HERBERT  P.  HORNE  c*c 


LTHOUGH  Milanesi  had 
given  some  account  of  Jacopo 
del  Sellaio  in  his  commentary 
on  the  '  Life  of  Fra  Filippo,' 
which  appeared  in  the  edition 
of  Vasari  published  at  Florence 
by  Sansoni    in    1878-82 ;i   and 

Messrs.  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle 

had  briefly  alluded  to  this  master  in  the  Florentine 
edition  of  their  '  History  of  Painting  in  Italy' ;-  it 
remained  for  Herr  Hans  Mackowsky,  in  a  series 
of  two  articles  which  appeared  in  the  Prussian 
'  Jahrbuch  '  for  1899,^  to  reconstruct  the  character 
of  Jacopo  as  a  painter,  and  to  bring  together  a 
number  of  his  minor  works  which  had  hitherto 
passed  under  other  names.  These  two  articles 
were  reviewed  by  Mrs.  Mary  Logan  in  the  '  Revue 
Archeologique,'*  and  many  additional  paintings 
ascribed  by  her  to  Jacopo,  on  the  authority  of  Mr. 
Berenson.  Since  that  time  the  list  of  his  works 
has  been  largely  increased.  The  purpose  of  this 
paper,  however,  is  to  cast  into  a  synthetical  form, 
both  those  facts  of  Jacopo's  life  which  have  already 
been  published,  and  those  which  the  writer  is  now 
able  to  put  forth  for  the  first  time.  Thrown  into  such 
a  form,  it  will  be  seen,  I  think,  that  our  knowledge 
of  the  painter's  career  is  now  sufficient  for  a  com- 
plete stylistic  criticism  of  his  works. 

'  infinite  number  of  masters '  who, 
to  Vasari,  were  placed  in  their  youth 
with  Fra  Filippo  Lippi  were  '  Sandro  Boticello 
.  .  .  and  Jacopo  del  Sellaio,  the  Florentine,  who 
painted  two  panels    in    San  Friano,  and   one    in 

'Vol.  ii,  pp.  642-3. 

-Ed.  Le  Monnier,  1886,  etc.,  vol.  v,  pp.  256-8. 

^  Vol.  X.V,  pp.  192  and  271. 

*L.c.,  Paris,  1900,  sei".  iii,  vol,  xxxv,  p.  478, 


Among  the 
according 


the  Carmine,  executed  in  tempera.'^  Of  the  large 
number  of  paintings  which  came  from  the  work- 
shop of  this  master,  not  a  few  have,  until  recently, 
been  ascribed  to  Botticelli  ;  but,  although  Sandro's 
influence  is  to  be  traced  both  in  his  design  and 
colour,  only  in  rare  instances  does  Jacopo  delibe- 
rately set  himself  to  imitate  the  motives,  or  the 
sentiment,  of  his  great  contemporary. 

It  appears  from  documentary  evidence  that 
this  painter  was  the  only  son  of  Arcangiolo  di 
Jacopo,  'sellaio'  or  saddler,  and  his  wife,  Monna 
Gemma.  According  to  the  '  Portata '  returned  by 
his  father  towards  the  close  of  the  year  1469,^ 
Jacopo  was  then  twenty-six  years  of  age  ;  and 
consequently  was  born  about  the  same  time  as 
Botticelli.  It  is,  therefore,  extremely  probable 
that  he  worked  with  Sandro  in  the  '  bottega '  of 
Fra  Filippo.  In  1469,  Jacopo  was  living  with 
his  father  and  mother,  his  sister,  Lucrezia,  and  a 
cousin  named  Giovanni,  in  a  part  of  a  house 
which  they  rented  from  his  mother's  sister, 
Monna  Piera,  in  Via  San  Donato,  situated 
behind  the  church  of  the  Carmine,  in  an 
outlying  part  of  the  city,  and  known  as  Cam- 
aldoli.  In  1472,  Jacopo  was  already  a  member 
of  the  Compagnia  di  San  Luca,  and  it  appears 
from  entries  in  the  '  Libro  Rosso,''  in  which 
he  is  described  as  '  Jachopo  darchangel°  dipin- 
tore  Trapellicaj,'  that  he  paid  fees  to  the  con- 
fraternity in  October,  1473.  According  to  a 
later    'Denunzia'    returned    by    his    father     in 

5  Vasari,  ed.  1550,  vol.  i,  p.  401.  ,  „      r^     ■ 

Tirenze  :    R.    Archivi     di     State.     Arch,     delle    Decime; 

Quarliere  Santo  Spirito,   Gonfalone   Drago  ;   Campione,   1469, 

No.  verde  909,  fol.  120  recto.  .,,„,.        ,      •      j- 

'  Firenze  :  R.  Arcliivio  di   Stato     Arch,  dell'  Accademia   di 

Belle  Arli,  No.  2,  fol.  81  tergo  and  fol.  82  recto. 


210 


1480-1/  Jacopo  was  still  living  in  the  same  house 
with  his  family,  which  is  thus  described  in  this 
document : — '  Archangiolo  of  the  age  of  seventy 
years.  Monna  Gemma,  my  wife  of  the  age  of 
sixty-five,  Jacopo,  my  son,  of  the  age  of  thirty- 
six  years  :  he  follows  the  art  of  a  painter,  and  is 
a  partner  for  a  half  share  in  the  rent  of  a  shop, 
which  he  holds  from  Francesco  di  Soldo  degli 
Strozzi,  situated  in  the  Piazza  di  San  Miniato  fra 
le  Torri,  below  his  [the  owner's]  house,  etc.;  he 
pays  for  the  said  half  share  12  lire.  Filippo  di  Giul- 
iano  pays  the  other  half,  namely  12  lire.  Francesca, 
wife  of  the  said  Jacopo,  of  the  age  of  twenty-four 
years.  Archangiolo,  son  of  the  said  Jacopo,  two 
years  old.'  The  Piazzo  di  San  Miniato  fra  le  Torri, 
which  was  swept  away  in  the  course  of  the  recent 
reconstruction  of  the  old  centre  of  Florence, 
opened  out  of  the  Via  de'  Pellicciai,  or  Pellicceria 
as  it  was  commonly  called,  a  street  which  ran 
from  the  Via  Porta  Rossa  to  the  south-west  corner 
of  the  Mercato  Vecchio.  The  shop  which  Jacopo 
rented  in  this  Piazza,  in  1480,  was  in  the  same 
locality  (if,  indeed,  it  was  not  the  same  shop)  in 
which,  according  to  the  '  Libro  Rosso,'  he  was 
working  in  1472,  '  tra  Pellicciai.'  His  partner, 
Filippo  di  Giuliano,  was  also  a  member  of  the 
Compagnia  di  San  Luca.  His  name  occurs  in  the 
'  Libro  Vecchio'"  of  that  confraternity  in  an  entry 
of  the  year  1460:  'Filippo  di  giuliano  dipintore 
m  cccc"  Ix.'  Other  entries  in  the  '  Libro 
Rosso '  show  that  he  paid  fees  to  the  confra- 
ternity in  1472  and  1482  :  in  those  of  1472,  he 
is  described  as  '  Filippo  di  giuliano  dipintore 
nel  chorsso  degli  animallj ' — a  corrupted  form 
of  the  name,  Corso  degli  Adimari.'"  The  exis- 
tence of  this  partnership  goes  to  explain  the 
large  number  of  works  which  have  come  down  to 
us  from  the  '  bottega '  of  Jacopo  del  Sellaio,  and 
which  are,  at  least,  in  his  manner,  if  not  by  his 
hand  ;  many  of  them  having  apparently  been  exe- 
cuted subsequently  to  his  death.  According  to  the 
'Denunzia'  returned  by  Filippo  di  Giuliano,  in 
1498,  "  that  master  was  still  working  as  a  painter 
in  Florence  at  that  time.  He  describes  himself 
as  '  Filippo  di  giuliano  di  matheo  dipintore  popolo 
di  santa  luciade  magnioli.'  Jacopo  del  Sellaio  died 
on  the  12th  November,  1493,  and  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  San  Frediano.'-  His  son  Arcangiolo, 
who  survived  him,  was  also  a  painter,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Compagnia  di  San  Luca.  He  is  registered 
in  the  '  Libro  Vecchio  '  of  that  confraternity  ;  and 

'Kirenze  :  R.  Archivio  diStato.  Arch,  delle  Decime;  Quarliere 
Santo  Spirito,  Gonfalone  Drago  ;  Campione,  I480,  Primo,  No. 
Verde  99g,  fol.  126  recto. 

"Firenze:  R.  Archivio  di  Stalo.  Arch,  dell'  Accademia  di 
Belle  Arti,  No.  i,  fol.  8  tergo. 

'"L.c,  fol.  49  tergo  and  fol.  50  recto. 

"  Firenze  :  R.  Archivio  di  Stato.  Arch  delle  Decime  ;  Quartiere 
Santo  Spirito,  Gonfalone  Scala ;  Campione,  1498,  No.  verde  I, 
fol.  478  recto. 

"  Firenze  :  R.  Archivio  di  Stato.  Arch,  di  Medici  e  Speziali, 
No.  247,  fol.  53  recto, 


Jacopo  del  Sellaio 

his  name  occurs  also  in  the  '  Libro  Rosso,'  '*  in 
entries  of  the  years  1504  and  1505.  He  died  on 
the  1st  March,  1531,  at  the  age  of  fifty-two'years. " 

Jacopo  :del  Sellaio  is  known  to  have  painted 
several  altarpieces  for  churches  in  Florence  :  of 
these  five  are  extant.  Since  the  dates  of  the  execution 
of  three  of  these  pictures  are  to  be  ascertained  with 
tolerable  certainty,  they  afford  a  clue  to  the  develop- 
ment of  his  manner  and  the  chronology  of  his  other 
works.  An  entry  in  a  '  Libro  di  Ricordi '  of  ALatteo 
di  Jacopo  Domenici  da  Selva,  Rector  of  the  church 
of  Santa  Lucia  de'  Magnoli,  in  Florence,  the  text 
of  which  has  recently  been  printed  by  Signor 
Giglioli,  in  the  '  Revista  d'Arte,'  '^  throws  no  little 
light  upon  the  history  of  the  earliest  of  these  altar- 
pieces,  which  is  still  to  be  seen  in  its  original 
position  in  the  church.  Done  into  English,  this 
entry  runs  thus  :  '  I,  ALatheo  di  Jacopo,  record 
how  Agnolo  di  Michele,  linaiuolo,  for  the  one 
moiety,  and  Nichodemo  and  Batista,  brothers 
and  sons  of  Francescho  di  Simone  Nentj,  for  the 
other  moiety,  caused  a  painting  on  panel  and  an 
altar  to  be  made  in  honour  of  the  Annunciation 
of  our  Lady,  and  of  the  lady,  Saint  Lucy ; 
with  their  arms,  and  at  their  charges,  touching 
the  altar,  the  panel  and  the  painting.  E.xcepting 
that  I  paid  to  Master  Jacopo  d'Archangiolo, 
painter,  one  ducat  of  mine  own,  for  refreshing  and 
washing  the  figure  of  Saint  Lucy,  which  was,  and 
is,  the  property  of  our  church  :  and  I  remitted  to 
Master  Filippo  di  Giuliano,  painter  and  partner  of 
the  said  Master  Jacopo,  two  florins  which  he 
owed  to  me ;  and  for  the  said  two  florins,  he  is 
under  obligation  to  make  for  me  a  cross  of  wood 
of  the  said  value.'  The  writer  goes  on  to  state, 
among  other  things,  that  the  permission  to  carry 
out  these  works  was  given  on  the  understanding 
that  the  rector  of  the  church  should  be  at  liberty 
to  renew  the  'palchetto '  or  ceiling,  as  well  as  the 
ornaments,  of  this  altar  of  Saint  Lucy.  Finally, 
this  'ricordo'  is  dated  the    loth  December,  1473. 

The  paintings  here  alluded  to  still  remain  over 
the  first  altar  to  the  left  on  entering  the  church  of 
Santa  Lucia,  in  the  Via  de'  Bardi.  The  central 
panel  consists  of  the  picture  of  St.  Lucy,  which 
Jacopo  del  Sellaio  '  washed  and  refreshed  ' ;  an 
almost  life-sized  figure,  at  half-length,  which  in 
spite  of  its  repainted  condition  appears  to  have 
been  an  admirable  work  by  Pietro  Lorenzetti, 
e.xecuted  in  all  probability  c.  1340,  when  that 
master  was  painting  in  Florence.  The  two  lateral 
panels  contain  whole-length  figures  of  the  Virgin 
and  St.  Gabriel  against  backgrounds  of  feigned 
marble  panelling;  and  together  form  an  'Annun- 
ciation.' These  panels  present  all  the  characteristic 
traits  of  Jacopo's  earlier  manner,  and  were  first 
ascribed  to  him  by  Herr  Mackowsky,  in  the  Prussian 


"  L.c,  fol.  6  tergo  and  fol.  7  redo. 
'*  Vasari,  ed.  Sansoni,  vol.  ii,  p.  ^\1- 
1'  Anno  1906,  vol.  iv,  p.  1S8. 


21  I 


Jacopo  del  Sellaio 


'  Jahrbuch,'  for  1899."^  We  may  conclude  then 
from  this  '  ricordo,'  that  the  central  panel  formed 
the  original  painting  of  the  altar  of  St.  Lucy,  which 
shortly  before  the  date  of  the  '  ricordo,'  loth 
December,  1473,  had  been  granted  to  the  family  of 
the  Nenti,  who  then  caused  the  lateral  panels  to  be 
added  by  Jacopo  del  Sellaio,  and  the  altar  itself  to 
be  re-dedicated  to  the  '  Annunciation.'  They  are, 
therefore,  not  later  than  1473,  and  were  probably 
painted  during  that  year ;  and  are  amongst  the 
earliest  works  by  the  master  which  have  come 
down  to  us.  In  their  general  conception  they 
recall  the  two  little  panels  of  the  '  Annunciation  '  by 
Fra  Filippo  Lippi,  Nos.  263  and  264,  in  the 
Academy  at  Florence  ;  and  are,  perhaps,  more 
directly  reminiscent  of  that  master's  manner  than 
any  other  of  his  extant  works. 

The  altarpiece  once  in  the  church  of  the  Car- 
mine, at  Florence,  to  which  Vasari  alludes,  has  long 
since  disappeared  ;  unless  it  be  one  of  two  large 
panels  which  are  now  preserved  in  the  gallery  of 
the  Uftizi.  The  other  two  altarpieces  mentioned 
by  Vasari  are  still  extant.  The  parish  church  of 
San  Friano,  or  Frediano,  formerly  stood  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Piazza  of  the  same  name,  which 
lay  between  the  Borgo  and  the  Piazza  del  Carmine. 
This  church,  which  was  one  of  the  twelve  ancient 
'  Priorie'  of  Florence,  and  which  since  1514  had 
been  attached  to  a  house  of  Augustine  nuns,  was 
suppressed  in  the  year  1783,  when  its  fabric  was 
converted  into  dwelling  houses,  and  the  church  of 
the  neighbouring  monastery  of  the  Cestello  became 
the  parish  church  under  the  ancient  dedication. 
Stefano  Rosselli,  in  his  '  Sepoltuario  Fiorentino,' 
which  he  finished  in  1657,"  has  preserved  some 
account  of  the  two  paintings  by  Jacopo  del  Sellaio 
which  were  once  in  this  church,  and  of  the  altars 
which  they  adorned.  Above  the  fourth  altar,  on  the 
right  on  entering  the  building,  he  relates,  was  '  an 
antique  painting  on  panel  of  the  Pieta,  with  orna- 
ments of  terra  cotta,  in  the  manner  of  Luca  della 
Robbia.'  This  altarpiece  bore  the  arms  of  the 
Compagnia  di  San  Frediano  ;  Azure,  a  latin  cross 
between  the  letters,  S  and  F,  gules.  Giuseppe  Richa 
states  more  particularly  that  the  picture  represented 
'a  Pieta  with  Saint  Jerome  and  Saint  Frediano  on 
either  side,'  and  speaks  of  the  beauty  of  '  the 
cherubim  in  relief '  on  the  frieze,  and  of  'the  risen 
Christ  in  the  lunette,  executed  in  terra  cotta  by 
Luca  della  Robbia.'"  According  to  Miianesi, 
Jacopo  del  Sellaio  was  commissioned  by  the 
members  of  the  Compagnia  di  San  Frediano, 
delta  la  Bruciata,  to  paint  this  picture  for  the 
altar  of  their  chapel  in  1483.  He  adds  that 
the  members  of  this  confraternity  having  renewed 
their  altar   and  adorned  their  chapel  in  the  year 

'^  Vol.  XX,  p.  282. 

''  Firenze  :  R.  Biblioteca  Nazionale.  Cod.  Magliabechiano, 
CI.  xxvi.  No.  22,  fol.  Ill  recto. 

"G.  Richa:  'Notizie  Istoriche  delle  Chiese  Florentine, 
Firenze,  1754,  vol.  ix,  r-  1/7. 

212 


1520,  caused  Andrea  della  Robbia  and  his 
son,  Luca,  to  execute  in  glazed  terra-cotta  ware 
the  ornaments  of  which  Giuseppe  Richa  speaks, 
and  also  commissioned  Jacopo  del  Sellaio's  son, 
Arcangiolo,  to  retouch  his  father's  picture  and 
furnish  a  new  carved  and  gilt  frame  at  a  cost  of 
more  than  lire  60  for  gold  and  labour.  Miianesi, 
unfortunately,  gives  no  reference  to  these  docu- 
ments, and  I  have  not  succeeded  in  tracing  them.'' 
On  the  suppression  of  the  Church  of  San  Frediano, 
this  painting  was  sold,  and  afterwards  passed  into 
the  collection  of  Mr.  Solly,  as  a  work  by  Domenico 
Ghirlandaio  ;  Giovanni  Cinelli,  in  his  edition  of 
the  '  Bellezze  di  Firenze,'*"  having  alluded  to  it 
as  a  work  of  Ghirlandaio's  school,  and  Richa  as  a 
work  by  the  master  himself.  In  1821,  it  was 
acquired  with  the  rest  of  the  Solly  collection  for 
the  museum  at  Berlin,  No.  1,055,  where  it  is  at 
last  ascribed  to  its  proper  author. 

In  the  possession  of  the  writer  is  a  fragment  of 
a  *  predella,'  which  was  originally  painted  with  a 
series  of  stories,  divided  by  feigned,  gilt  balusters, 
as  in  the  'predella'  of  the  altarpiece  by  Botticelli, 
once  in  the  Church  of  San  Marco,  and  now  in  the 
Academy  at  Florence  No.  74.  The  fragment 
in  question  represents  Saint  Jerome  in  the 
wilderness,  and  may  not  improbably  have  formed 
a  part  of  the  '  predella '  of  the  panel,  now  at  Berlin, 
since  in  none  of  the  other  extant  altarpieces  by 
Jacopo  del  Sellaio  is  Saint  Jerome  represented. 

Above  the  third  altar  on  the  left,  on  entering 
the  Church  of  San  Frediano,  records  Rosselli,  near 
the  side-door  ope